C++ Programming

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The inline keyword declares an inline function, the declaration is a (non-binding) request to the compiler that a particular function be subjected to in-line expansion; that is, it suggests that the compiler insert the complete body of the function in every context where that function is used and so it is used to avoid the overhead implied by making a CPU jump from one place in code to another and back again to execute a subroutine, as is done in naive implementations of subroutines.

inline swap( int& a, int& b) { int const tmp(b); b=a; a=tmp; }

When a function definition is included in a class/struct definition, it will be an implicit inline, the compiler will try to automatically inline that function. No inline keyword is necessary in this case; it is legal, but redundant, to add the inline keyword in that context, and good style is to omit it.


struct length
  explicit length(int metres) : m_metres(metres) {}
  operator int&() { return m_metres; }
  int m_metres;

Inlining can be an optimization, or a pessimization. It can increase code size (by duplicating the code for a function at multiple call sites) or can decrease it (if the code for the function, after optimization, is less than the size of the code needed to call a non-inlined function). It can increase speed (by allowing for more optimization and by avoiding jumps) or can decrease speed (by increasing code size and hence cache misses).

One important side-effect of inlining is that more code is then accessible to the optimizer.

Marking a function as inline also has an effect on linking: multiple definitions of an inline function are permitted (so long as each is in a different translation unit) so long as they are identical. This allows inline function definitions to appear in header files; defining non-inlined functions in header files is almost always an error (though function templates can also be defined in header files, and often are).

Mainstream C++ compilers like Microsoft Visual C++ and GCC support an option that lets the compilers automatically inline any suitable function, even those that are not marked as inline functions. A compiler is often in a better position than a human to decide whether a particular function should be inlined; in particular, the compiler may not be willing or able to inline many functions that the human asks it to.

Excessive use of inlined functions can greatly increase coupling/dependencies and compilation time, as well as making header files less useful as documentation of interfaces.