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Welcome to the weird and wonderful world of multithreading!

Multithreading effectively allows your programs to do several things at the same time. The word 'thread' in this context means 'thread of execution' - or, the series of instructions, branches and so on executed by your program. Most programs are 'single threaded', meaning there is only one thread of execution. However, more and more programs are using multiple threads.

Multithreading used to be achieved by software trickery, which made threading useful but not really faster - there was still only one CPU pretending to do multiple things at the same time! But these days, multicore CPUs mean that threading can be used to truly do multiple things at the same time (or 'in parallel').

Creating a thread is easy - just call CreateThread. You will need to provide a function for the thread to use as its 'entry point'. Once the thread is created, this function will start executing in parallel with the code that called CreateThread. When the thread function returns, that thread will be 'terminated'.

Alas, threading turns out to be rather tricky due to an issue known as 'synchronization'. Synchronization is required when you need to prevent multiple threads from modifying or accessing the same data at the same time. Synchronization usually involves a thread 'blocking'. When a thread blocks, it completely halts execution until another thread does something that causes it to 'unblock' and resume execution.

BlitzMax provides 2 primitives known as 'mutexes' and 'semaphores' to assist with synchronization:

  • Mutexes provide a simple locking mechanism. Only one thread at a time can lock a mutex (using LockMutex or TryLockMutex), so this is an easy way to protect resources from simultaneous access. If a thread calls LockMutex and the mutex is already locked by another thread, the current thread will block until the other thread releases the mutex using UnlockMutex. So don't forget to UnlockMutex a mutex after you are finished with it!
  • Semaphores provide a synchronized counting mechanism, and contain an internal integer counter. There are 2 operations you can perform on a semaphore - post and wait. Posting a semaphore (using PostSemaphore) causes the semaphore's internal counter to be incremented, while waiting for a semaphore (using WaitSemaphore) will cause the current thread to block until the semaphore's internal counter is greater than 0. When it is, the counter is decremented and the thread unblocks. Semaphores are very useful for producer/consumer type situations.

Types[edit | edit source]

TThread[edit | edit source]

Thread Type

  • Detach
  • Wait
  • Running
  • Create
  • Main
  • Current

TThread: Methods[edit | edit source]


Method Detach()

Description: Detach this thread


Method Wait:Object()

Description: Wait For this thread To finish

Returns: The Object returned by the thread.


Method Running()

Description: Check if this thread is running

TThread: Functions[edit | edit source]


Function Create:TThread( entry:Object( data:Object),data:Object )

Description: Create a new thread


Function Main:TThread()

Description: Get Main thread

Returns: A thread object representing the main application thread.


Function Current:TThread()

Description: Get current thread

Returns: A thread object representing the current thread.

TThreadData[edit | edit source]

ThreadData type

  • SetValue
  • GetValue
  • Create

TThreadData: Methods[edit | edit source]


Method SetValue( value:Object )

Description: Set thread data value


Method GetValue:Object()

Description: Get thread data value

TThreadData: Functions[edit | edit source]


Function Create:TThreadData()

Description: Create thread data

TMutex[edit | edit source]

Mutex type

  • Close
  • Lock
  • TryLock
  • Unlock
  • Create

TMutex: Methods[edit | edit source]


Method Close()

Description: Close the mutex


Method Lock()

Description: Lock the mutex


Method TryLock()

Description: Try to lock the mutex

Returns: True if mutex was successfully locked; False if mutex was already locked by another thread.


Method Unlock()

Description: Unlock the mutex

TMutex: Functions[edit | edit source]


Function Create:TMutex()

Description: Create a new mutex

TSemaphore[edit | edit source]

Semaphore Type

  • Close
  • Wait
  • Post
  • Create

TSemaphore: Methods[edit | edit source]


Method Close()

Description: Close the semaphore


Method Wait()

Description: Wait for the semaphore


Method Post()

Description: Post the semaphore

TSemaphore: Functions[edit | edit source]


Function Create:TSemaphore( count )

Description: Create a new semaphore

TCondVar[edit | edit source]

CondVar type

  • Close
  • Wait
  • Signal
  • Broadcast
  • Create

TCondVar: Methods[edit | edit source]


Method Close()

Description: Close the condvar


Method Wait( mutex:TMutex )

Description: Wait for the condvar


Method Signal()

Description: Signal the condvar


Method Broadcast()

Description: Broadcast the condvar

TCondVar: Functions[edit | edit source]


Function Create:TCondVar()

Description: Create a new condvar

Functions[edit | edit source]

CreateThread[edit | edit source]

Function CreateThread:TThread( entry:Object( data:Object ),data:Object )

Description: Create a thread

Returns: A new thread object.

Information: Creates a thread and returns a thread object.

The value returned by the thread entry routine can be later retrieved using WaitThread.

To 'close' a thread, call either DetachThread or WaitThread. This isn't strictly necessary as the thread will eventually be closed when it is garbage collected, however, it may be a good idea if you are creating many threads very often, as some operating systems have a limit on the number of threads that can be allocated at once.


'Make sure to have 'Threaded build' enabled!

'Custom print that shows which thread is doing the printing
Function MyPrint( t$ )
	If CurrentThread()=MainThread() 
		Print "Main thread: "+t
		Print "Child thread: "+t
End Function

'Our thread function
Function MyThread:Object( data:Object )

	'show data we were passed
	Myprint data.ToString()

	'do some work
	For Local i=1 To 1000
		MyPrint "i="+i
	'return a value from the thread
	Return "Data returned from child thread."
End Function

MyPrint "About to start child thread."

'create a thread!
Local thread:TThread=CreateThread( MyThread,"Data passed to child thread." )

'wait for thread to finish and print value returned from thread
MyPrint WaitThread( Thread ).ToString()

MainThread[edit | edit source]

Function MainThread:TThread()

Description: Get Main thread

Returns: A thread Object representing the Main application thread.

CurrentThread[edit | edit source]

Function CurrentThread:TThread()

Description: Get current thread

Returns: A thread object representing the current thread.

DetachThread[edit | edit source]

Function DetachThread( thread:TThread )

Description: Detach a thread

Information: DetachThread closes a thread's handle, but does not halt or otherwise affect the target thread.

Once one a thread has been detached, it wil no longer be possible to use WaitThread to get its return value.

This allows the thread to run without your program having to continually check whether it has completed in order to close it.

WaitThread[edit | edit source]

Function WaitThread:Object( thread:TThread )

Description: Wait for a thread to finish

Returns: The object returned by the thread entry routine.

Information: WaitThread causes the calling thread to block until the target thread has completed execution.

If the target thread has already completed execution, WaitThread returns immediately.

The returned object is the object returned by the thread's entry routine, as passed to CreateThread.

ThreadRunning[edit | edit source]

Function ThreadRunning( thread:TThread )

Description: Check if a thread is running

Returns: True if thread is still running, otherwise False.

CreateThreadData[edit | edit source]

Function CreateThreadData:TThreadData()

Description: Create thread data

Returns: A new thread data object.

SetThreadDataValue[edit | edit source]

Function SetThreadDataValue( data:TThreadData,value:Object )

Description: Set thread data value

GetThreadDataValue[edit | edit source]

Function GetThreadDataValue:Object( data:TThreadData )

Description: Get thread data value

CreateMutex[edit | edit source]

Function CreateMutex:TMutex()

Description: Create a mutex

Returns: A new mutex object


'Make sure to have 'Threaded build' enabled!

'a global list that multiple threads want to modify
Global list:TList=New TList

'a mutex controlling access to the global list
Global listMutex:TMutex=CreateMutex()

Function MyThread:Object( data:Object )

	For Local item=1 To 10
		'simulate 'other' processing...
		Delay Rand( 10,50 )

		'lock mutex so we can safely modify global list
		LockMutex listMutex

		'modify list
		list.AddLast "Thread "+data.ToString()+" added item "+item

		'unlock mutex
		UnlockMutex listMutex
End Function

Local threads:TThread[10]

'Create worker threads
For Local i=0 Until 10
	threads[i]=CreateThread( MyThread,String( i+1 ) )

Print "Waiting for worker threads..."

'Wait for worker threads to finish
For Local i=0 Until 10
	WaitThread threads[i]

'Show the resulting list
'Note: We don't really have to lock the mutex here, as there are no other threads running.
'Still, it's a good habit to get into.
LockMutex listMutex
For Local t$=EachIn list
	Print t
UnlockMutex listMutex

CloseMutex[edit | edit source]

Function CloseMutex( mutex:TMutex )

Description: Close a mutex

LockMutex[edit | edit source]

Function LockMutex( mutex:TMutex )

Description: Lock a mutex

TryLockMutex[edit | edit source]

Function TryLockMutex( mutex:TMutex )

Description: Try to lock a mutex

Returns: True if mutex was successfully locked; False if mutex was already locked by another thread.

UnlockMutex[edit | edit source]

Function UnlockMutex( mutex:TMutex )

Description: Unlock a mutex

CreateSemaphore[edit | edit source]

Function CreateSemaphore:TSemaphore( count )

Description: Create a semaphore

Returns: A new semaphore object


'Make sure to have 'Threaded build' enabled!

'a simple queue
Global queue$[100],put,get

'a counter semaphore
Global counter:TSemaphore=CreateSemaphore( 0 )

Function MyThread:Object( data:Object )

	'process 100 items
	For Local item=1 To 100
		'add an item to the queue
		queue[put]="Item "+item
		'increment semaphore count.
		PostSemaphore counter
End Function

'create worker thread
Local thread:TThread=CreateThread( MyThread,Null )

'receive 100 items
For Local i=1 To 100

	'Wait for semaphore count to be non-0, then decrement.
	WaitSemaphore counter
	'Get an item from the queue
	Local item$=queue[get]
	Print item


CloseSemaphore[edit | edit source]

Function CloseSemaphore( semaphore:TSemaphore )

Description: Close a semaphore

WaitSemaphore[edit | edit source]

Function WaitSemaphore( semaphore:TSemaphore )

Description: Wait for a semaphore

PostSemaphore[edit | edit source]

Function PostSemaphore( semaphore:TSemaphore )

Description: Post a semaphore

CreateCondVar[edit | edit source]

Function CreateCondVar:TCondVar()

Description: Create a condvar

Returns: A new condvar object

CloseCondVar[edit | edit source]

Function CloseCondVar( condvar:TCondVar )

Description: Close a condvar

WaitCondVar[edit | edit source]

Function WaitCondVar( condvar:TCondVar,mutex:TMutex )

Description: Wait for a condvar

SignalCondVar[edit | edit source]

Function SignalCondVar( condvar:TCondVar )

Description: Signal a condvar

BroadcastCondVar[edit | edit source]

Function BroadcastCondVar( condvar:TCondVar )

Description: Broadcast a condvar

CompareAndSwap[edit | edit source]

Function CompareAndSwap( target Var,oldValue,newValue )

Description: Compare and swap

Returns: True if target was updated

Information: Atomically replace target with new_value if target equals old_value.

AtomicAdd[edit | edit source]

Function AtomicAdd( target Var,value )

Description: Atomic add

Returns: Previous value of target

Information: Atomically add value to target.

AtomicSwap[edit | edit source]

Function AtomicSwap( target Var,value )

Description: Atomically swap values

Returns: The old value of target