# BlitzMax/Modules/Math/Random numbers

The random module contains commands for generating random numbers.

The numbers generated are not really random, as without special hardware support a software algorithm cannot produce 'real' random numbers.

Instead, the algorithm produces values that merely appear to be random. In reality, each generated value actually depends on the previously generated value.

You can set the 'state' of the random number generator using the SeedRnd command. A common practice is to seed the random number generator with the system time when your program starts up, for example:

SeedRnd MilliSecs()

This ensures that the random number generator does not start in the same state each time your program is run, which would cause it to produce the same sequence of random numbers.

# Functions[edit]

## RndFloat[edit]

*Function RndFloat#()*

**Description**: Generate random float

**Returns**: A random float in the range 0 (inclusive) to 1 (exclusive)

**Example**:

' RndFloat.bmx ' Two players take turns shooting at a target. The first hit wins. ' Player 1 hits 30% of the time, player 2 hits 40%. ' What is the probability that player 1 wins? Function winner() ' play game once, return winner 1 or 2 Repeat If RndFloat() < 0.3 Then Return 1 If RndFloat() < 0.4 Then Return 2 Forever End Function Local count[3] trials = 1000000 For n = 1 to trials count[ winner() ] :+ 1 Next Print "Estimated probability = " + ( Float( count[1] ) / Float( trials ) ) Print Print " Exact probability = " + ( 15.0 / 29.0 ) Input ; End

## RndDouble[edit]

*Function RndDouble!()*

**Description**: Generate random double

**Returns**: A random double in the range 0 (inclusive) to 1 (exclusive)

**Example**:

' RndDouble.bmx ' Two players take turns shooting at a target. The first hit wins. ' Player 1 hits 30% of the time, player 2 hits 40%. ' What is the probability that player 1 wins? Function winner() ' play game once, return winner 1 or 2 Repeat If RndDouble() < 0.3 Then Return 1 If RndDouble() < 0.4 Then Return 2 Forever End Function Local count[3] trials = 1000000 For n = 1 to trials count[ winner() ] :+ 1 Next Print "Estimated probability = " + ( Double( count[1] ) / Double( trials ) ) Print Print " Exact probability = " + ( 15.0 / 29.0 ) Input ; End

## Rnd[edit]

*Function Rnd!( min_value!=0,max_value!=1 )*

**Description**: Generate random double

**Returns**: A random double in the range min (inclusive) to max (exclusive)

**Information**: The optional parameters allow you to use Rnd in 3 ways:

Format |
Result |

&Rnd() | Random double in the range 0 (inclusive) to 1 (exclusive) |

&Rnd(_x_) | Random double in the range 0 (inclusive) to n (exclusive) |

&Rnd(_x,y_) | Random double in the range x (inclusive) to y (exclusive) |

**Example**:

' Rnd.bmx ' Use Rnd() to estimate area inside the unit circle x^2 + y^2 = 1. totalpoints = 1000000 For n = 1 to totalpoints x! = Rnd( -1.0, 1.0 ) ' Generate random point in 2 by 2 square. y! = Rnd( -1.0, 1.0 ) If x*x + y*y < 1.0 Then inpoints :+ 1 ' point is inside the circle Next ' Note: Ratio of areas circle/square is exactly Pi/4. Print "Estimated area = " + ( 4.0 * Double(inpoints)/Double(totalpoints) ) Print Print " Exact area = " + Pi ' 4 * Pi/4, compare with estimate Input ; End

## Rand[edit]

*Function Rand( min_value,max_value=1 )*

**Description**: Generate random integer

**Returns**: A random integer in the range min (inclusive) to max (inclusive)

**Information**: The optional parameter allows you to use Rand in 2 ways:

Format |
Result |

&Rand(x) | Random integer in the range 1 to x (inclusive) |

&Rand(x,y) | Random integer in the range x to y (inclusive) |

**Example**:

' Rand.bmx ' Toss a pair of dice. Result is in the range 1+1 to 6+6. ' Count how many times each result appears. Local count[13] For n = 1 To 3600 toss = Rand(1,6) + Rand(1,6) count[toss] :+ 1 Next For toss = 2 To 12 Print LSet(toss, 5)+count[toss] Next

## SeedRnd[edit]

*Function SeedRnd( seed )*

**Description**: Set random number generator seed

**Example**:

' RndSeed.bmx and SeedRnd.bmx ( one example for both ) ' Get/Set random number seed. SeedRnd MilliSecs() seed=RndSeed() Print "Initial seed="+seed For k=1 To 10 Print Rand(10) Next Print "Restoring seed" SeedRnd seed For k=1 To 10 Print Rand(10) Next

## RndSeed[edit]

*Function RndSeed()*

**Description**: Get random number generator seed

**Returns**: The current random number generator seed

**Information**: Use in conjunction with SeedRnd, RndSeed allows you to reproduce sequences of random numbers.

**Example**:

' RndSeed.bmx and SeedRnd.bmx ( one example for both ) ' Get/Set random number seed. SeedRnd MilliSecs() seed=RndSeed() Print "Initial seed="+seed For k=1 To 10 Print Rand(10) Next Print "Restoring seed" SeedRnd seed For k=1 To 10 Print Rand(10) Next