Biomedical Engineering Theory And Practice/Introduction
The biomedical engineer works with the medical doctors, the nurses,the manufacturers and so on. In order to design new device for healthcare, basical understanding human body is prior. In order to find out the requirement of the special medical devices, therapy and so on, when we read the patents,journals, articles and so on and communicate with medical field people, it would be very helpful. In this chapter, fundamental anatomical terms and medical glossary would be introduced.
- 1 Anatomical Terms & Planes
- 2 Anatomical Movement
- 3 Medical Terminology
- 4 Medical Glossary
- 5 Histology
- 6 Further Reading
- 7 Practise
- 8 References
Anatomical Terms & Planes
- The body is composed of the head, trunk and limbs.
- The trunk consists of the neck, thorax(chest) and abdomen (belly). The lowest part of the trunk is the perineum. The central axis of the trunk is the vertebral column, and the upper part of it(cervical part) supports the head.
- The main parts of the upper limb are the arm, forearm and hand. Arm in anatomical form means the part between the shoulder and elbow. But, generally the arm means from the shoulder to before the hand.
- The main parts of the lower limb are the thigh, leg and foot. Here also leg in anatomical term point out the part from knee to foot.But, generally the leg means from thigh to before the foot.
- For the positions of structure in human anatomy, the whole body should stand upright with the feet together and the head and eyes looking to the front with the arms straight by the side and the palms of the hands facing forwards.
- The ‘Median plane’ is an virtual vertical longitudinal line through the middle of the body from front to back, dividing the body into right and left halves.
- The ‘Coronal planes’ are imaginary planes at right angles to the median plane.
- The 'Transverse plane' divides the body into head and tail portions.
'See also Wikipedia,Anatomical terms of motion.
- 'Flexion' means a bending movement that decreases the angle between two parts like bending elbow, siting down and so on.
- 'Extension' is the opposite of flexion. It is a straightening movement that increases the angle between body parts.
- 'Abduction' is a motion that pulls a structure or part away from the midline of the body.
- 'Adduction' is a motion that pulls a structure or part toward the midline of the body, or towards the midline of a limb.
- 'Elevation' is the movement in a superior direction like raising the arm upwards.
- 'Depression' is the movement in an inferior direction, the opposite of elevation.
- 'Internal rotation' (or medial rotation) means rotation towards the axis of the body like the arms against the chest.
- 'External rotation' (or lateral rotation) means rotation away from the center of the body. For instance, the leg can rotate.
Table of Prefixes
|Prefix||Translation of Greek or Latin||Examples|
|A||Without, lack of||Apathy (lack of feeling); apnea (without breath); aphasia (without speech)|
|Ab||Away from||Abductor (leading away from); aboral (away from mouth)|
|Ad||To, toward, near to||Adductor (leading toward); adhesion (sticking to); adnexia (structures joined to); adrenal (near the kidney)|
|Ambi,Amphi,Ampho||Both||Ambidextrous (ability to use hands equally); ambilaterally (both sides), Amphibious (living on both land and water), Amphogenic (producing offspring of both sexes)|
|Ana||Up, back, again, excessive||Anatomy (a cutting up); anagenesis (reproduction of tissue)|
|Ante||Before, forward||Antecubital (before elbow); anteflexion (forward bending)|
|Anti||Against, reversed||Antiperistalsis (reversed peristalsis); antisepsis (against infection)|
|Apo||From, away from||Aponeurosis (away from tendon); apochromatic (abnormal color)|
|Bi||Twice, double||Biarticulate (double joint); bifocal (two foci); bifurcation (two branches)|
|Cata||Down, according to, complete||Catabolism (breaking down); catalepsia (complete seizure); catarrh (flowing down)|
|Circum||Around, about||circumarticular (around joint)|
|Com, Con||With, together||Commissure (sending or coming together),Conductor (leading together); concrescence (growing together); concentric (having a common center)|
|Contra||Against, opposite||Contralateral (opposite side); contraception (prevention of conception); contraindicated (not indicated)|
|De||Away from||Dehydrate (remove water from); dedentition (removal of teeth)|
|Di||Twice, double||Diplopia (double vision); dichromatic (two colors)|
|Dia||Through, apart, across, completely||Diaphragm (wall across); diapedesis (ooze through); diagnosis (complete knowledge)|
|Dis||Reversal, apart from, separation||Disinfection (apart from infection); disparity (apart from equality); dissect (cut apart)|
|Dys||Bad, difficult, disordered||Dyspepsia (bad digestion); dyspnea (difficult breathing); dystopia (disordered position)|
|E, ex||Out, away from||Enucleate (remove from); eviscerate (take out viscera or bowels); exostosis (outgrowth of bone)|
|Ec||Out from||Ectopic (out of place); eccentric (away from center); ectasia (stretching out or dilation)|
|Em, en.||In||Empyema (pus in); encephalon (in the head)|
|Endo||Within||Endocardium (within heart)|
|Epi||Upon, on||Epidural (upon dura); epidermis (on skin)|
|Exo||Outside, on outer side, outer layer||Exogenous (produce outside); exocolitis (inflammation of outer coat of colon)|
|Extra||Outside||Extracellular (outside cell);|
|Hemi||Half||Hemiplegia (partial paralysis); hemianesthesia (loss of feeling on one side of body)|
|Hyper||Over, above, excessive||Hyperemia (excessive blood); hypertrophy (overgrowth); hyperplasia (excessive formation)|
|Hypo||Under, below, deficient||Hypotension (low blood pressure); hypothyroidism (deficiency or underfunction of thyroid)|
|Im, in||In, Into||Infiltration (act of filtering in);immersion (act of dipping in); injection (act of forcing liquid into)|
|Im, in||Not||Involuntary (not voluntary);immature (not mature); inability (not able)|
|Infra||Below||Infraorbital (below eye); infraclavicular (below clavicle or collarbone)|
|Inter||Between||Intercostal (between ribs); intervene (come between)|
|Intra||Within||Intracerebral (within cerebrum); intraocular (within eyes); intraventricular (within ventricles )|
|Intro||Into, within||Introversion (turning inward); introduce (lead into)|
|Meta||Beyond, after,change||Metamorphosis (change of form); metastasis change (beyond original position)|
|Opistho||Behind, backward||Opisthotic (behind ears); opisthognathous (beyond jaws)|
|Para||Beside, beyond,near to||Paracardiac (beside the heart); paraurethral (near the urethra)|
|Per||Through,excessive||Permeate (pass through); perforate (bore through)|
|Peri||Around||Periosteum (around bone)|
|Post||After, behind||Postpartum (after childbirth); postocular (behind eye)|
|Pre,Pro||Before, in front of||Premaxillary (in front of maxilla),prognosis (foreknowledge); prophase (appear before)|
|Re||Back, again,contrary||Reflex (bend back); revert (turn again to); regurgitation (backward flowing, contrary to normal)|
|Retro||Backward,located behind||Retrocervical (located behind cervix); retrograde (going backward); retrolingual. (behind tongue)|
|Semi||Half||Semicartilaginous (half cartilage); semilunar(halfmoon); semiconscious (half conscious)|
|Sub||Under||Subcutaneous (under skin); subarachnoid (under arachnoid); subungual (under nail)|
|Super,Supra||Above, upper, excessive||Supercilia (upper brows);suprasternal (above sternum); suprascapular (on upper part of scapula)|
|Sym, syndrome||Together, with||Symphysis (growing together); synapsis (joining together); synarthrosis (articulation of joints together)|
|Trans||Across, through, beyond||Transection (cut across); transduodenal (through duodenum); transmit (send beyond)|
Table of Suffixes
|al, c, ious||Add to nouns to make adjectives expressing relationship, concern, or pertaining to||Neural (referring to nerve); neoplastic (referring to neoplasm); cardiac (referring heart); delirious ( suffering from delirium)|
|ent||Add to verbs to make adjectives or nouns of agency||Recipient (one who receives); concurrent (happening at same time)|
|id||Add to verbs or nouns to make adjectives expressing state or condition||Flaccid (state of being weak or lax); fluid (state of being liquid)|
|ia, ity||Add to adjectives or nouns to make nouns expressing quality or condition||Septicemia (poisoning of blood); disparity (inequality); acidity (condition of excess acid)|
|ible, ile||Add to verbs to make adjectives expressing ability or capacity||Contractile (ability to contract); edible (capable of being eaten)|
|ium, olus, olum, culus, culum, cule, cle||Add to nouns to make diminutive nouns||Add to nouns to make diminutive nouns|
|ous||Add to nouns to make adjectives expressing material||Ferrous (composed of iron); serous (composed of serum); mucinous (composed of mucin)|
|oid, form||Add to nouns to make adjectives expressing resemblance||Polypoid (resembling polyp); plexiform (resembling a plexus); fusiform (resembling a fusion); epidermoid (resembling epidermis)|
Table of Basics Verbal Derivatives From Greek & Latin
|Algia||Pain||Cardialgia (heart); gastralgia (stomach); neuralgia (nerve)|
|Cau,caus||Burn||Caustic (suffix added to make adjective); cauterization; causalgia (burning pain); electrocautery|
|Centesis||Puncture, perforate||Thoracocentesis (chest); pneumocentesis (lung); arthrocentesis (joint); enterocentesis (intestine)|
|Clas, claz||Smash, break||Osteoclasis (bone); odontoclasis (tooth)|
|Duct||Draw||Ductal (suffix added to make adjective); oviduct (egguterine tube or fallopian tube); periductal (per means around); abduct (prefix meaning lead away from)|
|Dynia||Pain||Mastodynia (breast); pleurodynia (chest); esophagodynia (esophagus); coccygodynia (coccyx)|
|Ecta,ectas||Dilate||Venectasia(dilation of vein); cardioectasis (heart); ectatic (suffix added for adjective)|
|Edem||Swell||Myo edema (muscle); lymphedema (lymph);(a is a suffix added to make a noun)|
|Esthes||Feel||Esthesia (suffix added to make noun); anesthesia (an is prefix)|
|Fiss||split||Fissure; fission (suffixes added to make nouns)|
|Flex,flec||Bend||Flexion (suffix added to make noun); flexor (suffix added); anteflect, (prefix added meaning before bending forward)|
|Flu, Flux||Flow||Fluctuate; fluxion; affluent (abundant flowing)|
|Iatro, iatr||Treat, cure||Geriatrics (old age); pediatrics (children)|
|Kine,kino,kineto,kinesio||Move||Kinetogenic (producing movement); kinetic (suffix added to make adjective); kinesiology (study)|
|Liga||Bind||Ligament (suffix added to make noun) ligat ligature|
|Logy||Study||Parasitology (parasites); bacteriology (bacteria); histology (tissues)|
|Lysis||Breaking up, dissolving||Hemolysis (blood); glycolysis (sugar); autolysis (selfdestruction of cells)|
|Morph,morpho||Form||Amorphous (no definite form); pleomorphic (more occurring in various forms polymorphic (many)|
|Olfact||Smell||Olfactophobia (fear); olfactory (suffix added to make adjective)|
|Op,opto||See||Amblyopia (dull dimness of vision); presbyopia (old impairment of vision in old age); myopia (myein, meaning shut nearsighted);optic|
|Par,partus||Labor||Postpartum (after birth); parturition (act of giving birth); para i, ii, iii, iv, etc., are symbols of number of births|
|Pep||Digest||Dyspepsia (bad, difficult); peptic (suffix added to make adjective)|
|Pexy||Fix||Mastopexy (fixation of breast); nephrosplenopexy (surgical fixation of kidney and spleen|
|Phag,phago||Eat||Phagocytosis (eating of cells); phagomania (madness mad craving for food or eating); dysphagia (difficult eating or swallowing)|
|Phan,phas||Appear visible||Phanerosis (act of becoming visible); phantasia; phantasy; phasmophobia (fear of ghosts)|
|Phas||Speak||Aphasia (unable to speak); dysphasia (difficulty in speaking)|
|Phil||Love||Hemophilia (blood a hereditary disease characterized by delayed clotting of blood); acidophilia (acid stain liking or staining with acid stains);|
|Phobia||Fear||Hydrophobia (fear of water); photophobia (fear of light); claustrophobia (fear of close places|
|Phrax,phrag||Fence off, wall off||Diaphragm (across partition separating thorax from abdomen); phragmoplast (formed)|
|Plas||Form, grow||Choledochoplasty (common bile duct);neoplasm (new growth); rhinoplasty (nose operation for formation of nose); otoplasty (ear);|
|Plegia||Paralyze||Paraplegia (paralysis of lower limbs); ophthalmoplegia (eye); hemiplegia (partial paralysis)|
|Pne,pneo||Breathe||Dyspnea (difficult breathing); apnea (lack of breathing); hyperpnea. (overbreathing)|
|Poie||Make||Hematopoiesis (blood); erythropoiesis (red blood cells); leukopoiesis ( ' white blood cells)|
|Ptosis||Fall||Proctoptosis (anus prolapse of anus); splanchnoptosis (viscera)|
|Rrhagia||Burst forth, pour||Menorrhagia (abnormal bleeding during menstruation); menometrorrhagia (abnormal uterine bleeding); hemorrhage (blood)|
|Rrhaphy||Suture||Herniorrhaphy (suturing or repair of hernia); hepatorrhaphy (Jiver); nephrorrhaphy (kidney)|
|Rrhea||Flow, discharge||Leukorrhea (white discharge from vagina); galactorrhea (milk discharge); rhinorrhea (nasal discharge)|
|Rrhexis||Rupture||Enterorrhexis (intestines); metrorrhexis (uterus)|
|Schiz||Split, divide||Schizophrenia (mind split personality); schizonychia (nails); schizotrichia (hair)|
|Scope||Examine||Microscopic; cardioscope; endoscope (endo means within an instrument for examining the interior of a hollow viscus)|
|Stasis||Stop, stand still||Hematostatic (pertaining to stagnation of blood);epistasis (checking or stopping of any discharge)|
|Teg,tect||Cover||Tegmen; tectum (rooflike structure); integument (skin covering)|
|Therap||Treat, cure||Therapy; neurotherapy (nerves); chemotherapy (chemicals); physiotherapy|
|Tomy||Cut, incise||Phlebotomy (incision of vein); arthrotomy (joint); appendectomy (ectomy, meaning cut out excision of appendix); oophorectomy (excision of ovary); ileocecostomy (ostomy, meaning creation of an artificial opening, and os, pertaining to opening or mouth thus, an anastomosis of ileum and cecum)|
|Tropho||Nourish||Hypertrophy (enlargement or overnourishment); atrophy (undernourishment)|
|Volv||Turn||Volvulus (twisting of an organ, intestinal obstruction with twisting of bowel, or twisting of the esophagus)|
Table of Combining Forms
|Adeno –||gland||Adreno –||adrenal gland|
|Angio –||vessel||Ano –||anus|
|Arterio –||artery||Arthro –||joint|
|Balano –||glans penis||Blepharo –||eyelid|
|Broncho –||bronchus (windpipe)||Cantho –||canthus|
|Capit –||head||Cardi- or cardio –||heart|
|Carpo –||wrist||Cephalo –||head|
|Cerebello –||cerebellurn||Cerebro –||cerebrum|
|Cheilo –||lip||Chole –||bile|
|Chondro –||cartilage||Chordo –||cord or string|
|Cilia –||hair (Latin)||Cleido –||collarbone|
|Coccygo –||coccyx||Colpo –||vagina|
|Cordo –||cord||Coxa –||hip|
|Coccygo –||coccyx||Cranio –||head|
|Cysto –||sac, cyst, or bladder||Cyto –||cell|
|Dacryo –||tear||Dento- or donto –||tooth|
|Emia –||blood||Encephalo –||blood|
|Entero –||intestines||Fascia –||sheet or band of fibrous tissue|
|Fibro –||fibers||Gastro –||stomach|
|Genu –||knee||Gingivo –||gums|
|Glomerulo –||glomerulus||Glosso –||tongue|
|Gnatho –||jaw||Hallux –||great toe|
|Hem, hema,hemo, hemato –||blood||Hepato –||liver|
|Hilus –||pit or depression in an organ where vessels and nerves enter||Histio –||tissue|
|Hystero –||uterus||Ileo –||ileum (part of small intestine)|
|Ilio –||flank or ilium (bone of the pelvis)||Jejuno –||jejunum (part of small intestine)|
|Kerato –||cornea or horny layer of the skin||Labio –||lips|
|Lacrimo –||tears||Laparo –||loin or flank (also refers to abdomen)|
|Laryngo –||larynx||Linguo –||tongue|
|Lympho –||lymph||Masto –||breast|
|Meningo –||meninges (coverings of the brain and spinal cord)||Metra,metro –||uterus|
|Myelo –||bone marrow and also spinal cord||Myo –||muscle|
|Myringo –||eardrum||Naso –||nose|
|Nephro –||kidney||Neuro –||nerve|
|Oculo –||eye||Odonto –||tooth|
|Omphalo –||navel or umbilicus||Onycho –||nails|
|Oophoro –||ovary||Ophthalmo –||eye|
|Orchio,orchido –||testis||Oro –||mouth|
|Os –,Osteo-||mouth||Ovario –||ovary|
|Palato –||palate of mouth||Palpebro –||eyelid|
|Pectus –||breast, chest, or thorax||Pharyngo –||pharynx|
|Phlebo –||vein||Pilo –||hair|
|Pleuro –||pleura of lung||Pneumo or pneumono –||lungs|
|Procto –||rectum||Pyelo –||pelvis of kidney|
|Pyloro –||pylorus (part of stomach just be fore duodenum)||Rhino||nose|
|Sacro –||sacrum||Salpingo –||fallopian tube or oviduct|
|Sialo –||saliva||Splanchno –||viscera|
|Spleno –||spleen||Sterno –||sternum|
|Stoma –||mouth||Tarso –||instep of foot; ankle|
|Teno,tenonto –||tendon||Thoraco –||thorax or chest|
|Trachelo –||neck, particularly the neck of the uterus||Tracheo –||trachea|
|Unguis –||nail||Uretero –||ureter|
|Urethro –||urethra||Uro –||urine|
|Vaso –||vessel||Veno –||vein|
|Ventriculo –||ventricle||Viscero –||viscera|
'See also Wikipedia, Medical Dictionary
Histology is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues. All organs of the body are formed of tissues. A tissue is a collection of similar type cells associated with some intercellular matrix (ground substance) controlled by some laws of growth and development. These cells perform the same functions. Tissues are usually divided into four categories:muscle tissue, nervous tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue.
Muscle tissue is composed of "excitable" cells which can contract. Muscle tissue include a lot of microfilaments composed of actin and myosin, which are contractile proteins. There are three major types of muscle tissue:
- Skeletal Muscle:It is attached to bones by tendons and associated with the body's voluntary movements. Skeletal muscle is striated muscle. Unlike cardiac muscle, the cells are not branched.
- Visceral (Smooth) Muscle:It is found in many parts of the body such as the arteries, the bladder, the digestive tract and so on. Visceral muscle is also called smooth muscle as it doesn't have cross striations. Visceral muscle contracts slower than skeletal muscle, but the contraction can be continued for a longer period.
- Cardiac muscle:It is so named because it is found in the heart. Cells are joined to one another by intercalated discs which allow the synchronization of the heart beat. Cardiac muscle is branched, striated muscle.
Nervous tissue is for sensing stimuli and transmitting signals to and from various system of body. Neurons are the basic unit of nervous tissue.
Connective tissue (CT) supports, connects, or separates various tissues and organs of the body. It is one of the four major type tissues—the others of which are epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissues. Connective tissue can be found everywhere in the body except the central nervous system.
It is one of the four major types tissues. It is related to secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular transport and detection of sensation. In Greek ἐπί (epi) means "on" or "upon", and θηλή (thēlē) means "nipple".
- Bronzino, Joseph D. (April 2006). The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Third Edition. [CRC Press]. ISBN 978-0-8493-2124-5. http://crcpress.com/product/isbn/9780849321245.
- Villafane, Carlos, CBET. (June 2009). Biomed: From the Student's Perspective, First Edition. [Techniciansfriend.com]. ISBN 978-1-61539-663-4. http://www.biomedtechnicians.com.
Fill up the gaps
- The body consists of the head, ______and limbs. ((a) arms (b) trunks)
- Sagittal plane is parallel to _______ plane.((a)lateral (b) median)
- Nose is _______ to the ears. ((a) anterior (b) posterior)
- Rotation is the movement of a part of the body around its _______axis. ((a) central (b) long)
- All organs of the body are formed of ______.((a) flesh (b) tissue)
- Epithelium is ______ tissue. ((a) covering (b) connecting)
- Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies by Janet Rae-Dupree
- Wikipedia,Anatomical terms of motion.
- Wikipedia,List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes
- Wikipedia, Medical Dictionary
- Medical Terminology Database
- Dictionary of Medicines and Devices
- Medical Dictionary Database for the iPhone
- Medical Terminology Database iPhone