Beekeeping gloves are, as the name suggests, special gloves made for beekeeping. They are made of leather and other tough but flexible materials. The gloves extend to the elbows, where they are tied. Many experienced beekeepers do not use gloves as bees will generally not sting unless provoked. For beginners, however, both because they are more likely to make mistakes and because they aren't so used to being around bees, gloves are definitely a good idea.
Some people use thin nitrile gloves as an alternative to heavy duty leather gloves. These gloves are more sensitive and therefore result in less chance that bees will get inadvertently crushed. In addition, bees don't perceive the nitrile gloves as skin so they tend not to sting through the gloves.