A quiz on Radiation Biology & Dosimetry is available below for those who wish to test their knowledge and understanding of these topics.
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Deterministic effects of radiation are those for which:
The annual effective dose limit for occupationally exposed workers is:
The entrance skin dose from a lateral lumbar sacral spine examination is about:
The latent period for radiation-induced carcinogenesis (solid tumors) is about:
Carcinogenesis is considered to be 'stochastic' effect. Is this statement:
Which of the following would be more suitable for measuring the absorbed dose to the fingers during fluoroscopy?
The entrance skin dose to the patient per abdominal radiograph is approximately:
In the context of radiobiology which is false?
For a given total dose of X-rays, a low dose rate (less than 1 Gy/h) is less effective at killing mammalian cells than a high dose rate (greater than 1 Gy/min). The principal reason is likely to be:
1 mSv is the annual effective dose limit for occupationally exposed personnel. Is this statement:
The law which states that radiation intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the radiation source and the point of interest is called:
Photoelectric interactions from 15 keV photons, per unit mass, are how likely in calcium (Z = 20) than in carbon (Z = 6)?
Which one the following is in increasing order of entrance skin dose?
According to the ICRP dose limits, the maximum permissible dose per annum to the lens of the eyes of persons occupationally exposed is:
A narrow beam of monoenergetic X-ray photons is directed from an XRT located 50 cm above the surface of a water-filled container 20 cm thick. The HVL is 10 cm of water at the photon energy. The exposure at the bottom of the container relative to that incident on the surface is about:
The annual effective dose limit for persons other than designated workers is:
An apron with a 0.5 mm lead equivalent thickness typically attenuates the scattered X-rays for tube potentials around 100 kVp by how much:
For diagnostic X-ray tubes operated above 70 kVp, the minimum total filtration in the beam is:
The recommended annual equivalent dose limit for prevention of radiation damage to the lens of the eye is:
A hypothetical patient receives an entrance skin dose of 20 Gy after a cardiac pacemaker insertion in which prolonged screening was used with a grossly inadequate X-ray machine. The most likely effects are:
Non-malignant damage to skin is considered to be a 'stochastic' effect. Is this statement:
Which of the following dose reduction techniques will improve image quality?
The radiation risk to a patient can be reduced by using a grid. Is this statement:
Skin damage following irradiation is an example of an early somatic effect. This means:
A staff member standing 1 m from a patient in a field of scattered radiation experiences an air kerma of 630 mGy/h. If they move back to 3 m from the patient, they will experience a dose reading of approximately:
Which one of the following is a stochastic effect?
Cells which undergo rapid division are:
The radiation risk to a patient can be reduced by using collimation. Is this statement:
Radiation dose limits set by bodies such as the ICRP are set at such levels that, if all personnel were exposed at these levels for a 50 year working life:
The appropriate unit for the measurement of absorbed dose in SI units is:
A kilogram cube of water is uniformly irradiated so that it receives an absorbed dose of 500 mGy. The absorbed dose in 1 cubic centimetre of this water is therefore:
The radiation risk to a patient can be reduced by decreasing the kV. Is this statement:
For an X-ray tube the radiation output at a position 1 m from the focus is 36 &mu:Gy/mAs when the X-ray tube current is 200 mA. If the X-ray tube kV remains constant, which ONE of the following statement is false?
Cataract production in the lens of the eye is considered to be a 'stochastic' effect. Is this statement:
For radiation protection purposes the radiation weighting factor for X-rays is:
With regard to the use of TLDs, which ONE of the following statements is false?
The radiation risk to a patient can be reduced by increased beam filtration. Is this statement:
The DNA molecule may be damaged by:
The Dose-Area Product (DAP) meter:
The annual effective dose to an individual due to natural background radiation is of the order of:
0.25 to 0.5 mm lead equivalence at 100 kV is used in protective lead aprons. Is this statement:
An occupationally exposed person undergoing fluoroscopy of their abdomen has inadvertently left their personnel dosimeter on in such a way that it is at the point of entry of the primary beam. It would take how many minutes of screening time for the
dosimeter to record his annual maximum permissible whole body dose?
A fluoroscopic system has automatic brightness control in which the kV is adjusted manually and the mA varies as a function of patient thickness. For a given patient thickness, as the kV is decreased:
The radiation risk to a patient can be reduced by using a smaller focal spot. Is this statement:
The sievert is a unit of:
An individual receives a radiation effective dose of 200 Sv of penetrating radiation during the detonation of a nearby nuclear device. The most likely effects are:
The inverse square law applies well in the primary beam. In regard to radiation scattered from the patient the inverse square law:
One gray is defined as:
The effective dose a patient receives from a single PA chest X-ray is about:
Which one of the following has minimal effect on the patient's skin dose?