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This is an incomplete list of geological terminology with brief explanations of each concept.
- Andesite: Viscous lava erupted from a volcano above a subduction zone.
- Igneous Rock: A rock produced by the crystallization of magma.
- Geology: The study of Earth's physical structure and the processes that act on it.
- Lahar: River of mud, ash, and water.
- Metamorphic Rock: A rock that has experienced intense temperature and/or pressure after its formation and has changed its composition and/or texture.
- Mineral: A naturally occurring solid inorganic substance with a distinct crystal structure.
- Pahoehoe: Lava with an undulating surface, may have a ropey appearance.
- Rift Valley: A gap between the continental crust marked by volcanism; rift valleys may eventually develop into oceans, seas, etc.
- Rock: A natural material composed of minerals.
- Sedimentary Rock: A rock that has been formed by the lithification of sediment but has not been metamorphosed.
- Subduction zone: Area where plates meet, and one slides beneath the other.
- Texture: The physical appearance of a rock.