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Baroque Macedonia and the Macedonian Revolts

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Introduction

Introduction

The baroque period was an era that began approximately in 1650 and ended roughly in 1770. During this period there were major advancements in agriculture, architecture, construction, mining, medicine, and science. However during this period the region of the Balkans was under Ottoman administration and was part of the Ottoman Empire. Even though Macedonia was part of the Ottoman Empire it still managed to show some form of baroque significance and style. When travelling through the towns many of the residential properties and buildings portrayed a baroque-style infrastructure regardless whether the region was under Ottoman control. Theoretically the title of this book should be called : Ottoman Macedonia and the Macedonian Revolts, however the author has decided to name this book : Baroque Macedonia and the Macedonian Revolts.

Many years ago, to identify a clan or tribe a coat of arms was used. A form of identity representing a faction, empire, region, entity or an individual. Coat of arms can display any illustration on textiles, wood, masonry or metal. The very first coat of arms was possibly displayed back in 100 AD or even earlier. Coat of arms were common amongst knights in Europe, Asia and North America. The Macedonian coat of arms is a yellow or golden lion standing upright, on a red background. This coat of arms had undergone many changes through the years.

Through these turbulent years the Macedonian people had no identity and were forced into believing and following a different religion called Islam. If we go back to the 14th and 15th century the Ottoman Empire began building mosques within the region of the Balkans and many Christian churches were dismantled and destroyed. However some Christian churches remained, a good example is the Church of St John at Kaneo in Ohrid, this church is located near the Lake of Ohrid. It was also evident that during the baroque period in Macedonia, a number of Jewish churches were scattered within the city of Skopje. These Jewish churches had offered a different religion and service to the Macedonian people. The Macedonian communities were prohibited from following an Orthodox Christian religion and service. The Jewish quarter was an area within Skopje that contained various buildings of Jewish importance. The city of Skopje especially in the Jewish quarter, it possessed its own walls, two synagogues and a number of Jewish schools.

During the Dark Ages, also known as the Late Antiquity period, Slavs had settled in Macedonia, and the surrounding areas or region back in 610 AD, forming Macedonia Sclavinia. Further north was Rascia and towards the east was the Bulgarian faction. It was noted that after the arrival of the Slavs in the Balkans, the use of the Roman solidi also known as the Roman solidus decreased rapidly beginning of the 8th Century. The Byzantine or Roman Empire had also accumulated the lands of Dacia. These were not the only lands acquired by the Roman Empire. The province Dacia Traiana comprised the regions known today as : Banat, Oltenia, Transylvania, Moldavia and Romania. Like the Dacian state, many years later so was the early Macedonian state, an unstable tribal confederacy.

Moving along through the years Macedonia had become part of the Ottoman Empire. Also the regions of Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, and Serbia were also part of the Ottoman Empire. The Macedonian people looking to overthrow the Turkish Ottoman rule established a rebel stronghold, men such as Karposh and Strahil, were seen as the driving force, showing patriotism and courage like yellow rampant lions ready to leap into the unknown Ottoman - held territory. Ottoman Macedonia back in the 17th Century (1601-1700) was undergoing a process of awakening and recognition in the form of a different voice, a different identity. The different voice and identity were the Macedonian people. Emerging was a large group of men wanting freedom, a new life, free from oppression and torture. These men and women were living in a different timeframe or timeline. They experienced the Ottoman way of life, learning a different language, following a different religion, they accepted life in Ottoman Macedonia not because they wanted to, but because they were forced to. The numerical figures of the Ottoman forces was to great however and more time and planning was required to win a war not just a battle, the Macedonian revolutionaries were placed in a difficult position, which was recorded by the Turkish historian Silahdar Findiklili Mehmed Agha.

An otriad of rebels which were mostly based in the Malesevo mountains, Krushevo, Kumanovo, Smilevo, and Uskup (Skopje) joined together to form a Macedonian revolutionary group. The Ottoman Empire started to build ships known as galleons, boat building involved skilled men or women, the early modern baroque period saw the transformation of the carrack into a galleon, having an upper gundeck, lower gundeck and a quarterdeck. The galleons were very useful for battles at sea. The baroque period was also a time when architectural and construction advancements occurred, not so much in the architectural field but in the construction field saw certain buildings being constructed that possessed distinctive features of baroque architecture were : pear shaped domes in residential, religious and market buildings. The use of plaster, stucco, marble and other building materials were quite common. Large-scale ceilings frescoes, marian columns, the use of stained glass windows, and many other building elements were typical baroque construction. However even during war architecture, sculpture, painting, construction and education still continued regardless of the persistent struggle for freedom. The seventeenth century was interesting because here the Macedonian revolutionaries have achieved so much that the north-eastern region of Macedonia was literally free from Ottoman oppression, suffering and rule. The streets of Kratovo, Kumanovo, Kriva Palanka, Kocani, Kacanik, Tabanovce, Veles and Uskup were liberated. Why did the military involvement fade between the Macedonian communities and the Habsburg Empire after 1689 ? This question has puzzled many historians and archaeologists living during this time period. Was it due to the time required to send reinforcements, or that the region was extremely far and isolated. It could also be that the region had fallen to a disease called cholera and there were limited available doctors and medicines. Also that ammunition was in short supply. The legendary Karposh, a man who shocked the Ottoman troops and the authorities to it's core, was the leader of many revolts.

The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries constitute a gap in Ottoman Macedonia’s architectural history. The period 1645 and 1739 was marred by violent conflicts between the Ottomans, the Habsburgs, and Venice. The invasion of Macedonia by the ‘Holy League’ in 1689/90 saw Skopje and Štip set ablaze. Building in this period often meant rebuilding.[1] In Skopje, monumental structures were staggeringly reconstructed, often in simplified forms. There, the most interesting preserved new building of the eighteenth century seems to be a hexagonal domed mausoleum (türbe) of the ‘open’ type. It was commissioned by an Ottoman bureaucrat for his wife and daughter, who must have died in Skopje in 1774/5 as a result of an accident or disease, probably while in transit.[2] For this representative of the central government, it must have seemed fitting to attach this türbe to Skopje’s only mosque built by a sultan. Some low‐relief ornament on the structure, of which there may have been more once, shows the flowery ‘Baroque’ style of Istanbul in that period.

As described or depicted in this wikibook the author has written a fictional description about the formation and recruiting of revolutionaries in some of the chapters of this wikibook. Karposh however was already the chief of Christian auxiliary forces, and basically was not involved in the finding or searching of available men. Men that could be of assistance were mostly described as hajduks or voivode. The term komiti or komita was not used untill the beginning of the 1800's.

Footnotes
  1. Otomanskata Arhitektura, Author : Maximillian Hartmuth, p.2072f
  2. Uskup, Authors : Kumbaraci-Bogoyevic, p.56f Mehmed Sureyya, sicill-i Osmani p.275f



Chapter 1 : The struggle for freedom

Chapter 1[edit | edit source]

The struggle for freedom[edit | edit source]

The ocean voyages of European mariners in the 15th and 16th centuries had a profound impact on world history. The secret of their success was technology and also the combining of mediterranean and northern European boat-building traditions, helped to expand this knowledge to other countries of the world. Many years later the adoption of navigational devices such as the astrolabe, the sextant and the magnetic compass helped captains and sailors move accurately over long distances at sea.

During the 1680-1690's the naval advancements of some empires were greatly increasing, England was at the top of the list followed by the Russian Empire, 3rd was Sweden, 4th was the Spanish Empire, followed by France in 5th place, next was the United Provinces, in 6th place was Prussia, 7th place was the Royal Kingdom of Quebec, in 8th place was Portugal and later in 9th place was the Ottoman Empire. In 10th place was the Austrian Empire who happened to grasp a small region near the seas.

Boat building involved skilled men, men with a trade such as woodworking or even fabric/textiles work. The Ottoman Empire had greatly fallen behind, not just in boat building but also in its economy, over the years it began to borrow heavily from other European empires that were not at war. The Ottoman Empire was far to busy in trying to suppress rebellions or revolts within its empire, revolutionaries from Serbia, Macedonia, Greece and Bulgaria all wanted freedom. From here and in a few years the Ottoman Empire went into a period known as Stagnation and this was quite common for an Empire that was always at war with internal revolutionary groups. The demographics of the region of Macedonia had altered numerous times, it was very common for a Macedonian family to be living in the outskirts of cities such as Uskup, Veles, and many other large cities that had a population of more than 50,000. The Ottoman families were seen living in Uskup, in great numbers. It was also common for Macedonian communities to relocate and live in villages, while the Ottoman families were mostly seen living in large cities. The lifestyle of Macedonians living in the countryside gave them an advantage in preparing for an uprising or a revolt.

The Empire of Austria, was an impressive imperial kingdom, also known as the Habsburg Empire it flourished and become a prosperous growing faction or entity. It made advancements in numerous fields such as : medicine, physics, chemistry, construction, infrastructure and so on. Emperor Leopold I had just arrived back from a long trip, he was beginning to feel exhausted due to the travel earlier in the day to Salzburg for an important meeting with his general and his marshal. Emperor Leopold had issued a letter to his marshal regarding the deployment of Austrian troops to the Balkans. His marshal gave the letter to his general who was still working out a strategic operation to the campaign located within Bosnia, Serbia and Macedonia. The most reliable applicant to conduct the campaign in the Balkans was a general by the name of Silvio Piccolomini. General Picolomini was from Siena, Italy he was an Italian nobleman, serving in the Austrian Habsburg Army. The Austrian military police set out to track down Silvio Piccolomini who at the time was at his grapes estate. He loved producing his own wine from the grapes at his wine cellar. The military police entered his premises and began searching for Piccolomini, they entered the home of Piccolomini, but could not find him. So they went outside to the rear of the property, they noticed a door was left open leading to a wine cellar, so they proceeded cautiously, inside was Piccolomini pouring red wine in a large glass flask. Piccolomini was surprised and offered the men some home-made claret. The military police spoke with Piccolomini and gave him a uniform, Piccolomini agreed to take a horse carriage the next day to head for Klagenfurt to meet with his regiments.

The Ottoman Empire, back in the late 17th century attempted to gain the lands of Austria, but the Habsburg Empire signed an alliance with the Prussian and Polish armies and were ready to defeat the mighty Turkish army at the Battle of Vienna in 1683. Piccolomini finally arrived at Klagenfurt where he began training his young and old troops. While back in Ottoman Macedonia, for the Macedonians weaponry was very limited and the Macedonian revolutionaries would use potassium nitrate mixed with sulphur and charcoal as gunpowder. This proved to be ineffective however it did manage to overcome the need for gunpowder. The Macedonian revolutionaries continued their efforts in making weapons, from gunpowder to wooden cannons. The cannons that were produced proved to be unreliable, because some of them would backfire and strike the soldier that was standing behind the cannon. So most of the cannons were very dangerous when put to great use, some would eventually rapture because of the excessive heat and pressure produced during the firing. The Turkish army was far superior in both numbers and equipment and their retaliation was brutal. The Ottoman Sultan was so pre-occupied with suppressing rebellions and uprisings that he required the assistance from other Ottoman vassals. The Ottoman Sultan turned his attentions towards the Crimean Khanate so he ordered re-inforcements and it would take roughly 1 week for six galleons to cross the Black Sea and arrive to the port in Ottoman Bulgaria. One week later the Crimean tatars arrived and were required to head to the neareast headquarters for military training.

The ports along the Black Sea were regarded as the busiest areas, merchant men and women were seen trading and selling items of value. Commodities such as gold and silver were very much in demand, not just in the Ottoman Empire but also all around the world. The long distance trades through sea and land tended to be in the hands of certain communities that had privileges, such communities as : Serbs, Macedonians, Jews, Greeks, Armenians and Ragusans all provided trading goods from wood products to silver products. Behind the military frontier this Ottoman world had settled down by the later sixteenth century into an effective, well - run and civilized sphere. The distinctive landscape of mosques, madrasas, caravanserai's, coffee houses, public baths, hospitals, fountains and markets dotted innumerable small towns maintained in many cases by the vakifs.[1] A few months later Piccolomini prepared his men with water and food and set out going south towards Macedonia via Nis and the town of Prokuplje. Piccolomini had a total of 4,000 men, one thousand of them being Serbian, under the command of Antonije Znoric.

Meanwhile back in Ottoman Macedonia, foreign propaganda particularly intensified through the schools, which were closely associated with the foreign churches scattered around many of the towns and cities within Macedonia. Despite this powerful foreign propaganda many Macedonians remained aware of their Macedonian ethnic origin and stood for recognition of a separate Macedonian nation by the world and creation of an independent Macedonian state.[2] When Piccolomini set out from the Austrian Empire, his regiments were comprised of Austrian Hussars. Hussars were a light type of cavalry. The first written mention of the word Hussar or Huszar has been found in documents dating back in 1432 in southern Hungary. The Austrian Hussars wore a characteristic tight Dolman jacket with a loose hanging pelisse over jacket, as well as a busby hat. The route of the army under Piccolomini was long and exhausting, firstly the army had finally arrived to the city of Belgrade on the 8th of September, 1688.

After crossing the region of Ottoman Bulgaria, the Crimean tatars and Ottoman turks finally arrived to Rumelia, the region of Macedonia was called Rumelia at that time. The largest Ottoman headquarters was located in Uskup, (Skopje) and this was where the Crimean tatars set up camp. The extra re-inforcements were welcomed by the Ottoman mayor of Uskup. Silvio Piccolomini was a man of great importance to the Habsburg Austrian Empire, he communicated with his Habsburg counterparts through letter writing. Piccolomini and his 4,000 troops marched south following the Morava river, soon he will enter the town of Nis. The Crimean Khan Selim I Giray had roughly between 4,000 to 6,000 men, most of them were young and inexperienced however they were here to help suppress any revolt within Rumelia.

The continuation of Macedonian traditions and culture persisted even through a region that was in turmoil and was struggling to overcome the grasp of the Ottoman domination. Components of the culture of the Macedonian Slavs was put forward. A Macedonian historian by the name of Krste Petkov Misirkov was the first to pose the question of the independent Macedonian culture, these were his words : There used to be and there still is an independent Macedonian culture, and it has been the strongest weapon in helping the Macedonians to preserve their present-day cultural matrix and survive all the reversals in the history of their fatherland : Not Byzantium, nor Bulgaria, nor Serbia, nor Turkey, could make changes in the character of the Macedonians of such a nature as to destroy their individuality and estrange them from their Slavic forefathers.[3] Krste Petkov Misirkov has also in some of his writings, he identifies the Macedonians as a separate nation and the Macedonian as a separate South Slavic language. Krste Misirkov died in July, 1926 he was 51 when he passed away.

As previously mentioned the Macedonian revolutionaries frequently began producing their own weapons, some weapons such as muskets were even purchased from a gunsmith that sold weapons at a reduced price. It was very rare for Macedonian revolutionaries to have at their disposal wooden or metal cannons, or even cannonballs. Back in the 17th Century it was very difficult to find a man or a women that specialized in the engineering and construction of cannons. So Macedonian revolutionaries were sometimes seen trading at open markets, or possibly involved stealing cannons from the Ottoman army. Revolutionaries were not armies and did not have the luxuries that a real army had. Revolutionaries were not experienced fighters, some were very young and some were very old.


Chapter 2 : Early life of a rebellion leader

Chapter 2[edit | edit source]

Early life of a rebellion leader


It was winter the month of December, 1685 the Wallachian countryside was covered with thick snow, Karposh was outside cutting firewood preparing for the cold winter months ahead. A snow leopard was howling in the distance, the time was approximately 6:00 pm the winter sun had already descended into the mountainous region of the town. Karposh was living in Wallachia and working as a miner. The mining industry was booming in Wallachia. Karposh would go to work with his neighbor and work at a Tin mine located 20 kilometres from the small town of Craiova. The tin mine was in the Oltenia region of Wallachia. Back in 1417 Wallachia accepted the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, and by the early 1680's the Ottoman Empire increasingly relied heavily on Wallachia and Moldavia for the supply and maintenance of it's military equipment and a military force was established. The local Wallachian army however soon disappeared, due to the increased costs and the more efficient mercenary troops that replaced the local army had a better chance at maintaining order for a reduced salary. Karposh was born in the village of Vojnica, Ottoman Macedonia, the village of Vojnica was part of the Caska Municipality, it was a very small village with a population of roughly 340 people, most of them of Macedonian origin but there were also Aromanian locals living in Vojnica.

At an early age Karposh's father was executed by the Ottoman authorities for planning a rebellion and providing the Macedonian revolutionary groups with ammunition and guns. The Ottoman authorities were always out on patrols looking for suspicious activities especially from the young Macedonian communities. What Karposh wanted to do later in life was to go back to Ottoman Macedonia and join a revolutionary army, one that was known to him. After gaining experience working as a mining labourer in Wallachia, Karposh began to feel like he wanted to do more with his life. Because of the repetitive work Karposh felt that it was time to change his whole life around.

Mining work was a very difficult occupation, most of the time Karposh spent many hours underground away from the fresh air and environment. Sometimes while digging the soil fell on Karposh's head and also in his eyes. His supervisor gave Karposh a helmet. After a day's work Karposh would sometimes go for a long walk on the grassy hills just a few metres from the cottage. This was to clear his head and to breathe some clean air. Karposh lived in a village one that was scattered miles away from any town. In order for Karposh to visit a doctor he would need to travel 20 kilometres to reach the closest town. While staying at the cottage in Wallachia, Karposh had to feed a number of cows, the cows were very stubborn and required a cattle dog to chase them so they do not wander off out of the fenced perimeter of his landlord's property. Some of the cows were white and some were brown, their fur and milk was important to their landlord. Karposh sometimes helped his landlord with the milking of the cows. Milking was a time-consuming activity and required to start at 5:00 am, early morning. Karposh was also required to help his landlord to gather the cows into the barn.

On December 1686, he moved back to Ottoman Macedonia and was happy with how much money he had saved while living in Wallachia. During Karposh's time in Ottoman Macedonia he witnessed a situation with the community in the town. The people of the town where Karposh lived drastically converted their religion, to follow the Ottoman Turkish religion of Islam. This, at the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century, led to mass conversions to Islam in the Tikvesh, Kichevo and Debar regions as well as in Razlog and Bregalnica.[4] The Macedonians always spoke a Slavic dialect regardless whether they were under Ottoman occupation, however some of them or most of them also knew Ottoman Turkish as their main language. Most Macedonians lived next to other Macedonians, it was very rare for a Macedonian family to be living in a city that was over populated with Turkish communities. Slavic-speakers of Ottoman Macedonia predominating in the rural parts of the country, laboured in Turkish chifliks in the plains or inhabited free mountainous villages and worked as itinerant specialized craftsmen. Macedonians were also seen working as merchant men or women having their own shops or stores. It was also common for Macedonians to work as farmers, many worked on apple, orange, grapes, or tobacco fields, some would also work as agronomists or greenhouse technicians.

Karposh had many reasons for going to Wallachia, one reason was to gain a steady income and to save money. The other reason was to live a stress free life away from Ottoman Macedonia. Karposh was back in Ottoman Macedonia now and decided to join a revolutionary group. In preparing for an uncertain future ahead he purchased a rifle and a sword and began training extensively. His combat skills had increased overnight and he would also visit certain schools in a number of towns and managed to organize the collecting of money. Which will later be used to purchase ammunition and guns. He decided that in order to start an uprising or a revolt, he would need the assistance of many men, an uprising was a very crucial and important situation one that required the right time, and the right people.

In the beginning it was very difficult to find men who were good with guns, all types of guns or even swords. Men that were not afraid of being injured or killed in the struggle for freedom. He managed to sign up at least 10 men from the town of Dospat which was very interesting to him. He later travelled to the town of Kratovo and signed up a total of 15 men. He was aware that in the Macedonian forests located in the north-eastern region there was a cottage where a man produced gunpowder, and ammunition. Karposh would visit this man and asked him if he could sell him ammunition at a reduced price, and the man agreed. Karposh continued to look for men within Ottoman Macedonia, and eventually signed up a total of 112 men, most of them being Macedonian, who were very young and able to shoot with 100% accuracy.

A Macedonian voivoda, wearing a black rounded hat.


The most vulnerable people during the Ottoman-Macedonian wars were the peasants, in order to prevent further torture and exploitation, they hid their grain and refused to plough their land or more appropriately their landlords farms. To protect their villages from the Ottoman bashi-bazouks they joined revolutionary groups. Bands of peasant deserters took to brigandage and some of them were offered commander roles or positions. Contemporaries and historians have often referred to some or all of these various forces as " voivoda or voivode ".

So with a total of 137 men Karposh had decided that now is the time to start an uprising. Most of the revolutionaries were very young and most of them were from Ottoman Macedonia. According to historical sources Karposh had signed up approximately 200 revolutionaries, most of them being from cities like : Uskup, Kumanovo, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka and so on. But there were also rebels from the region of Demir Hisar, from cities like : Monastir (Bitola), Ohrid, Resen, and so on. One evening Karposh was alone at his home in Vojnica and was thinking to himself, what is most necessary in starting an uprising and he thought that there are three things that are fundamentally necessary in starting a successful uprising and these were the following factors : 1) Money, 2) Men and 3) Courage. Of those three factors money was the most important one. Without money you could not buy any guns, ammunition, or gunpowder. Another less important factor was also horses, some of Karposh's men had no horses and this was very common among the young revolutionaries who did not own a horse or a donkey. Karposh was interested in forming cavalry units or groups as these types were very effective in circling or surrounding the enemies.


Chapter 3 : The gathering of troops

Chapter 3[edit | edit source]

The gathering of troops


The Macedonians had also attempted a revolt back in the mid 16th century and this was one of the very first revolts ever to occur. The local uprising took place in 1564, it began in the Mariovo region and spread to the Prilep plains and from there to the town of Prilep. Known as the Mariovo and Prilep revolt, it is unknown why this revolt began, but it is clear that three peasants and two priests from the Mariovo district started it. No sooner had the trouble started when the Sultan, through a decree dated October 3, 1564, ordered that the leaders of the revolt be put to death while the followers were to be sent to serve as oarsmen on Turkish galleys. Before the decree could be enforced, however the perpetrators fled causing the Sultan to order another decree for their capture. The Mariovo and Prilep rebellion was one that was unsuccessful and the rebellion was suppressed by the Ottoman troops. Prilep soon became a place known for demonstrations, when the Ottoman court ruled in favour of a Pasha in a dispute with the peasants. According to a document dated December 1565 a revolt broke out inside the town of Prilep. The situation began when the Prilep court, in settling a dispute between the peasants and Mustafa Pasha, ruled in favour of the Pasha. Later the news hit the streets and more than a thousand rebels from the surrounding villages, armed with garden shovels, and long barrelled muskets assembled and stormed the court. It is unknown how this situation or incident ended. As explained previously the peasants eventually had no chance in further causing trouble as the large Ottoman forces greatly enforced order upon the peasant rebels.

According to historical sources General Piccolomini was currently in the town of Nis, Ottoman Serbia, he arrived there on the 24th of September, 1689 in the early hours of the morning. With him was also the Austrian commander, Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden. Accompanying the two commanders was Pavle Nestorović who was a Serbian commander that assisted Piccolomini, during the capture of Nis. Nis was a quite town located in the southern part of Ottoman Serbia, it had a garrison of approximately 40,000 soldiers or most likely over 40,000. Louis William had a total of about 16,000 troops, most of them were Austrian however there were also Serbian troops. When Louis William learned that there were no Ottoman defence positions on Vinik he ordered Pavle to attack. Eventually Pavle was successful and the Battle of Nis ended with an Austrian victory. Pavle was promoted and later Louis William had decided to leave for Vidin while Piccolomini was left to keep an eye on Nis. The next month Piccolomini left for Ottoman Macedonia, and when this happened the Ottoman troops once again gained possession of the Sanjak of Nis.

A Macedonian soldier or rebel holding a heavy musket, circa 1610.


A cartographic map of Central Europe, circa 1806.

On the right we see a photo of a Macedonian rebel holding a heavy musket. These types of guns were very popular during the first half of the 17th century. A musket is a muzzle-loaded long gun that appeared as a smoothbore weapon in the early 16th century, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus capable of penetrating heavy armor if fired correctly. Distinguished features of a heavy musket was a very long barrel, the reason for this extremely long barrel was to gain a good or reasonable range. Evidence of the musket as a type of firearm does not appear until 1521, the long-barreled, musket-caliber weapons had been in use as wall-defense weapons in Europe and in other continents. By 1650 the heavy musket eventually become obsolete due to its size and weight, as a result of this the musket was improved. By 1690 the wearing of knights armor dramatically decreased, this was probably due to the increased power of certain types of guns.

There are two sources regarding the arrival of Silvio Piccolomini to the city of Uskup (Skopje). General Piccolomini arrived in Uskup in late October, 1689. One historical source explains that when General Piccolomini entered Uskup he was greeted by the people of Uskup, and there was also a fanfare playing at the time, while the other historical source explains that when he arrived to the city, the city was most likely abandoned and there was only a few people. When General Piccolomini set out from the Habsburg Empire he had a total of 4,000 soldiers most of them were cavalry, after the battle of Nis, his armies were reduced as some of them were killed in action or were injured and had to remain behind. Overall his armies now were a small number, and this greatly affected his abilities to guard or even defend a large city such as Uskup.

With General Piccolomini in Uskup, what happened to the Ottoman garrison that was stationed in Uskup ? Did they withdraw from the city of Uskup after witnessing the Austrian armies entering the city, or was the city unguarded and no Ottoman troops were positioned within the streets of Uskup ? These are just some questions that have puzzled the Macedonian historians. The answer to this question is that there were no Ottoman soldiers stationed within Uskup (Skopje) at the time, because if there was then a fierce battle would break out. There was no armed conflict between the Ottoman troops and the Austrian cavalry units within Uskup.

While staying in Skopje, Piccolomini started feeling very ill. He was unaware that he had contracted some form of disease. According to historical accounts, Piccolomini had cholera and his health was beginning to deteriorate. Piccolomini had the following symtoms : diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and discoloration of the skin. It is unclear how Piccolomini contracted cholera, it was most likely through the drinking of contaminated water or the eating of food that was contaminated with the bacterium. Back in the late 17th Century (1601-1700) the medical knowledge relating to cholera was limited, doctors were uncertain as to what caused the disease, and their current medicines provided no relief or prevention from the bacterium.

Piccolomini was beginning to feel very weak due to the cholera, on the 26th of October, 1689 he ordered his armies to burn the city of Skopje. His troops placed gunpowder all around some of the buildings within the centre of Skopje and a fire was started. The Skopje fire of 1689 lasted two whole days, burning much of the wooden structures and buildings. The fire later spread towards the Jewish quarter of the city, the Jewish synagogue and a Jewish church was completely destroyed in the fire. However many of the stone buildings remained, but were blackened by the raging fire. Due to General Piccolomini's health he had decided to disband from his armies, heading to Ottoman Albania.

General Piccolomini's reason for going to Ottoman Albania was so that he can board a ship and head back to Austria. In the cartographic map of Europe which is shown on the right, the Habsburg Empire also known as the Imperial Austrian Empire had access to the adriatic sea. It was a small region just north of Ottoman Bosnia where Austria had a number of ports, here the galleons would arrive and unload. The prospects for Austrian arms in Macedonia and Albania looked promising, but a few days later Piccolomini died of the plague and his successor duke Georg Christian Von Holstein was unable to capitalize on the so called " Karposh Uprising " of the Christian peasantry which broke out in Macedonia at about this time.[5] Eventually assistance from the Austrian armies ended and the continuation of the Karposh uprising went until December, 1689.


Chapter 4 : Construction of fortifications

The Kumanovo Fortress would most likely looked like the fortress in this photo. It was constructed for the Battle of Kumanovo.

Chapter 4[edit | edit source]

Construction of fortifications


Some time between 1687 and 1689, the Macedonian revolutionaries together with the assistance from the woodworkers and stonemasons of Kumanovo began the construction of a fortress. This fortress was definitely important to the Macedonian armies as it provided a strong defensive wall against the powerful Ottoman troops. According to Macedonian historians, the fortress was more like a palisade then a fortification, however it did manage to keep out the Ottoman foot soldiers until they brought with them wooden ladders. These wooden ladders were used to climb over the palisade. One accepted theory is that the Kumanovo Fortress was most likely constructed on the outskirts of Kumanovo. There is no historical document or chronicle that suggests or explains that the fortress surrounded the city of Kumanovo with a large wall.

There is also no document of a historical nature that explains whether the fortress also included a double wall. There is however a good indication that the fortress was within a radius of about 5 kilometers out of the actual city of Kumanovo. The fortress did include an armoury where they kept various weapons, including ammunition and gunpowder. There was also a watchtower, one that was used by the night troops, to keep a surveillance around the area. The Kumanovo fortress was used during the Kumanovo battle. The first part of the construction involved the building of the foundation and this was normally the work required by the stonemasons. Before the laying of the stones or blocks of masonry the ground was made firmly flat.

Kumanovo back in the 17th century was really a small town, one that only had a few buildings and a number of houses mostly constructed by Ottoman tradesmen. The Macedonians were also good tradesmen and most of them were involved in the construction of residential properties. Today the Macedonian archaeologists are yet to discover the location or the site of the Kumanovo fortress. Modern scientific archaeology is not just about finding sites and digging. It unfolds as much in the laboratory as it does in the field. We've become detectives who rely on all kinds of tiny clues from many often unlikely sources to study the people of the past.[6]There are two possibilities regarding the Kumanovo Fortress, the first likely explanation is that the fortress might have been completely torched (set on fire) by the Ottoman soldiers, that is why the archaeological site of the fortress is extremely difficult to locate.

The other possibility might be that the site was completely neglected and a possible construction of a building, road, or residential properties above ground occurred covering the overall site of the fortress. In order to find the archaeological site, an equipment known as GPR can be used. GPR stands for Ground Penetrating Radar, it is an archaeological equipment that uses FM radio waves. These radio waves are then penetrated into the ground which then are reflecting off any surface deep within the ground. By measuring how quickly the signals are reflected back to the GPR, the GPR can reveal features or structures within the ground. Any feature or structure could be a solid object. Ground Penetrating Radar is a very important tool or equipment to archaeologists it acts like something similar to a metal detector, however it has many advantages over the metal detector.

Kumanovo is located in the north-eastern region of Ottoman Macedonia. It is located at the foothills of Skopska Crna Gora, in the Kumanovo Field. Evliya Celebi describes the town of Kumanovo back in 1660–61 : "The colony of Kumanovo is situated on the territory of the Skopje sanjak and represents one county. The city is embellished with many rivers and 600 tile-roofs houses. The mosque in the downtown is beautiful, there are tekke, madrassas, hammams, a number of shops and water mills; and the climate is pleasant and agreeable. There are many vineyards and gardens". Evliya Celebi was an Ottoman Turkish traveller who also travelled to Krushevo.

The history, religion, social and economic structure, technology and skills of Ottoman Macedonia have been the subject of innumerable accounts, analyses, and discussions. In contrast to all the discussions and analyses, numerous historians, archaeologists, documentary producers and subsequently film makers have produced or written extensively about Ottoman Macedonia.

Archaeology can provide evidence more hard-edged than a literary text : A wall, a burial pit, a shrine, and a link across time or space shown by continuity in a ceramic decorative tradition. The survival of remnants of material culture has created a detailed, if still expanding picture of the regions prehistory and history.[7]

Another archaeological project around Kumanovo, or close to the city of Kumanovo is the Kostoperska Karpa archaeological project, this project however does not involve looking for the remains of the Kumanovo fortress, it is mostly concerned in uncovering remains or structures of a church or a number of churches. During an exploratory visit in 2014, the current archaeological project team was able to identify walls on a summit, traces of terracing and structures to the west of it, as well as a fragment of marble architectural decoration bearing a cross and a cross-inscribed stele, suggesting the settlement extended beyond the hill itself. Focusing on the region of Kostoperska Karpa (Mlado Nagoričane, Republic of Macedonia), where at least three major settlements and twenty churches are attested, it combines archival research, satellite imagery analysis, field walking, geophysics and targeted excavation to build a comprehensive framework for interpreting changes in the region’s religious and civic landscape.[8]

The battle of Kumanovo which occurred in November, 1689 was part of the uprising that was started by Karposh. Eventually the Macedonian revolutionaries were outnumbered, however the fortress was very useful to the Macedonian rebels. One must ask himself how important have fortresses and walls been in the history of civilizations, fortresses were not the only structures that Macedonians built. Everywhere around the world people fortified, their villages, towns and cities. They would build such infrastructure on elevated areas and they would also dig ditches, which was common back in those years. With not enough time, the Macedonian revolutionaries however did not proceed in digging a ditch alongside the walls of the fortress. This was one disadvantage that proved fatal to the outcome of fortifying.

Back in the late 17th century, Macedonia's land area comprised of about 50% forests, it is unclear whether in the 17th century there existed a law that prohibited illegal forest logging. However if there was such a law then the Ottoman gendamerie would in-force that law. Logging was done so that firewood can be readily available, which was needed for a number of purposes. Firewood was required to warm houses, provide energy to warm water for use in the normal household. But logging was also done for other reasons and one reason was for the construction of timber homes. In order for the woodworkers to construct a fortress they would require large amounts of timber, well over 150 trees were cut down and sawn or shaped to fit perfectly. The type of trees in the Macedonian forests were : birch, cherry, spruce, and oak, these type of trees were particularly used because of their durability and hardness. Making or building a fortress required hard work, it is unclear whether the Macedonian revolutionaries assisted the woodworkers and stonemasons in the construction of the Kumanovo fortress, as described earlier the fortress did not encircle the whole city of Kumanovo, it was constructed in the countryside near the city. Looking back through history some cities were completely fortified, walls surrounded large cities keeping out enemies, a good example is the Byzantine city of Constantinople.

In late summer 1452, Mehmed took his army to the very walls of Constantinople, where Constantine Palaeologus could only watch helplessly while the sultan and his engineers spent three days studying the fortifications. At least the walls remained formidable. Fourteen miles in circumference, they still enclosed every side of the triangular city. The two longer sections faced water : the Sea of Marmara to the south and the inlet known as the Golden Horn to the north. Both of these sides were essentially impregnable.[9] The description of the city of Constantinople sounds as though it cannot be taken. However the Ottoman troops did manage to forcibly take Constantinople and in the end they were successful.

Anyway coming back to the topic about fortified cities, settlements that were fortified and contained wooden houses or buildings were known as a gord. The term gord originated most likely in the region of Germania or possibly in the western Slavic states during the 7th or 8th century. The purpose of a Gord (archaeology) was to establish a strong defensive barrier or wall to prevent enemies from gaining access to a certain town, or village. Gords were very popular back in medieval Europe. Back in the late 17th century, Kumanovo was not regarded as a town that resembled a gord type settlement, as mentioned earlier the fortress did not encircle the town. Examples of western Slavic states that had gord type settlements were : Sorbia, also known as Lusatia and the Obotrites confederation which were states back in the 7th or 8th century.


Chapter 5 : Battle of Kriva Palanka

Ottoman troops under fire, by the Macedonian revolutionaries.

Chapter 5[edit | edit source]

Battle of Kriva Palanka[edit | edit source]

During the Ottoman-Macedonian Wars, the Karposh uprising started on the 20th of October, 1689 and centered around an area or region between Skopje and Kriva Palanka. Karposh's uprising began with the commencement of the Macedonian revolutionaries attacking the Ottoman positions within Kriva Palanka. Kriva Palanka was a town that formed in 1633, at that time it was well known for its distribution of natural resources of iron ore. Iron ore was transported along the roads of Kriva Palanka heading towards Ottoman Bulgaria, where it was refined and was distributed further north. During this time the town of Kratovo had developed into a mining town and was strategically and economically important to the Ottoman Empire. The Battle of Kriva Palanka started near the Kriva river and continued into the centre of the town. The Macedonian revolutionaries firstly attacked the Ottoman guardpost, on order of Karposh, the cavalry units charged through the river and into the town. At that time, there were only 60 to 80 Ottoman troops stationed within Kriva Palanka, most of them were foot soldiers. Karposh had thought that the Ottoman forces consisted of dragoons however there were no dragoons and this greatly increased the Macedonian rebels chances of gaining a victory in Kriva Palanka. After two hours of fighting the guardpost was destroyed by a fire, the use of gunpowder by the rebels had proved successfully in the outcome of the battle. Buildings that were destroyed during the battle were : a postal services building, a bank, and the small headquarters that consisted of offices and bedrooms that were used by the Ottoman soldiers and officers.

Some residential properties were also ransacked and robbed during the battle. The local townspeople ran from their homes fearing for their lives. Many of the Ottoman Turkish families become homeless due to the battle. Karposh with his 200 rebel force had captured the town of Kriva Palanka. The main purpose of the Ottoman Empire was expansion, as it's conquests, campaigns suggests and it's most important institution was it's army. The early Ottoman forces had consisted of Turkish cavalry known as sipahis, however there were no sipahis forces stationed within Kriva Palanka at the time. Sipahis were paid by grants of government revenues usually land revenues, also known as timars. The Ottoman Empire later decided to remove the old armies and replace them with a new European-style force. The Ottoman Empire decided to destroy the janissaries and in their place put a paid disciplined conscript force.[10]

Towards the end of the battle, the Ottoman commander who was sitting on his horse atop a grassy hill witnessed that the battle was heading towards a Macedonian victory and ordered for his officers to withdraw, after a great loss on the Ottoman side the commander was forced to dismount from his horse and continue fighting using his sword, he was placed in a difficult position and in the end with his lieutenant started running for his life. Karposh's victory at the Battle of Kriva Palanka signified and instigated a great support from the local people of Kriva Palanka.

After capturing the stronghold, Karposh declared it liberated rebel territory and made it his centre of resistance. Among the items captured at the stronghold were six cannons, a real prize for the rebels. After securing Kriva Palanka the rebels built and secured a new stronghold near Kumanovo.[11]After the battle the people of Kriva Palanka celebrated with joy, Karposh was hailed a hero, the victory was even known to the Austrian Emperor Leopold I who named Karposh as "King of Kumanovo" for his efforts at defeating the Ottoman armies.

As a commander and an uprising leader Karposh was under enormous amounts of stress, an important factor for Karposh was how long could he hold on to Kriva Palanka. He was for certain that the Ottoman Empire, would send further re-inforcements to suppress the uprising and get back the town of Kriva Palanka. With the continuation of the uprising he concentrated on getting his army to the city of Kumanovo. Upon hearing the news that the Kumanovo Fortress was ready, Karposh had ordered his men to head for Kumanovo. Two days later Kriva Palanka was abandoned by Karposh and his forces, in order to avoid any Ottoman patrols Karposh proceeded through a densely forested region, if he followed a gravel road he was more likely to came across Ottoman troops. So he decided that it will be much safer if he travelled through the forests of Kumanovo region.

In order to reach Kumanovo, Karposh and his men had to travel 63 kilometres, that's if he had taken the normal gravel road, however he took a different route and this involved going through a number of forests and the approximate distance from Kriva Palanka to Kumanovo was roughly 85 kilometres. He also did not have a horse-driven carriage and was only riding his horse. He had to stop a number of times because the horses would become extremely exhausted and required water and food. Karposh had left Kriva Palanka leaving behind a few of his revolutionaries to continue the fight if another Ottoman garrison or group was to retake the town. The Battle of Kriva Palanka is also known as the Battle of Egri Palanka. Back in 1689 Egri Palanka was basically a small town with a population of less than 200 inhabitants.

The historical accounts for the Battle of Kriva Palanka, as depicted or described in this wikibook is a work of fiction, however the battle did occur and the overall number of troops involved is a rough estimation. It is most likely that there were less then 80 troops involved as part of the Ottoman forces up at Kriva Palanka. While Karposh's revolutionaries numbered about 180 men. Later after the battle, Karposh went into hiding and was living away somewhere in the north-eastern regions of Macedonia.


Chapter 6 : Victory

Chapter 6[edit | edit source]

The Komiti[edit | edit source]

There is little or no reference that relates to the Macedonian hussars during the late 17th century; however the Macedonians called them "Komiti". The Komiti were Macedonian revolutionaries on horseback, and were part of a number of cheta. On December 24, 1751 an edict was issued by the Russian Senate, permitting the settling of Bulgarians, Macedonians, Serbians and Vlachs within the Russian Empire. Immigration to the Russian Empire was very common during the second half of the 18th century (1750-1800), and most of these immigrants were from the Ottoman Empire. Later the Russian royal edict of January 11, 1752 granted the formation of brigades from the Orthodox Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian and Vlach peoples. These brigades primarily were responsible in assisting the Russian Empire during certain battles against the Ottoman Empire.

On May 10, 1759, the Macedonian polevoy hussar regiment was founded, composed primarily of Macedonians, preceded by similar Serbian, Greek and Bulgarian regiments. The regiment had its own flag and its own coat of arms. There is also a mention of the Macedonian hussars in one of Aleksandar Matkovski's books, who is a Macedonian historian from the city of Krushevo, who has also written a book on Macedonian heraldry. He states that the formation of the Macedonian hussar regiment in Ukraine clearly set the Macedonians apart as a distinct Slavic ethnicity.[12] With the commencement of the Russo-Turkish War (1768-1774), the Russian Empire needed all the help they can get. It is unclear whether the Macedonian hussars assisted the Russian Empire in the battles located at Podolia, Ukraine. However the Macedonian Hussar Regiment assisted the Russian Empire during the Seven Years War. In 1773 the Macedonian Hussar Regiment was terminated.

This was not the only war that involved the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire. Though a series of victories accrued by the Russian Empire led to substantial territorial conquests within the regions of Moldova, Yedisan and the Crimea. Looking back during 1750-1770's the situation among the Macedonian communities was a period that involved migration to other empires located within Europe. The reason for immigration was due to a number of factors : unemployment, forced changes in religion, the feeling of living a life without freedom, oppression, torture, and other factors such as discrimination and capitalism. Not just in the 17th century (1601-1700) but also into the following centuries, the crime rates increased due to high levels of unemployment. Unemployment was not also a growing factor, there was also the rise of homelessness which was mostly related to the effects of the capitalism. Some Slavic Macedonians, did well, acquired certain wealth, and began the gradual formation of a native middle class in places where Turks, Greeks, Jews, Vlachs and in some cases, Armenians had previously dominated crafts, trades and especially commerce and internal and foreign trade. Slavic Macedonians owned trading houses in Salonika, Kastoria (Kostur), Bansko, Seres, Edessa (Voden), and Ohrid with representation in Budapest, Vienna, Bucharest, Venice, Odessa, and Moscow. They would assist in the cultural and national awakening of Macedonian Slavs in the following century.[13] Anyway coming back to the late 17th century, foreign historians very rarely see or consider the Karposh uprising as a form of Macedonian nationalism. More appropriately historians from other countries also do not consider some revolutionaries to be of Macedonian origin, however Karposh is of Macedonian origin, as he was born in the region of North Macedonia. He's date of birth however is still unknown, what is also interesting is that he also shaped the history accounts for the overall battles up at Kumanovo. Regardless of whether or not foreign historians consider the Karposh uprising, as a form of Macedonian nationalism the Macedonian historians and archaeologists most definitely view or see the uprising as a form of nationalism or Macedonian awakening.

There is confusion as to when the battles occurred up at Kumanovo. Currently there are two sources that historians possibly regard as the most accurate. Karposh's rebellion quickly spread, resulting in the liberation of Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Kumanovo, Kačanik and other towns. After the Liberation of Kumanovo many of the townspeople decided to join the rebels in helping to fight against the Ottoman troops. The volunteers that decided to join were young men between the ages of : 18 to 25 years and most of them were inexperienced with weapons. An article explains that a newly constructed fortress was made in Kumanovo. Uprisings and rebellions were not the only things on Karposh's mind he also managed to find a loving wife, it is unclear as to when Karposh married but some time after his return from Wallachia he settled down and had a long relationship with a women very much unknown to any historian writing a biography about his early years in life. Karposh later began planning on a strategic way of overcoming the enemy but he had very little time on his hands and he needed the support of more people. He knew that the Ottoman army would again come back and haunt him. What was concerning to Karposh was the unavailability of ammunition for his rebels. While the second battle was when the Ottoman Empire decided to take back the city of Kumanovo, and this is known as the Second Battle of Kumanovo. The second battle of Kumanovo occurred on the 26th of November, 1689. Before the Ottomans could assemble a number of troops to head for Kumanovo, they firstly were required to take back the town of Kriva Palanka. The Ottoman Council of war organized a meeting and on the 14th of November, 1689 a number of generals and officers met in Ottoman Bulgaria. A decision was made in Sofia, and that the uprising or revolt leaders should be caught and executed. Eventually Kriva Palanka was taken again by the Ottoman armies, the remaining rebels had fled from the town as the town was set on fire. Karposh was preparing for yet another confrontation between him, his revolutionaries and the might of the Ottoman Empire. Little did Karposh know that the Ottoman army would call on re-inforcements from the Crimean Khanate to assist in the conflict up at Kumanovo. The tatars were part of the belligerents and they according to the Ottoman sultan assisted the Ottoman Empire as they were a very important Ottoman vassal.

With Karposh's arrival at the Kumanovo fortress, many of his revolutionaries were ordered to prepare the fortifications with cannons, gunpowder and ammunition. Unfortunately for the rebels, the current situation did not last long and a reversal in military and political events played a decisive role in the fate of the uprising.[14] With less than 150 men, the Macedonian rebels were not as ready as the Ottoman forces, as Karposh was preparing the fortress the Ottoman forces advanced upon the surrounding area. It is unclear as to how many troops the Ottoman army had, but it was most likely an estimated number of more than 2,000 soldiers were heading towards the Macedonian fortress. The Macedonian forces were outnumbered and their hopes at winning this battle was no good.

In order for the Ottoman army to attack they firstly had to use a number of ladders, and if this was unsuccessful then they would use a battering ram. A battering ram is a siege engine that is designed to break open the masonry walls of fortifications or break down wooden walls or gates. In the process the Ottoman army used their heavy cannons at breaking down the fortifications. Eventually the Ottoman army made a large gap and the fortifications were now useless, an Ottoman chronicler known as "Rashid" describes the situation of the battle : " The Macedonian revolutionaries eventually began galloping out of the fortress, with their horses even before the Ottoman army could come so close. Some were also seen running out of the fortress ready to do battle." Karposh was eventually captured by the Crimean tatars who also captured many other revolutionaries that were surrounded. They placed chains around Karposh's arms and he was taken to a prison - like wagon. Unfortunately this was the end of the Karposh's uprising. The chances of a free Macedonia was once again overcome by the large Ottoman army.

In early December 1689, Karposh and the remaining rebels were transported to the city of Uskup (Skopje). Where he was taken to the Vardar river and was tortured to death. Karposh's body was thrown over the stone bridge and into the Vardar river. This was done so that the Macedonian communities would not attempt to further commit any uprisings or revolts. However as the years passed many other revolutionaries continued to trigger other revolts in other areas within Ottoman Macedonia.

Karposh uprising, area of the rebellion.



Bibliography

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

The following books and sources of information were used :


Macedonia Yesterday And Today, MI-AN Publishing, Skopje 1998.

Danubia, A Personal History Of Habsburg Europe, Author : Simon Winder, 2013 p.123.

History And Archaeology Through Laboratory Examinations, Author : Tome Egumenoski & Aleksandar Donski, 2012 p.58.

Makedonska Kultura, Author : Krste Petkov Misirkov, 21.H.1923,2.

Macedonians in the World, Author : Slave Katin, 2018 p.48.

A Little History Of Archaeology, Author : Brian Fagan, Yale University Press, 2018 p.5.

Antiquity Imagined, Author : Robin Derricourt, I.B Tauris 2015 p.192.

www.southampton.ac.uk/archaeology

Walls : A History Of Civilization in blood and brick, Author : David Frye, 2018 p.165.

History of the Macedonian people - Ottoman rule in Macedonia, Author : Risto Stefov, Part 19, pp.1-35.

Makedonskiot polk vo Ukraina, Author : Aleksandar Matkovski, Skopje 1985.

Istorija Na Makedonskiot Narod, Author : Aleksandar Stojanovski, Institut Za Nacionalna Istorija, II 298-340 & I 294-295.

Atlas of Southeast Europe : Geopolitics and History , Author : Hans H.A Hottie, 1521-1699 Volume 1, 2015 p.15.

Otomanskata Arhitektura, Author : Maximillian Hartmuth, p.2072f.

Uskup, Authors : Kumbaraci-Bogoyevic p.56f. Mehmed Sureyya sicill-i Osmani p.275f.



Author

Author[edit | edit source]

This wikibook was written by Tome Egumenoski. He is a writer and author of non-fiction and fiction. The illustrations as displayed in this wikibook were uploaded by Sutton Publishing. The historical accounts for Chapter 5 are a work of fiction, however the Battle of Kriva Palanka did occur.


  1. Danubia, A Personal History of Habsburg Europe, Author
    Simon Winder, 2013 p.123
  2. History And Archaeology Through Laboratory Examinations, Author : Tome Egumenoski & Aleksandar Donski, University of Goce Delchev, Shtip, North Macedonia, 2012 p.58.
  3. K.Misirkov, Makedonska Kultura, 21.H.1923,2.
  4. Macedonians in the World, Author : Slave Katin, 2018 p.48
  5. Atlas of Southeast Europe : Geopolitics and History. Volume 1: 1521-1699, Author : Hans H.A Hotte. p.15 2015
  6. A Little History Of Archaeology, Author : Brian Fagan, Yale University Press, 2018 p.5.
  7. Antiquity Imagined, Author : Robin Derricourt, I.B Tauris, 2015 p.192.
  8. www.southampton.ac.uk/archaeology
  9. Walls : A history of civilization in blood and brick, Author : David Frye, 2018 p.165.
  10. History And Archaeology Through Laboratory Examinations, Tome Egumenoski & Aleksandar Donski, University of Goce Delchev, 2012 p.51
  11. History of the Macedonian people - Ottoman rule in Macedonia, Risto Stefov, Part 19, p.1-35.
  12. Makedonskiot polk vo Ukraina, Aleksandar Matkovski, Skopje 1985
  13. Istorija na Makedonskiot Narod, Author : Aleksandar Stojanovski, 11:298-340, Institut za nacionalna istorija. Istorija na Makedonskiot Narod, I 294-5
  14. History of the Macedonian people - Ottoman rule in Macedonia, Author : Risto Stefov, Part 19 pp.1-35.