Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Urinary System

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Water In The Body[edit]

Maintaining Water Balance[edit]

Desert Animals[edit]


The Kidneys And Urinary System[edit]

The kidneys in mammals are bean-shaped organs that lie in the abdominal cavity attached to the dorsal wall on either side of the spine (see diagram 12.2). An artery from the dorsal aorta called the renal artery supplies blood to them and the renal vein drains them.

Anatomy and physiology of animals Urinary system.jpg

Diagram 12.3 - The urinary system

Diagram 12.4 - The dissected kidney

Kidney Tubules Or Nephrons[edit]

Anatomy and physiology of animals Several kidney tubules or nephrons.jpg

Diagram 12.5 - Several kidney tubules or nephrons

Anatomy and physiology of animals Kidney tubule or nephron.jpg

Diagram 12.6 - A kidney tubule or nephron

Processes Occurring In The Nephron[edit]

The Production Of Concentrated Urine[edit]

Water Balance In Fish And Marine Animals[edit]

Fresh Water Fish[edit]

Marine Fish[edit]

Marine Birds[edit]

Diabetes And The Kidney[edit]

Other Functions Of The Kidney[edit]

Normal Urine[edit]

Normal urine consists of water (95%), urea, salts (mostly sodium chloride) and pigments (mostly from bile) that give it its characteristic colour.

Abnormal Ingredients Of Urine[edit]

Excretion In Birds[edit]


Use this Excretory System Worksheet to help you learn the parts of the urinary system, the kidney and kidney tubule and their functions.

Test Yourself[edit]


  • How Stuff Works. This animation traces the full process of urine formation and reabsorption in the kidneys, its path down the ureter to the bladder, and its excretion via the urethra. Needs Shockwave.