# Algorithm Implementation/Hashing

Hashing algorithms are generically split into three sub-sets:

- Indexing Algorithms
- Checksums and Cyclic Redundancy Checks
- Message Digests

An *indexing algorithm* hash is generally used to quickly find items, using lists called "hash tables".
A *Checksum* or a *Cyclic Redundancy Check* is often used for simple data checking, to detect any accidental bit errors during communication—we discuss them in an earlier chapter, Checksums.
A *Message Digest* is a cryptographically secure one-way function, and many are closely examined for their security in the computer security field.

## Contents

## Indexing Algorithms[edit]

### Jenkins one-at-a-time hash[edit]

The "Jenkins One-at-a-time hash",
from an article by Bob Jenkins
in *Dr. Dobb's* September 1997.

C:

```
uint32 joaat_hash(uchar *key, size_t key_len) {
uint32 hash = 0;
size_t i;
for (i = 0; i < key_len; i++) {
hash += key[i];
hash += (hash << 10);
hash ^= (hash >> 6);
}
hash += (hash << 3);
hash ^= (hash >> 11);
hash += (hash << 15);
return hash;
}
```

Java:

```
int joaat_hash(byte[] key) {
int hash = 0;
for (byte b : key) {
hash += (b & 0xFF);
hash += (hash << 10);
hash ^= (hash >>> 6);
}
hash += (hash << 3);
hash ^= (hash >>> 11);
hash += (hash << 15);
return hash;
}
```

See Data Structures/Hash Tables#Choosing a good hash function for more details on the "Jenkins One-at-a-time hash".

### other hash functions for hash tables[edit]

*(FIXME: say a few words about " universal hash function")*

Other popular hash functions for hash tables include:

Other Jenkins hash functions,^{[1]}
CityHash,^{[2]}
MurmurHash^{[3]}

## Checksums and Cyclic Redundancy Checks[edit]

Algorithm Implementation/Checksums

## Message Digests[edit]

- Message Digest 5 (MD5); RFC 1321
- Secure Hash Standard (SHA/SHA0 & SHA1) (SHA/SHA0, SHA1); FIPS-180 (SHA0) & FIPS-180-1 (SHA1)
- SHA2
- SHA-3

## Further reading[edit]

- see Cryptography/Hash function for more about message digests and other cryptographically secure hash functions.
- see Data Structures/Hash Tables for perhaps the most common application of hashing.
- The Microsoft FCIV (File Checksum Integrity Verifier)
- Running the FCIV Utility from VBA
- String Hashing in VBA
- File Hashing in VBA