Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Track & Field

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Track & Field
General Conference
Skill Level 1
Year of Introduction: 1978

1. Know the basic rules, safety considerations, and warm-up exercises for the six track and field events listed below.[edit | edit source]

50 yard dash[edit | edit source]

Rules[edit | edit source]

The Start

Starting blocks are used for all competition sprint (up to and including 400 m) and relay events (first leg only, up to 4x400 m).[1] The starting blocks consist of two adjustable footplates attached to a rigid frame. Races commence with the firing of the starter's gun. The starting commands are "On your marks" and "Set". Once all athletes are in the set position, the starter's gun is fired, officially starting the race. For the 100 m, all competitors are lined up side-by-side. For the 200 m, 300 m and 400 m, which involve curves, runners are staggered for the start.

In the rare event that there are technical issues with a start, a green card is shown to all the athletes. The green card carries no penalty. If an athlete is unhappy with track conditions after the "on your marks" command is given, he must raise his hand before the "set" command and provide the Start referee with a reason for raising their hand. It is then up to the Start referee to decide if the reason is valid. In the event that the Start referee deems the reason invalid, a yellow card (warning) is issued to that particular athlete. In the event that the athlete is already on a warning the athlete is disqualified.

False starts

"An athlete, after assuming a full and final set position, shall not commence his(/her) starting motion until after receiving the report of the gun, or approved starting apparatus. If, in the judgement of the Starter or Recallers, he does so any earlier, it shall be deemed a false start."


For all Olympic sprint events, runners must remain within their pre-assigned lanes, which measure 1.22 metres (4 feet) wide, from start to finish. The lanes can be numbered 1 through normally 8 or 9 rarely 10, starting with the inside lane. Any athlete who runs outside the assigned lane to gain an advantage is subject to disqualification. If the athlete is forced to run outside of his or her lane by another person, and no material advantage is gained, there will be no disqualification. Also, a runner who strays from his or her lane in the straightaway, or crosses the outer line of his or her lane on the bend, and gains no advantage by it, will not be disqualified as long as no other runner is obstructed.

The finish

The first athlete whose torso reaches the vertical plane of the closest edge of the finish line is the winner. To ensure that the sprinter's torso triggers the timing impulse at the finish line rather than an arm, foot, or other body part, a double Photocell is commonly used. Times are only recorded by an electronic timing system when both of these Photocells are simultaneously blocked. Photo finish systems are also used at some track and field events.

Safety Considerations[edit | edit source]

Wearing the proper clothes as well as footwear. Warm up before running and always stay in your lane.

Warm-up[edit | edit source]

Warming up prepares the sprinter's muscles by increasing the force of their muscle contractions and speeding up muscle contraction rate, giving the sprinter more power and speed. Warming up also helps nervous young athletes stabilize their adrenalin rush before competition, helping them better control their pre-event nervousness. Here's how sprinters should go about warming up for races and training sessions.

Phase One: Start your sprinter's warm up with 10–15 minutes jogging to increase body temperature—slow and easy.

Phase Two: This should follow on immediately after phase two and consists of 10–15 minutes of dynamic stretching exercises to reduce muscle stiffness. Dynamic (ballistic) stretches through a wide range of motion work best because they are closer to the athlete's actual movements in competition; and research shows that static stretching exercises do not simulate rapid running movement and may actually cause a reduction in leg power.

Phase Three: The sprinter progresses to 10–15 minutes of general and event-specific drills. These specific drills put the finishing touches on the warm up and prepare the athlete for sprint training. The drills usually include leg speed exercises, and it is here that pre-race and pre-training warm ups diverge.

The pre-race warm up needs a few (3-6) easy acceleration "stride throughs" over 50 meters (but no longer than this). Follow these accelerations with a few practice starts. This phase should finish 5 minutes before the race start, and all the runner needs to do until then is walk/jog to keep warm. The pre-competition warm-up needs to be controlled so that it does not deplete the sprinter's high-energy phosphates ATP and PC.

600 yard run[edit | edit source]

Rules[edit | edit source]

The rules for the 600 yard run are the same as for the 50 yard dash.

Safety Considerations[edit | edit source]

Warm-up[edit | edit source]

Hurdles[edit | edit source]

Rules[edit | edit source]

Safety Considerations[edit | edit source]

Warm-up[edit | edit source]

Running broad jump[edit | edit source]

Rules[edit | edit source]

You are to start at the board and sprint 12 strides. At the end of your 12 strides, sprint to the board and jump with your right knee up. Land in the sand with your feet parallel.

Safety Considerations[edit | edit source]

You really cannot hurt yourself during this event, but you should not be running if you have any sort of knee, ankle, or hip problems because the impact when you land in the sand can be excessive to some people.

Warm-up[edit | edit source]

Warm ups for the long jump would be drills such as doing short sprints and stretching.

High jump[edit | edit source]

Rules[edit | edit source]

Safety Considerations[edit | edit source]

Warm-up[edit | edit source]

Would include stretching.

Relay race[edit | edit source]

Rules[edit | edit source]

1. pass the baton within the given zone. 2. do not drop the baton. 3. dont impede another competitor.

Safety Considerations[edit | edit source]

Warm-up[edit | edit source]

2. Run the 50-yard (45.7 meters) dash in the time (seconds) for your sex and age as follows[edit | edit source]

Age 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Boys 8.2 8.0 7.8 7.5 7.1 6.9 6.7
Girls 8.5 8.4 8.2 8.1 8.0 8.1 8.3

3. In sprinting, which part of the foot should touch first during the stride? What are the proper arm and head positions?[edit | edit source]

When sprinting, the forefoot should always touch the ground first, and it should do this when the body's center of mass is directly above the foot. The heel should not touch the ground at all. A good way to develop this technique is to run barefoot, as barefoot running makes it painful to land on the heel.

The body should be held erect except during the start, and the chin should be held up. The elbow should be flexed at 90° as the arms swing at the sides, close to the body at all times. The fist should come up the height of the shoulder and then swing down to the hips in a hammering action.[1]

4. Run the 600-yard (548.6 meters) run-walk in the time (minutes/seconds) for your sex and age as follows[edit | edit source]

Age 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Boys 2'33" 2'27" 2'21" 2'10" 2'01" 1'54" 1'51"
Girls 2'48" 2'49" 2'49" 2'52" 2'46" 2'46" 2'49"

5. Answer the following questions about distance running[edit | edit source]

a. Find two Bible stories that mention distance runners?[edit | edit source]

2 Samuel 18:24-27 (NIV)
24While David was sitting between the inner and outer gates, the watchman went up to the roof of the gateway by the wall. As he looked out, he saw a man running alone. 25 The watchman called out to the king and reported it.
The king said, "If he is alone, he must have good news." And the man came closer and closer.

26 Then the watchman saw another man running, and he called down to the gatekeeper, "Look, another man running alone!"

The king said, "He must be bringing good news, too."

27The watchman said, "It seems to me that the first one runs like Ahimaaz son of Zadok."

"He's a good man," the king said. "He comes with good news."

1 Corinthians 9:24-27 (NIV)
24Do you not know that in a race all the runners run, but only one gets the prize? Run in such a way as to get the prize.

25Everyone who competes in the games goes into strict training. They do it to get a crown that will not last; but we do it to get a crown that will last forever. 26Therefore I do not run like a man running aimlessly; I do not fight like a man beating the air. 27No, I beat my body and make it my slave so that after I have preached to others, I myself will not be disqualified for the prize.

b What are the proper clothes, including shoes, for distance running in your area?[edit | edit source]

Light weight, with holes to accept spikes.

c. How long is the average track?[edit | edit source]

Running tracks are typically ovals with a perimeter of 400 meters.

d. How far is a marathon race?[edit | edit source]

A marathon race is 42.195km26 miles, 385 yards long.

e. Which part of the foot should touch first during the stride?[edit | edit source]

The ball of the foot should touch first.

f. What are the proper arm and head positions while distance running?[edit | edit source]

Your arms should not come across your body. They should be at your side with your hands cupped in a parallel form. Your head should face your direction of travel, straight ahead.

g. What is the proper way to breathe?[edit | edit source]

Inhale and exhale in a slow, rhythmic, controlled fashion.

h. How does cross-country running differ from running on a track?[edit | edit source]

Cross country running often involves hills, while tracks do not. Cross country runners often must contend with traffic, but they are rewarded with changing scenery.

6. Run one of the following events at least twice and record the best time[edit | edit source]

a. 50-yard (45.7 meters) dash with four hurdles.[edit | edit source]

b. 70-yard (64.0 meters) dash with six hurdles.[edit | edit source]

7. Do the high jump with good form at least five times and record the highest jump.[edit | edit source]

8. Do a running broad jump three times and record the best length.[edit | edit source]

9. Run the following relays[edit | edit source]

a. Visual pass relay[edit | edit source]

b. Blind pass relay[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]