Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Outreach/Temperance
|Skill Level 2|
|Year of Introduction: 1976|
The Temperance Honor is a component of the Witnessing Master Award .
1. Memorize and sign the Temperance Pledge
- “Realizing the importance of healthy body and mind, I promise, with the help of God, to live a Christian life of true temperance in all good things and total abstinence from the use of tobacco, alcohol, or any other narcotic.”
2. Memorize two of the following Bible texts and two of the following quotations from the writings of Ellen G. White
|Romans 12:1-2 (NIV)|
|Therefore, I urge you, brothers, in view of God's mercy, to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God—this is your spiritual act of worship. Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God's will is—his good, pleasing and perfect will.|
|1 Corinthians 10:31 (NIV)|
|So whether you eat or drink or whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God.|
|1 Corinthians 6:19,20 (NIV)|
|Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God? You are not your own; you were bought at a price. Therefore honor God with your body.|
|Proverbs 20:1 (NIV)|
|Wine is a mocker and beer a brawler; whoever is led astray by them is not wise.|
|Galatians 5:22,23 (NIV)|
|But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control. Against such things there is no law.|
|3 John 2 (NIV)|
|Dear friend, I pray that you may enjoy good health and that all may go well with you, even as your soul is getting along well.|
Writings of Ellen G. White
a. “True temperance teaches us to abstain entirely from that which is injurious, and to use judiciously only healthful and nutritious articles of food.” Temperance, p. 3.
b. “The only safe course is to touch not, taste not, handle not, tea, coffee, wines, tobacco, opium, and alcoholic drinks.” Counsels on Diet and Foods, p. 428.
c. “...temperance alone is the foundation of all the graces that come from God, the foundation of all victories to be gained.” Temperance, p. 201.
d. “A pure and noble life, a life of victory over appetite and lust, is possible to everyone who will unite his weak, wavering, human will to the omnipotent, unwavering will of God.” Temperance, p. 113.
e. “Tobacco is a slow, insidious, but most malignant poison, in whatever form it is used, it tells upon the constitution; it is all the more dangerous because its effects are slow and at first hardly perceptible.” Ministry of Healing, p. 327-328.
3. Do four of the following: Refer to Adventist Youth for Better Living (AYBL) Manual for details.
a. Write and deliver a five-to eight-minute speech (oration).
This speech should be about some aspect of temperance. It can be presented during Sabbath School, a church service (especially Pathfinder Sabbath), during your club's worship time, or at any number of other events.
b. Write an essay on alcohol, tobacco, drugs, or physical fitness of 150 to 200 words and your commitment to a healthy lifestyle.
This is not a very long essay (roughly a half page). A good essay is divided into three main sections:
- Introduction: This section presents an overview of the topic you are going to cover. You may find it helpful to begin by recounting some event in your life that led you to choose your topic. The introduction should make some statement of fact or opinion (this is your thesis), and then briefly introduce several reasons you believe this statement to be true. Each of those reasons will be discussed in the next section.
- Body: This section is often divided into multiple sections. It is usual to present three main points in the body. This is where the main portion of the essay will be covered, and it is where you flesh out your reasoning.
- Conclusion: This section wraps up the essay. It would be a good place to talk about your commitment to a healthy lifestyle.
c. Write a four-line jingle on a Drug Prevention topic.
Jingles are fun! Some people find it helpful to come up with a tune first, and then set it to words. Others prefer to come up with words first and then set them to music.
A good jingle may consist of four phrases, with the second and fourth phrases rhyming. Sometimes the first and third also rhyme, but this is not critical. The number of syllables in each line should be pretty close to equal, as this will give the jingle a pleasant meter.
One approach is to write the first two lines, stating or introducing your main point. Then key in on the last word of the second line, and try to find a good rhyme for it. Some find it helpful to go through the alphabet when looking for a rhyme. For instance, if your second line ends with "drug", replace the beginning of the word with each letter of the alphabet and see if you come up with a word. Make a list of the rhyming words: aug (no), bug (yes!), chug (yes!), dug, (yes!), etc. When searching for a rhyme, concentrate on the sound the word makes rather than the spelling. Also, try coupling that first letter with another (like we did with "chug") such as L, R, or H.
However you arrive at your list of rhyming words, see if any of them strike you as useful for your jingle, and then see if you can come up with a sentence with good meter that ends with that word. If necessary, you can alter the first two sentences to correct the meter. Sometimes you'll come up with something pretty lousy or nothing at all, so you may wish to choose a different rhyming word or rewrite the second line so you can find a better rhyme.
d. Draw/make a poster 22 x 28 inches (55.9 x 63.5 cm) that tells about the harmful effects of a drug, tobacco, or alcohol.
See the Lettering and Poster Making honor for instructions. You may even want to get that honor while you're at it.
e. Make a substance abuse exhibit for a local shopping mall, library, or school.
Before you begin, get permission. Some shopping centers will not allow you to display an exhibit. Public libraries or public schools may balk if the message is religious, so if you intend to exhibit there, you will need to focus on substance abuse rather than its religious significance.
f. Make a scrapbook of at least 20 pages showing various Drug Prevention advertisements.
See the Scrapbooking honor for lots of ideas and instruction. And again, this would be another opportunity to earn another honor.
Share this with your friends, your Sabbath School class members, or other members of your club. If you select option a as well, you can end your speech with an invitation to sign a Temperance Pledge.
4. Know and explain
a. The reason behind the warning on the cigarette packet: “Warning—smoking is a health hazard.”
The Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act is a United States federal law passed in 1970 that required a stronger health warning on cigarette packages.
The warning read: "Warning: The Surgeon General Has Determined that Cigarette Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health."
The act also banned cigarette advertising on radio and television.
Smoking has been linked to lung cancer by medical research institutions throughout the world (through the use of observational studies). Smoking men are 22 times more likely to die from lung cancer than non-smoking men and smoking women are 12 times more likely to die from lung cancer than non-smoking women. Cigarette smoking increases the risk for many types of cancer, including cancers of the lip, oral cavity, and pharynx; oesophagus; pancreas; larynx (voice box); lung; breast; uterine cervix; urinary bladder; and kidney.
b. Seven ingredients of tobacco smoke
Nicotine, the stimulant and active ingredient in cigarettes, is highly addictive.
This is a notoriously poisonous metalloid. Arsenic is rarely found free in nature, but its compounds are widely distributed in minerals. Arsenic and its compounds are used as pesticides, herbicides, insecticides and various alloys.
At concentrations above 0.1 mg/kg in air, inhaled formaldehyde can irritate the eyes and mucous membranes, resulting in watery eyes, headache, a burning sensation in the throat, and difficulty breathing.
Large formaldehyde exposures, for example from drinking formaldehyde solutions, are potentially lethal. Formaldehyde is converted to formic acid in the body, leading to a rise in blood acidity (acidosis), rapid, shallow breathing, blurred vision or complete blindness, hypothermia, and, in the most severe cases, coma or death. People who have ingested formaldehyde require immediate medical attention.
In the body, formaldehyde can cause proteins to irreversibly bind to DNA. Laboratory animals exposed to large doses of inhaled formaldehyde over their lifetimes have developed more cancers of the nose and throat than are usual. Formaldehyde is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and as a known human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
(4) Carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of carbon monoxide gas. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of combustion of organic matter under conditions of restricted oxygen supply, which prevents complete oxidation to carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless, tasteless, and non-irritating, making it difficult for people to detect.
Cyanide is an irreversible enzyme inhibitor. Tissues that mainly depend on aerobic respiration, such as the central nervous system and the heart, are particularly affected.
This is a highly carcinogenic and mutagenic compound which is formed during the incomplete combustion of organic matter. Tobacco manufacturers have experimented with combustionless vaporizer technology to allow cigarettes to be consumed without the formation of carcinogenic benzopyrenes.
During the 1960s, Tobacco companies such as Brown & Williamson and Philip Morris began using ammonia in cigarettes. The addition of ammonia serves to enhance the delivery of nicotine into the blood stream. As a result the reinforcement effect of the nicotine was enhanced, increasing its addictive ability without actually increasing the portion of nicotine.
c. Emphysema, cirrhosis, addiction
- Emphysema is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is often caused by exposure to toxic chemicals or long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.
- Emphysema is caused by loss of elasticity (increased compliance) of the lung tissue, from destruction of structures supporting the alveoli, and destruction of capillaries feeding the alveoli. Thus the small airways collapse during exhalation, although alveolar collapsibility has increased. This impedes airflow and traps air in the lungs, as with other obstructive lung diseases. Symptoms include shortness of breath on exertion and later at rest, hyperventilation, and an expanded chest.
- Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrous scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules (lumps that occur as a result of a process in which damaged tissue is regenerated, leading to progressive loss of liver function. Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcoholism and hepatitis C, but has many other possible causes.
- the term addiction is used to describe a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individual's health, mental state or social life. The term is often reserved for drug addictions but it is sometimes applied to other compulsions, such as problem gambling, and compulsive overeating.
- The medical community now makes a careful theoretical distinction between physical dependence (characterized by symptoms of withdrawal) and psychological dependence (or simply addiction). Addiction is now narrowly defined as "uncontrolled, compulsive use"; if there is no harm being suffered by, or damage done to, the patient or another party, then clinically it may be considered compulsive, but to the definition of some it is not categorized as "addiction". In practice, the two kinds of addiction are not always easy to distinguish. Addictions often have both physical and psychological components.
d. The effects of tobacco, alcohol, drugs and pregnancy
According to the World Health Organization, tobacco smoke is the second biggest cause of death worldwide, just between hunger and malaria, having killed 100 million people in the 20th century, and predicted to kill one billion in the 21st century. All methods of tobacco consumption result in varying quantities of nicotine being absorbed into the user's bloodstream. Over time, tolerance and dependence develop. Absorption quantity, frequency, and speed seem to have a direct relationship with how strong a dependence (or addiction) and tolerance, might be created.
Ethanol is a psychoactive drug, with a depressant effect, and many societies regulate or restrict its sale and consumption. Countries place various legal drinking age restrictions on the sale of alcoholic drinks to young people. Ethanol is only slightly toxic compared to other alcohols (such as methanol, or wood alcohol - the consumption of 100ml is usually fatal), but has significant psychoactive effects. A significant blood alcohol content may be considered legal drunkenness as it reduces attention and slows reaction speed. Alcoholic beverages can be addictive and the state of addiction to ethanol is known as alcoholism.
It is common for a person suffering from alcoholism to drink well after physical health effects start to manifest. The physical health effects associated with alcohol consumption may include cirrhosis of the liver, pancreatitis, epilepsy, polyneuropathy, alcoholic dementia, heart disease, increased chance of cancer, nutritional deficiencies, sexual dysfunction, and death from many sources.
The social problems arising from alcoholism can be significant. Being drunk or hung over during work hours can result in loss of employment, which can lead to financial problems including the loss of living quarters. Drinking at inappropriate times, and behavior caused by reduced judgment, can lead to legal consequences, such as criminal charges for drunk driving or public disorder, or civil penalties for tortious behavior. An alcoholic's behavior and mental impairment while drunk can profoundly impact surrounding family and friends, possibly leading to marital conflict and divorce, or contributing to domestic violence. This can contribute to lasting damage to the emotional development of the alcoholic's children, even after they reach adulthood. The alcoholic could suffer from loss of respect from others who may see the problem as self-inflicted and easily avoided.
Some of the most commonly abused drugs include alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, methaqualone, and opium alkaloids. Use of these drugs may lead to criminal penalty in addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm.
Depending on the actual compound, drug abuse may lead to health problems, social problems, physical dependence, or psychological addiction.
Some drugs that are subject to abuse have central nervous system (CNS) effects, which produce changes in mood, levels of awareness or perceptions and sensations. Most of these drugs also alter systems other than the CNS. But, not all centrally acting drugs are subject to abuse, which suggests that altering consciousness is not sufficient for a drug to have abuse potential. Among drugs that are abused, some appear to be more likely to lead to uncontrolled use than others, suggesting a possible hierarchy of drug-induced effects relative to abuse potential.
Pregnant teenagers face many of the same obstetrics issues as women in their 20s and 30s. However, there are additional medical concerns for younger mothers, particularly those under 15 and those living in developing countries. For mothers between 15 and 19, age in itself is not a risk factor, but additional risks may be associated with socioeconomic factors.
Data supporting teenage pregnancy as a social issue in developed countries include lower educational levels, higher rates of poverty, and other poorer "life outcomes" in children of teenage mothers. Teenage pregnancy in developed countries is usually outside of marriage, and carries a social stigma in many communities and cultures.
Maternal and prenatal health is of particular concern among teens who are pregnant or parenting. The worldwide incidence of premature birth and low birth weight is higher among adolescent mothers. Research indicates that pregnant teens are less likely to receive prenatal care, often seeking it in the third trimester, if at all. One-third of pregnant teens receive insufficient prenatal care and that their children are more likely to suffer from health issues in childhood or be hospitalized than those born to older women. However, studies have indicated that young mothers who are given high-quality maternity care have significantly healthier babies than those that do not. Many of the health-issues associated with teenage mothers, many of whom do not have health insurance, appear to result from lack of access to high-quality medical care. Many pregnant teens are subject to nutritional deficiencies from poor eating habits common in adolescence, including attempts to lose weight through dieting, skipping meals, food faddism, snacking, and consumption of fast food.
- Impact on the Mother
Being a young mother in an industrialized country can affect one's education. Teen mothers are more likely to drop out of high school. Recent studies though have found that these mothers had already dropped out of school prior to becoming pregnant and those in school at the time of their pregnancy were as likely to graduate as their peers. One study in 2001 found that women who gave birth during their teens completed secondary-level schooling 10-12% as often and pursued post-secondary education 14-29% as often as women who waited until age 30.
Young motherhood in an industrialized country can affect employment and social class. Less than one third of teenage mothers receive any form of child support, vastly increasing the likelihood of turning to the government for assistance. The correlation between earlier childbearing and failure to complete high school reduces career opportunities for many young women. One study found that, in 1988, 60% of teenage mothers were impoverished at the time of giving birth. Additional research found that nearly 50% of all adolescent mothers sought social assistance within the first five years of their child's life. A study of 100 teenaged mothers in the United Kingdom found that only 11% received a salary while the remaining 89% were unemployed. Most British teenage mothers live in poverty, with nearly half in the bottom fifth of the income distribution.
One-fourth of adolescent mothers will have a second child within 24 months of the first. Factors that determine which are more likely to have a closely-spaced repeat birth include marriage and education: the likelihood decreases with the level of education of the young woman – or her parents – and increases if she gets married.
- Impact on the Child
Early motherhood can affect the psychosocial development of the infant. The occurrence of developmental disabilities and behavioral issues is increased in children born to teen mothers. One study suggested that adolescent mothers are less likely to stimulate their infant through affectionate behaviors such as touch, smiling, and verbal communication, or to be sensitive and accepting toward his or her needs. Another found that those who had more social support were less likely to show anger toward their children or to rely upon punishment.
Poor academic performance in the children of teenage mothers has also been noted, with many of them being more likely than average to fail to graduate from secondary school, be held back a grade level, or score lower on standardized tests. Daughters born to adolescent parents are more likely to become teen mothers themselves. A son born to a young woman in her teens is three times more likely to serve time in prison.
- Impact on other family members
Teen pregnancy and motherhood can have an influence upon younger siblings. One study found that the little sisters of teen mothers were less likely to place emphasis on the importance of education and employment and more likely to accept sexual initiation, parenthood, and marriage at younger ages; little brothers, too, were found to be more tolerant of non-marital and early births, in addition to being more susceptible to high-risk behaviors. An additional study discovered that those with an older sibling who is a teen parent often end up babysitting their nieces and nephews and that young girls placed in such a situation have an increased risk of getting pregnant themselves.
5. Read the chapter “Stimulants and Narcotics” in Ministry of Healing. Be able to discuss briefly or provide a written summary approximately two or three paragraphs in length.
If you do not have a copy of "Ministry of Healing", you can get one through AdventSource. You can also read this chapter (as well as many of Ellen White's other writings) online at http://www.whiteestate.org/books/mh/mh26.html.
6. After studying the following materials, list three things that contribute to temperance and good health. (Other than abstaining from that which is harmful.)
The texts below discuss temperance in labor, diet, study, and fashion.
a. Temperance page 139 paragraph 1
We should practice temperance in our labor. It is not our duty to place ourselves where we shall be overworked. Some may at times be placed where this is necessary, but it should be the exception, not the rule. We are to practice temperance in all things. If we honor the Lord by acting our part, He will on His part preserve our health. We should have a sensible control of all our organs. By practicing temperance in eating, in drinking, in dressing, in labor, and in all things, we can do for ourselves what no physician can do for us.
b. Counsels on Diet and Foods, page 406 paragraph 1
We are health reformers, seeking to come back, as far as possible, to the Lord's original plan of temperance. Temperance does not consist merely in abstaining from intoxicating liquors and tobacco; it extends farther than this. It must regulate what we eat.
c. Temperance page 140 paragraph 2
Intemperance in study is a species of intoxication, and those who indulge in it, like the drunkard, wander from safe paths, and stumble and fall in the darkness. The Lord would have every student bear in mind that the eye must be kept single to the glory of God. He is not to exhaust and waste his physical and mental powers in seeking to acquire all possible knowledge of the sciences, but is to preserve the freshness and vigor of all his powers to engage in the work which the Lord has appointed him in helping souls to find the path of righteousness.
d. Temperance page 142 paragraph 3
The drunkard sells himself for a cup of poison. Satan takes control of his reason, his affections, his conscience. Such a man is destroying the temple of God. Tea drinking helps to do this work. Yet how many there are who place destroying agencies on their tables.
e. Counsels on Health, page 127 paragraph 4
Those who have received instruction regarding the evils of the use of flesh foods, tea and coffee, and rich and unhealthful food preparations, and who are determined to make a covenant with God by sacrifice, will not continue to indulge their appetite for food that they know to be unhealthful. God demands that the appetites be cleansed, and that self-denial be practiced in regard to those things which are not good. This is a work that will have to be done before His people can stand before Him a perfected people.
f. Temperance page 147 paragraph 3
Through his devices, Satan, in many respects, has made the domestic life one of care and complicated burdens, in order to meet the demands of fashion. His purpose in doing this is to keep minds occupied so fully with the things of this life that they can give but little attention to their highest interest. Intemperance in eating and in dressing has so engrossed the minds of the Christian world that they do not take time to become intelligent in regard to the laws of their being, that they may obey them. To profess the name of Christ is of but little account if the life does not correspond with the will of God, revealed in His word. . . .
7 Discuss the following situations and role-play what you would do if: a. Your best friend asks you to try a cigarette. b. A classmate offers you money to sell marijuana. c. An older relative offers you a drink of beer. d. The smoke from a stranger’s cigarette is bothering you. e. A friend asks you to smoke marijuana. f. You are at a party with a friend, he gets drunk and insists on driving you home.
This activity can be done during Sabbath School, during a club meeting, or anytime you and a few friends have some free time together. It's best to do this with a small group (3-8 people) so that everyone gets a chance to participate and no one is overwhelmed with making a "public performance." Small groups are also more conducive to drawing participation from shy people as it is a less threatening situation.
Try to make each scenario as realistic as possible. A completely unbelievable depiction of the situation or one that seems purely hypothetical is far less likely be recalled when the Pathfinder actually finds himself in a similar situation.
- The "classmate" who asks you to sell you marijuana may be one of the Pathfinder's close friends rather than some strange kid he's never spoken to before. Attach the name of a person he knows and likes to that classmate. Also, you might introduce other complicating factors such as the Pathfinder's special need for some extra money. When the Pathfinder refuses, try to convince him that it'll only be this one time. When that fails, add the threat of a hypothetical blackmail - I'd hate to see that picture of you playing in your kid sister's wading pool show up on Facebook tomorrow".
- Ask who the best friend is before letting the Pathfinder know the scenario of "your best friend asks you to try a cigarette." You may also wish to add that the person upon whom the Pathfinder has had a crush since the second grade is there watching and urging the Pathfinder to smoke.
- Make the party situation a little more desperate before revealing that the friend is drunk. For instance, "this friend is the only person there you know who can drive." Or perhaps "it's past your curfew and your Dad is going to kill you when you call him after he's gone to bed. He has to get up at 4:30 am tomorrow!" It is almost always the complicating factors that lead to poor judgment in situations like this.