Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Outreach/Christian Citizenship (Australia)

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Christian Citizenship (Australia)
Outreach
General Conference
Skill Level 1 Answer-Keys 06.jpg
Year of Introduction: 1938
Contents

Contents

1. Describe the national, state or provincial, AY, Pathfinder, and Christian flags.[edit]

National Flag: The flag of Australia is a defaced Blue Ensign: a blue field with the Union Jack in the canton(upper hoist quarter), and a large white seven-pointed star known as the Commonwealth Star in the lower hoist quarter. The fly contains a representation of the southern cross constellation, made up of five white stars – one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars.
Pathfinder Flag: The Pathfinder flag is made from one of several materials, cotton bunting, rayon, or nylon. The flag is divided through the center both vertically and horizontally making four equal parts. The background colors are royal blue and white alternately sewed together with the upper left hand comer being royal blue. The Pathfinder emblem is centered in the heart of the background. The colors are descriptive of the purposes and ideals of Pathfindering. White means purity, blue means loyalty, red reminds us of the shed blood of Christ (sacrifice), and gold means excellence. The symbols also have meanings. The shield is the protection of God, the sword is his word, the Bible, and the triangle represents completeness. Completeness of the Godhead (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit), and completeness of the three parts of education (Mental, Physical, and Spiritual).
AY Flag: The background is red and white, red symbolizing the blood of Christ and white representing purity. In the center, there is a logo that has AY which means Adventist Youth and it has three angels meaning the 3 angels message.
Christian Flag: The "Christian Flag" is a white flag with a blue canton and a red cross in it. It was designed by Charles Overton in 1897 to represent Protestants of all denominations. The cross symbolizes the crucifixion of Christ.

Current state/provincial flags[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of the Australian Capital Territory.svg
1993–present Flag of the Australian Capital Territory One third blue with the Southern Cross, the other two thirds are yellow with the Coat of Arms of Canberra.
Flag of New South Wales.svg
1876–present Flag of New South Wales A St George Cross with four gold stars and a lion in the fly of a British blue ensign.
Flag of the Northern Territory.svg
1978–present Flag of the Northern Territory One third black with the Southern Cross, the other two thirds are brown with Sturt's Desert Rose, the floral emblem of the Territory.
Flag of Queensland.svg
1876–present Flag of Queensland A light blue Maltese Cross with a crown on a white background in the fly of a British blue ensign.
Flag of South Australia.svg
1904–present Flag of South Australia A Piping Shrike on a gold background in the fly of a British blue ensign.
Flag of Tasmania.svg
1875–present Flag of Tasmania A red lion on a white background in the fly of a British blue ensign.
Flag of Victoria (Australia).svg
1877–present Flag of Victoria The Southern Cross surmounted by a crown in the fly of a British blue ensign.
Flag of Western Australia.svg
1953–present Flag of Western Australia A black swan on a gold background in the fly of a British blue ensign.

2. Know how to display the national flag with two other flags under the following situations:
a. Camp out/camporee
b. Fair
c. Pathfinder Day program
d. Parade
[edit]

a. Camp out/camporee.[edit]

If your camp has three flag poles to fly flags from, the National flag should be at the centre. When facing the flags, the second-ranking flag should be on the left, and the third on the right.

A common way to fly the flags at camporee is with the Australian flag in the centre, the State flag to the left, and the Pathfinder flag on the right. (Left and right from the point of view when facing the flag display)

When there are only two flag poles, the position of honour is furthest to the left, and the National flag should be flown there. This also applies if there are four or more flags flown.

The order of precedence for flags is:
1. The National Flag of Australia
2. The flags of other sovereign nations in alphabetical order
3. state and territory flags
4. The flags of municipalities/cities
5. Banners of organizations (Pathfinder flag etc)

b. c. Fair / Pathfinder day program[edit]

When in an auditorium or place of worship, the flag should be placed to the left of the audience (right of the speaker) if placed on the stage or platform. If placed on the floor in front of the platform (called "in the body"), it should be to the right of the audience.
It can also be displayed against the wall behind the speaker. When hanging the flag against a wall, the Union Jack should be in the top left corner.

d. When carried in a procession, (On Parade), The following guidelines should be followed.[edit]

Single File - the National Flag of Australia should always lead.
In a rank - it is best to have the Australian flag on each end of the rank. If only one flag is available, it should be placed in the centre of a rank (if the rank has an odd number of people), or on the right hand end (if the rank has an even number of people).

For more information Australian Government Flag Manual

3. Demonstrate how to fold and salute your national flag. Mention when and how it should be displayed.[edit]

Folding[edit]

1. Have two people stand on either end of the flag, holding a corner in each hand.
2. Fold the flag in half twice, length-wise.
3. Beginning at the striped end, fold one corner into the opposite side of the flag, forming a triangle.
4. Repeat this triangular folding until only a small strip of the star field shows.
5. Tuck this strip into the triangle.
Be sure to keep the flag from touching the ground while folding.
Please note it is folded differently when preparing to raise un-broken on a pole
Fold in half length ways, then half, then half.
Fold in half width ways, then concertina and wrap rope around caught in a loop ready to pull with the lower mast rope.

Flag Protocol[edit]

Flag protocol defines the proper placement, handling and use of flags. Some countries have added certain protocols into their law system while others prefer to have "guidelines" without civil or criminal consequences attached.

General Guidelines
General guidelines are accepted practically universally. Much of the flag protocol is derived from common sense. That is, using it as a table cover or wrapping paper are inappropriate uses. It should be treated with respect. Many countries consider signing a flag disrespectful, adding a border would be more appropriate. Pinning or sewing items to a flag would also be ill advised.

On a Mast or Pole
The flag of honor, that is the nation's flag in most cases, is flown on the center mast if possible. It is also correct to fly the flag on its own right. To an observer it would be on the far left. If more than three flags are used, the proper position is as far left from the point of view of an observer. An additional flag may be placed on the right side, but is not necessary. When two poles are crossed, the position of honor is the flag that ends on the left side from the point of view of an observer (the pole will therefore end on the right). In a semicircle, the position of honor is the center. If a full circle is used outside an entrance to an arena or stadium, the position of honor is directly opposite the entrance. If used to line the walls of the arena, the flag should be placed directly opposite the entrance. At times of National Mourning the flag is lowered to half mast. National flag is also lowered to half mast when at a funeral where the Returned Services Legue (RSL) is involved. The country leader does not have to authorize a half mast flag. The rules are reasonably relaxed. When this happens other flags should not be displayed above the national Flag A flag hung upside down signifies distress.

Hanging
When flown horizontally, as from a flag pole, the flag should be oriented so that the canton is closest to the top of the pole. If hung against a wall, the canton should be placed in the upper-left corner from the point of view of the observer. When hung vertically, flags should be rotated so the canton is again closest to the top of the pole. If the flag is displayed against a wall, the canton should again appear in the upper-left corner, which incidentally requires that the flag be both rotated and 'flipped' from its horizontal orientation.

Other places
On a vehicle the flag should be affixed securely to the front right of the chassis. When placed with a podium or at a place of worship the flag should be hang directly behind or on a pole to the right of the speaker, from the point of view of the speaker. When carried in single file the flag of honor leads. Multiple flags When flags of many nations are flown the flag of the hosting country should be placed on the left with the rest following in alphabetical order using the language of the host country.

Saluting the Australian Flag
A salute should be carried out by those in dress uniform when the Australian flag is being raised or lowered as well as when it is passing.

4. Explain the meaning of and reason for the National Anthem, and recite the words from memory.[edit]

"Advance Australia Fair" is the national anthem of Australia. Created by the Scottish born composer Peter Dodds McCormick, the song was first performed in 1878 and sung in Australia as a patriotic song. It replaced "God Save the Queen" as the official national anthem in 1984, following a plebiscite to choose the national song in 1977.

Lyrics[edit]

The lyrics of "Advance Australia Fair" were officially adopted in 1984 as follows:[1]

Australians all let us rejoice,
For we are young and free;
We've golden soil and wealth for toil;
Our home is girt by sea;
Our land abounds in nature's gifts
Of beauty rich and rare;
In history's page, let every stage
Advance Australia Fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing,
Advance Australia Fair.

Beneath our radiant Southern Cross
We'll toil with hearts and hands;
To make this Commonwealth of ours
Renowned of all the lands;
For those who've come across the seas
We've boundless plains to share;
With courage let us all combine
To Advance Australia Fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing,
Advance Australia Fair.

5. Give the rights and responsibilities of a citizen of your country.[edit]

Rights[edit]

Australia does not have a bill or charter of rights. Rights afforded to Australian citizens are instead written up within the many pieces of legislation that make up Australian law. Some of these are as follows:

Universal voting rights and rights to freedom of association, freedom of religion and freedom from discrimination are protected in Australia. The Australian colonies were among the first political entities in the world to grant male (1850s) and female suffrage (1890s). Contemporary Australia is a liberal democracy and heir to a large post-World War II multicultural program of immigration in which forms of racial discrimination have been prohibited.

As a founding member of the United Nations, Australia assisted in the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and it is signatory to various other international treaties on the subject of human rights. Australia is the only democratic country in the world without a national bill of rights of some kind.[2] Racism in Australia traces both historical and contemporary racist community attitudes, as well as political non-compliance and alleged governmental negligence on United Nations human rights standard [3] and incidents in Australia.

Human rights are protected under the Australian Constitution in several ways:

  • Self-determination is protected by the creation of a system of responsible government chosen by the people in the form of the Australian Parliament;
  • Section 41 of the Constitution of Australia provides a right to vote;
  • Section 51(xxiii) prohibits civil conscription in relation to medical and dental services;
  • Section 51(xxxi) empowers the Commonwealth to acquire property only "on just terms";
  • Section 80 provides a right to a jury trial for indictable offences;
  • Section 92 protects freedom of interstate trade, commerce and intercourse;
  • Section 116 prohibits the Commonwealth from passing laws establishing religion, imposing religious observance, or requiring a religious test for qualification for public office;
  • Section 117 prohibits discrimination on the basis of State residence.

In addition, as a result of certain structural implications and principles, the Constitution protects human rights indirectly through several means, including:

  • An implied freedom of political communication on government and political matters;[4]
  • A requirement that punishment (and, with some exceptions, imprisonment) only occur pursuant a court order, arising from the separation of powers;[5]
  • A requirement that courts be independent and impartial from the executive and legislature;[6]
  • The right to challenge the legality of government action for jurisdictional error, even where legislation purports to preclude judicial review.[7]

Responsibilities[edit]

As an Australian citizen, you have responsibilities to:
Behave in accordance with Australia's democratic beliefs.
Respect the rights and liberties of Australia.
Follow and obey the law.
Vote in federal and state or territory elections, and in referenda.
Defend Australia if necessary.
Serve on jury duty if summoned.

6. Have an interview with a local, regional, or national official of your country, and learn about his duties.[edit]

It is generally easier to get a local official to agree to an interview, though it is often more exciting to interview a more prominent person. The interview can be accomplished during a club meeting, and multiple Pathfinders can ask questions. Invite your guest well ahead of time, and make sure everyone in the club is on time. A visit by an official would be a very good reason to have everyone in the club wear their class A uniforms. If desired, you can make up several questions ahead of time, writing them on index cards, and distributing them to the members of your club. But do not be so rigid as to not allow them to ask spontaneous questions. Having questions prepared ahead of time on index cards are a good way to get things rolling. Here are some suggested questions:

  • Could you describe a typical day at work?
  • What is the most difficult part of your job?
  • What is the most satisfying aspect of your job?
  • To whom do you report?
  • How did you get your position? Were you elected, appointed, or hired?
  • How should a young person prepare for a life of public service?

7. Write a one-page essay or give a two-minute oral report about a famous person in your country. Mention what he has done to gain his recognition.[edit]

This would be an excellent opportunity to present a worship during the opening exercises of a regular club meeting. Encourage your Pathfinder to choose a person they are personally interested in. If they cannot think of anyone themselves, have a list of suggested persons at hand and encourage them to choose from the list. Famous people might be historical figures, politicians, actors, sports stars, or anyone else. It would be preferable to choose a person who has been a positive influence on the country.

Although the requirement asks that you "mention what he has done to gain his recognition," this should not be interpreted as excluding women. Men are not the only famous people in a country.

Note that just because the requirement suggests that the famous person should be male (his recognition), the Pathfinder should in no way feel constrained to limit the selection to just men.

8. Do one of the following:[edit]

a. Make a list of ten famous quotations from leaders of your country.[edit]

"A truly multicultural country can never be strong or united." Pauline Hanson

"Please explain". Pauline Hanson

"If you can't imagine it, you sure as hell are never going to see it." Paul Keating

"The only reward in a public life is public progress. You stand back and say, 'What did I get out of it?' You look around, and the place is better, and that's it." Paul Keating

"It was we who did the dispossessing. We took the traditional lands and smashed the traditional way of life. We brought the diseases. The alcohol. We committed the murders. We took the children from their mothers. We practised discrimination and exclusion. It was our ignorance and our prejudice. And our failure to imagine these things being done to us." Paul Keating 1992 The Redfern Speech, launching International Year of Indigenous Peoples


"Ladies and gentlemen, well may we say 'God Save the Queen', because nothing will save the Governor-General. The proclamation you have just heard was countersigned Malcolm Fraser, who will go down in history as Kerr's cur." Gough Whitlam speaking after being dismissed by Governor-General Sir John Kerr on November 11, 1975 on the steps of Parliament.

"Vincent Lingiari, I solemnly hand to you these deeds as proof, in Australian law, that these lands belong to the Gurindji people and I put into your hands this piece of the earth itself as a sign that we restore them to you and your children forever." Gough Whitlam formally handed the Gurindji people at Wattie Creek in the Northern Territory title deeds to part of their traditional lands on August 16, 1975.

"There's been a lot of analysis about the so-called gender wars . . . me playing the so-called gender card because heavens knows no-one noticed I was a woman until I raised it, but against that background, I do want to say about all of these issues, the reaction to being the first female Prime Minister does not explain everything about my Prime Ministership, nor does it explain nothing about my Prime Ministership. I've been a little bit bemused by those colleagues in the newspaper who have admitted that I have suffered more pressure as a result of my gender than other Prime Ministers in the past but then concluded that it had zero effect on my political position or the political position of the Labor Party. It doesn't explain everything . . . it explains some things. And it is for the nation to think in a sophisticated way about those shades of grey. What I am absolutely confident of is it will be easier for the next woman and the woman after that and the woman after that - and I'm proud of that." Julia Gillard in her resignation speech.

"I'm going to throw that rule book out and really get out there. Some days it'll go well, some days it'll go badly." Julia Gillard, announcing the arrival of the 'real' Julia Gillard in the election campaign, August 2, 2010

"My challenge now is to ensure that I'm not the best Opposition Leader never to have become prime minister." Tony Abbott, on his future after Labor clung to power to form minority government, September 7, 2010

"I'm determined to price carbon. History teaches us that the countries and the economies who prosper at times of historic change are those who get in and shape and manage the changes. The time is right and the time is now."Julia Gillard announces her Government's plan for a carbon tax, February 24, 2011

"There is a nation for a continent and a continent for a nation" Edmund Barton

"I do not recognise you as an honourable and gallant foe, but you will be treated with due but severe courtesy." Field Marshall General Sir Thomas Blamey accepting the surrender of the Japanese forces at Kokoda.

"We have a great objective - the light on the hill - which we aim to reach by working for the betterment of mankind ... If it were not for that, the labour movement would not be worth fighting for." Ben Chifley

"Without any inhibitions of any kind, I make it quite clear that Australia looks to America, free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the United Kingdom." John Curtin

"I'm all the way with L.B.J" Harold Holt upon a visit to the White House. This statement was not well received at home due to the growing opposition to the Vietnam war.

b. Make a list of ten famous historic places in your country.[edit]

Eureka Stockade: While wool sustained the Australian colonies in its early years, gold brought proper riches. And the Eureka Stockade in the Ballarat goldfields marked a coming of age – the armed uprising in 1854 that left 22 miners dead was a turning point in labour rights and the spark for universal male suffrage.

Port Arthur: Established in 1830, the World Heritage Listed town of Port Arthur in Tasmania is one of Australia’s most important convict sites. Between 1833 and 1877, the revolutionary penal colony, which operated under the idea that prisoners could be reformed, was home to re-offenders and juvenile offenders. The town today features 30 historic buildings, including the Penitentiary, Convict Church and Guard Tower. In 1996, Port Arthur was the scene of a tragic massacre, prompting strict gun control laws. Today, the former convict settlement is Tasmania’s most popular tourist attraction.

Port Jackson: Port Jackson is the place in which the first British colony of Australia was founded after initial attempts at Botany Bay proved unsuccessful.

Botany Bay: Botany Bay was named by Captain Cook for the " "the great quantity of plants Mr Banks and Dr Solander found in this place" in 1770. Eight years later, it would become the first place that Governor Arthur Phillip would attempt to start a colony and was the place of first meeting between the colonists and the local Eora people. Attempts to start a colony here were abandoned due to lack of sufficient fresh water and unsuitable ground.

Cooks Landing Site: In 1770, Lt (he wasn't a captain at the time) Cook's Endeavour was the first European ship to sight Australia's East Coast. Given that he then charted said east coast and paved the way for colonisation 18 years later, the memorial at the initial landing spot is surprisingly hard to find. It can be found near Silver Beach in Kurnell, as part of the Botany Bay National Park. A few interpretative signs go into the initial European and Aboriginal interactions, but there's surprisingly little there.

Wiebbe Hays Fort: The oldest known European building in Australia, however, can be found on West Wallabi Island West of Geraldton WA. It was built as a result of the notorious Batavia shipwreck in 1629. While mass murder was taking place on the other islands, marooned soldiers led by Wiebbe Hayes built the fort for their own protection from mutineers.

Glenrowan Inn: On Sunday, 27th of June 1880, the notorious Kelly Gang descended on Glenrowan, 236 kilometres north-east of Melbourne. The four outlaws held 60 townsfolk hostage at Anne Jones’s Glenrowan Inn, where they had their last stand. Police set fire to the inn in an attempt to drive out the gang. Ned Kelly surrendered nearby two days later.

Elizabeth Farm: Elizabeth Farm is the historic estate of John and Elizabeth Macathur. Built in 1793 the homestead is one of the oldest in Australia and the farm was crucial to the success of Australia's early wool industry.

Fort Denison: One of 14 islands in Sydney harbour, Fort Denison was an early prison for the colony of Sydney. It is famous because after the installation of gallows in the late 18th century, it became notorious for the convicts who were left hanging there as a warning to potential law breakers.

Bennelong Point: Bennelong Point in Sydney is an area with a rich history stretching back the earliest days of colonial Australia and is now the site of the iconic Sydney Opera House.

Though the area had several uses during early colonial times, it is best known as the site of the hut of Bennelong, an aboriginal man captured by the British and used as an early liaison between the settlers and the local population.

Today the site has become famous for being the home of the Sydney Opera House and the construction of this well-known building has left little trace of the earlier incarnations of Bennelong Point.

c. Make a list of ten famous historic events in your country.[edit]

26 January 1788: The First Fleet arrives at Botany Bay.

18 April 1831: First Sydney Morning Herald Newspaper

1801-1803: Matthew Flinders undertakes the circumnavigation of Australia.

21 January 1808- 1 January 1810: The Great Rum Rebellion (the only successful armed takeover of government in Australian history)

11 May 1813- 06 June 1813: Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth are the first British settlers to cross the Blue Mountains.

03 December 1854: Eureka Stockade

20 August 1860- 9 February 1861: Journey of Bourk and Wills from Melbourne to the Flinders River. Both Burke and Wills died in the course of the expedition around June 1861 on the return journey.

11 November 1880: The bushranger Ned Kelly is hung at the Old Melbourne Gaol.

24 October 1889: Sir Henry Parkes Tenterfield Oration.

1 January 1901: Australia becomes a federation and Edmund Barton becomes the first Prime Minister of Australia.

20 March 1913: The National Capital moves to Canberra.

25 April 1915: The Australian and New Zealand Army Corp lands at ANZAC Cove Gallipoli, marking the first offensive action of Australia as a nation.

12 March 1921: Edith Cowan is the first woman elected to the Australian Federal Parliament.

19 January 1932: Sydney Harbour Bridge is completed.

16 September 1956: First Australian television broadcast.

20 October 1973: Sydney Opera House opens.

16 August 1975: Prime Minister Gough Whitlam performed the symbolic gesture of pouring sand into the hands of Vincent Lingiari, handing back the ownership of wave hill station to indigenous peoples and paving the way for the introduction of the first native title act (Northern Territory).

03 June 1992: Mabo case is decided, 03 allowing the legal recognition of native title Australia wide.

13 February 2008: Sorry day. Prime Minister Kevin Rudd apologises on behalf of Australia for the stolen generation.

9. Describe what you can do as a citizen to help your church and country.[edit]

The best way to help either your church or your country is by getting involved. Edmund Burke, an English philosopher summed this up when he said "The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing."

In your church, this means that you will show up for services on a regular basis. It also means you will support it with your tithes and offering, show up for business meetings, and not wait to be asked before you volunteer your services. If you see something that needs done, do it. If you do not have the skill to do it, or you think that you need permission first, talk to your pastor, an elder, deacon, or deaconess. Find your ministry!

For your country, it is much the same. Show up for public meetings, stay informed about the issues of the day, vote if you are eligible, and pay your taxes fairly and promptly.

10. Go through the steps of an individual acquiring citizenship in the country and learn how this is done.[edit]

See this resource: https://immi.homeaffairs.gov.au/citizenship-subsite/files/our-common-bond.pdf

11. Know how to explain the process of government in your country.[edit]

The Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901 as a result of an agreement among six self-governing British colonies, which became the six states. The terms of this contract are embodied in the Australian Constitution, which was drawn up at a Constitutional Convention and ratified by the people of the colonies at referendums. The Australian head of state is the Queen of Australia who is represented by the Governor-General of Australia,with executive powers delegated by constitutional convention to the Australian head of government, the Prime Minister of Australia.

The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia is divided into three branches: the executive branch, composed of the Federal Executive Council, presided by the Governor-General, which delegates powers to the Cabinet of Australia, led by the Prime Minister; the legislative branch, composed of the Parliament of Australia's House of Representatives and Senate; and the judicial branch, composed of the High Court of Australia and the federal courts. Separation of powers is implied by the structure of the Constitution, the three branches of government being set out in separate chapters (chapters I to III). The Australian system of government combines elements of the Westminster and Washington systems with unique Australian characteristics.

12. Explain the meaning of this statement Jesus made in Matthew 22:21: "Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's.[edit]

This verse teaches that governmental authority is to be respected, as long as it does not conflict with the moral obligations of being a Christian. Government serves a holy purpose; preserving social order, promoting the well-being of its citizens, and protecting their safety. If you believe that this does not apply today because you see the government as corrupt, you are urged to research the Roman government of the first century A.D. when these words were spoken by Jesus. Was Herod corrupt? Was Pilate just?

13. Explain why laws are established in your country.[edit]

If there were no laws, then people could do anything they wished, a situation called anarchy. A state of anarchy becomes problematic when society is unable to function because everyone operates according to their own desires. Imagine a world without law; you would be open to all manner of abuse.

There are many reasons why we need law: to regulate society; to protect people; to enforce rights and to solve conflicts. Laws prevent or deter people from behaving in a manner that negatively affects the quality of life of other people, therefore the consequences of breaking the law often fit the crime. In some cases, such as action resulting in minor injury, compensation (the payment of money to rectify a situation) may suffice. Other cases result in long or short-term imprisonment where the length of the term reflects the severity of the crime to deter other potential criminals from committing the same crime.

In addition to penalties for unlawful behaviour, laws also govern what happens after the initial action, the process of justice.

References[edit]

  1. "The Australian National Anthem". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20071023080802/http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/nat_anthem.html. Retrieved 1 November 2007. 
  2. Williams, G. The Victorian Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities: Origins and Scope. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/MelbULawRw/2006/27.html.  (2006) 30(3) Melbourne University Law Review 880 .
  3. "OHCHR - Australia Homepage". https://www.ohchr.org/EN/countries/AsiaRegion/Pages/AUIndex.aspx. 
  4. http://www6.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/cth/HCA/1997/25.html
  5. http://www6.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/cth/HCA/1992/64.html
  6. http://www6.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/cth/HCA/2010/39.html
  7. http://www6.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/viewdoc/au/cases/cth/HCA/2010/39.html