Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Nature/Sand
|Skill Level 1|
|Year of Introduction: 1956|
The Sand Honor is a component of the Conservation Master Award .
1. Make a collection of 30 various colored sands. Correctly label with the name and locality where each was secured.
Sand can be found almost anywhere. Lakes, rivers, beaches, ponds, and even backyards are all places where you can find sand. When you have collected sand from a location, check there again - most places have more than one color of sand.
While collecting, you will need plastic baggies (in which to store the sand), and a permanent marker (to label the baggies). Label each bag with your name, the date, and the location where the sand was found. Be as specific as possible (perhaps recording latitude and longitude if you have a GPS receiver).
Be sure to collect enough sand to share with others. If you are working on this honor with your club, 30 colors should not be very difficult to achieve if everyone collects enough sand for everyone else. You can also trade sand with other Arenophiles (sand collectors) whom you can contact via the Internet:
Get started, explorer!
2. What does the term "sand" mean? Name two kinds of sand.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. As the term is used by geologists, sand particles range in diameter from 0.0625 (or 1⁄16 mm) to 2 millimeters. An individual particle in this range size is termed a sand grain.
There are three major types of sand:
- This type of sand is eroded from rocks (sedimentary, volcanic, and crystalline), and is generally transported by water. Most sand is of this type.
- This type of sand has organic origins, being made from ground sea shells, corals, and other marine sources.
- This type of sand is created when volcanoes erupt and blow their ash (pyroclastic sand) into the atmosphere.
3. Give the origin of sand and mineral content.
Sand is made when rock of any kind is eroded by wind or by water. The mineral content of sand is the same as the parent rock - quartz, granite, feldspar, etc. The color of the sand depends on the parent rock.
4. What is the difference between sand and soil?
Soil is very similar to sand, and it is formed in much the same way. In fact sand is a component of soil. The main difference though is that soil contains a lot of organic material (such as decayed plants, decayed animals, etc.).
5. What is meant by shape, surface, grain fracture, and grain size?
The shape of a grain of sand can tell us about its history. Rounded grains are those which are relatively old, the rounding being caused by the grain getting blown around by wind or pushed around by water. Grains with more angular surface are relatively young, not having had time to get rounded by the forces of nature.
The surface texture of grains may be polished, frosted, or marked by small pits and scratches. This information can usually be seen best under a binocular microscope, not in a thin section.
In the field of mineralogy, fracture is a term used to describe the shape and texture of the surface formed when a mineral is broken. Minerals often have a highly distinctive fracture, making it a principal feature used in their identification.
Conchoidal fracture is a curved breakage that resembles the concentric ripples of a mussel shell. It often occurs in amorphous or fine-grained minerals such as flint, opal or obsidian, but may also occur in crystalline minerals such as quartz. Subconchoidal fracture is similar to conchoidal fracture, but not as curved.
Earthy fracture is reminiscent of freshly broken soil. It is frequently seen in relatively soft, loosely bound minerals, such as limonite, kaolinite and aluminite.
Hackly fracture (also known as jagged fracture) is jagged, sharp and uneven. It occurs when metals are torn, and so is often encountered in native metals such as copper and silver.
Splintery fracture comprises sharp elongated points. It is particularly seen in fibrous minerals such as chrysotile, but may also occur in non-fibrous minerals such as kyanite.
Uneven fracture is self descriptive. It occurs in a wide range of minerals including arsenopyrite, pyrite and magnetite.
Grain size, also called particle size, refers to the diameter of individual grains of sediment.
6. Define the following and give the use of each
- a. Glacial
- Glacial sand is sand produced by the action of a glacier grinding the rock over which it passes.
- b. Calcareous
- Sand composed primarily of calcium carbonate or limestone.
- c. Quicksand
- Quicksand is a colloid hydrogel consisting of fine granular matter (such as sand or silt), clay, and salt water. In the name "quick" does not mean "fast," but "alive" (as in the expression the quick and the dead).
- d. Glass sand
- Glass sand is sand with low iron content, and high silica (SiO2) content. This type of sand is ideal for glass making.
- e. Molding sand
- Molding sand, foundry sand, or green sand is sand that when moistened or oiled tends to pack well and hold its shape. It is used in the process of sand casting.
- f. Polishing sand
- Sand can be used as an abrasive material for polishing materials. This type of sand must be very fine grained.
- g. Building sand
- Building sand is used for making concrete. Sharp sands (with angular surfaces) are preferred.
- h. Filter sand
- Sand can be used to filter water or other liquids. A media filter is a type of filter utilizing a bed of sand, crushed granite or other material to filter water for drinking, swimming pools, aquaculture, irrigation, stormwater management and other applications.
- i. Furnace sand
- Furnace sand is used for lining the floor of industrial furnaces which are used for processing molten metals (such as steel).
- j. Lake shore sand
- Sand created by the wave action of a lake. A prime example would be the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in northwest Indiana.
7. Examine five types of sand specimens under magnification and observe their various characteristics.
Using a hand lens or a microscope, examine the sand grains, looking for the features described in requirement 5 (shape, surface, grain fracture, and grain size). You can also note its color and its variability are all the grains the same size? Are they all the same shape, or are there big differences from one grain to the next?
8. Memorize and discuss Genesis 22:17, Proverbs 27:3, and Ps. 139:17-18.
|Genesis 22:17 (NIV)|
|I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies|
|Proverbs 27:3 (NIV)|
|Psalm 139:17, 18 (NIV)|