Ad Hoc Data Analysis From The Unix Command Line/Standard Input, Standard Output, Redirection and Pipes
"This is the Unix philosophy: Write programs that do one thing and do it well. Write programs to work together. Write programs to handle text streams, because that is a universal interface." -- Doug McIlroy, the inventor of Unix pipes
The commands I'm going to talk about here are called filters. Data passes through them and they modify it a bit on the way. These commands read data from their "standard input" and write data to their "standard output." By default, standard input is your keyboard and standard output is your screen. For example, the tr command is a filter that translates one set of characters to another. This invocation of tr turns all lower case characters to upper case characters:
$ tr "[:lower:]" "[:upper:]" hello HELLO i feel like shouting I FEEL LIKE SHOUTING [ctrl-d]
Ctrl-d is how you tell the command from the keyboard that you're done entering input.
You can tell your shell to connect standard output to a file instead of your screen using the ">" operator. The term for this is "redirection". One would talk about "redirecting" tr's output to a file. Later you can use the cat command to write the file to your screen.
$ tr a-z A-Z > tr_output this is a test [ctrl-d] $ cat tr_output THIS IS A TEST
Many Unix commands that take a file as an argument will read from standard input if not given a file. For example, the grep command searches a file for a string and prints the lines that match. If I wanted to find my entry in the password file I might say:
$ grep jrauser /etc/passwd jrauser:x:7777:100:John Rauser:/home/jrauser:/bin/bash
But I could also redirect a file to grep's standard input using "<" operator. You can see that the "<" and ">" operators are like little arrows that indicate the flow of data.
$ grep jrauser < /etc/passwd jrauser:x:7777:100:John Rauser:/home/jrauser:/bin/bash
You can use the pipe "|" operator to connect the standard output of one command to the standard input of the next. The cat command reads a file and writes it to its standard output, so yet another way to find my entry in the password file is:
$ cat /etc/passwd | grep jrauser jrauser:x:7777:100:John Rauser:/home/jrauser:/bin/bash
For a slightly more interesting example, the mail command will send a message it reads from standard input. Let's send my entry in the password file to me in an email.
$ cat /etc/passwd | grep jrauser | mail -s "passwd entry" firstname.lastname@example.org
Using output with headers
In many situations, you end up with output that has a first line that is a header describing the data, and subsequent lines that are the data. An example is ps:
$ ps | head -5 PID TTY TIME CMD 22313 ttys000 0:00.86 -bash 31537 ttys001 0:00.06 -bash 22341 ttys002 0:00.28 -bash 70093 ttys002 0:00.00 head -5
If you wish to manipulate the data but not the header use tail with -n switch to start at line 2. For example:
$ ps | tail -n +2 | grep bash | head -5 22313 ttys000 0:00.86 -bash 31537 ttys001 0:00.06 -bash 22341 ttys002 0:00.28 -bash 70120 ttys002 0:00.00 -bash
This output shows only "bash" processes (because of grep)