AP Biology/LABORATORY 3. Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis and meiosis are both forms of reproduction. Mitosis is asexual reproduction and requires only one parent cell; meiosis is sexual and so requires two parent cells. Mitosis produces two identical cells (clones), while meiosis produces four genetically variable cells. Meiosis occurs only in the gonads, while mitosis occurs all over the body in somatic cells. Mitosis produces 2 diploid (2n) cells- that is, they have the normal number of chromosomes- and meiosis produces 4 haploid (n) cells. Haploid cells have only half the normal number of chromosomes. Meiosis 1, meiosis 2, and mitosis all have the four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, in that order. Meiosis one is followed by interkinesis, the resting stage. Interkinesis is the same as interphase, which takes place in mitosis, except no replication occurs. Crossing over and independent assortment of chromosomes takes place in meiosis, but does not happen in mitosis. The functions of mitosis are growth, repair, regeneration, and asexual reproduction. The functions of meiosis include genetic variation and sexual reproduction.