A-level Geography/AS OCR Geography/Population, patterns, process and change
Factors affecting birth rate
- Pro-natalist policies and Anti-natalist policies from government
- Existing age-sex structure
- Social and religious beliefs - especially relation to contraception
- Female literacy levels
- Economic prosperity (when the economy is doing well families can afford to have more children).
- Poverty levels – children can be seen as a economic resource in developing countries as they can earn money.
- Infant Mortality Rate – a family may have more children a countries IMR if high as it is likely some of those children will die.
Factors affecting a countries death rate
- Nutrition levels
- Standards of diet and housing
- Access to clean drinking water
- Hygiene levels
- Levels of infectious diseases
Limitations of the Demographic Transition Model
- When the model was put forward there was a lack of available data in Europe
- Only based on Europe – So will it apply to the developing world?
- Does not show the causes of changes in birth rates and death rates
- Only a general model – why not apply to specific places. While it can be used to predict population change it may not be completely accurate
Types of population pyramid
While all countries' population pyramids differ, three types have been identified by the fertility and mortality rates of a country.
Stationary pyramid – A population pyramid showing an unchanging pattern of fertility and mortality.
Progressive pyramid – A Pyramid with a high birth rate and a high death rate.
Regressive pyramid – A declining birth rate and a low mortality rate.