# title=Fundamentals of Programming: Selection

 ← Constant Definitions Selection Iteration →

An important part of programming is the use of selection, that is the ability to do something if certain criteria is met. This may be as simple as increasing your health bar in a computer game if you eat a chicken drumstick or inserting the cooling rods into the nuclear reactor if the temperature exceeds a certain value.

## IF Statement

The most common selection statement is the IF statement, the idea is that you compare a value to some criteria, IF the value and criteria match then you proceed in a certain way, otherwise you do something else. For example:

```If It is the queen Then
Salute her
Else
Treat them like a commoner
End
```
```If name = "Queen" Then
Else
console.writeline("Get to the back of the queue!")
End If
```

The Else part is optional, you can just ignore the commoner! (and dump the Else)

```If name = "Queen" Then
End If
```

You might also want to test multiple things in the If statement. For example:

```If name = "Queen" And age >= 18 Then
console.writeline("Hello your Majesty, I can serve you beer")
Else
console.writeline("Get out of my bar!")
End If
```
 Exercise: IF statements Write a single IF statement for the following: Ask a user for their eye colour, if they say green call them a "Goblin", else they must be a different type of monster:    Code Output What eyes have thee? Green Thou art a Goblin? Alternatively:    Code Output What eyes have thee? Blue Pray tell, be thou another form of beast? Answer: ```dim eyes as string console.writeline("What eyes have thee?") eyes = console.readline() If eyes = "Green" Then console.writeline("Thou art a Goblin?") Else console.writeline("Pray tell, be thou another form of beast?") End If ``` Try the code by inputting "green". It doesn't work! We need to adjust the IF statement: If eyes = "Green" or eyes = "green" Then 'the Or part makes sure it picks up upper and lower case letters alternatively we could use UCase() we'll find out more about this later If UCase(eyes) = "GREEN" Then 'UCase converts the entire input into capitals    Code Output How old are you: 11.8 You're probably at secondary school    Code Output How old are you: 9 You're not at secondary school    Code Output How old are you: 19 You're not at secondary school Using one IF statement write code to handle the above. HINT: you might need more than one clause in the IF ... THEN section. Answer: ```dim age as single console.writeline("How old are you:") age = console.readline() If age >= 11 And age < 17 Then console.writeline("You're probably at secondary school") Else console.writeline("You're not at secondary school") End If ``` Now for some very simple AI:    Code Output How do you feel today: Happy or Sad? Sad Have you had some exercise: Yes or No? No Go for a walk, you might feel better In all other situations the program should say: "Sorry I don't know how to help". Using one IF statement write code to handle the above: Answer: ```dim feel as string dim exercise as string console.writeline("How do you feel today: Happy or Sad?") feel = console.readline() console.writeline("Have you had some exercise: Yes or No?") exercise = console.readline() If feel = "Sad" AND exercise = "No" Then console.writeline("Go for a walk, you might feel better") Else console.writeline("Sorry I don't know how to help") End If ```

### Nested Ifs

Sometimes when we are trying to write complex code we will need to use a combination of IFs. In the example above we might want to still treat an under-age queen with respect, an under-age commoner with contempt, serve an 18+ queen with respect, and serve an 18+ commoner with common manners. In fact it seems as if we need 4 different IF statements. We could solve it like this:

```If name = "Queen" And age >= 18 Then
console.writeline("Hello your Majesty, may one serve you beer?")
End If
If name = "Queen" And age < 18 Then
console.writeline("I'm sorry your Majesty, you are too young to buy beer")
End If
If name <> "Queen" And age >= 18 Then '<> means not equal (so does !=)
console.writeline("Hello mate, can I serve you beer?")
End If
If name <> "Queen" And age < 18 Then
console.writeline("Get out of my pub, you are too young to buy beer")
End If
```

This seems awfully cumbersome and we will now look a more elegant way of solving this, using Nested IF's. First of all, nested means placing one thing inside another, so we are going to place an IF inside another.

```If name = "Queen" Then
If age < 18 Then
console.writeline("I'm sorry your Majesty, you are too young to buy beer")
Else
console.writeline("Hello your Majesty, may one serve you beer?")
End If
Else
If age >= 18 Then
console.writeline("Hello mate, can I serve you beer?")
Else
console.writeline("Get out of my pub, you are too young to buy beer")
End If
End If
```

Try the examples above with the following data, both solutions should provide the same answer:

```name = "Queen" age = 18
name = "Quentin" age = 28
name = "Queen" age = 17
name = "Aashia" age = 15
```
 Exercise: Nested IF statements Write nests of IF statements for the following: A car can be hired when a person is over 21 and not intoxicated.    Code Output How old are you? 22 Good, that's old enough. Have you been drinking? Yes Come back tomorrow It should also handle:    Code Output console.writeline("How old are you?") 20 console.writeline("You're too young I'm afraid. Come back in a few years") Answer: ```dim age as integer dim drinking as string console.writeline("How old are you?") age = console.readline() if age >= 21 then console.writeline("Good, that's old enough. Have you been drinking?") drinking = console.readline() if drinking = "Yes" then console.writeline("Come back tomorrow") else console.writeline("Your carriage awaits") end if else console.writeline("You're too young I'm afraid. Come back in a few years") end if ``` Create a login screen to do the following:    Code Output Enter username Jonny5 RECOGNISED! Enter password: Alive Please enter Jonny5 If they get the username wrong it should immediately kick them out and not ask for the password. If they get the password wrong it should kick them out. Answer: ```dim name as string dim password as string console.writeline("Enter username:") name = console.readline() if name = "Jonny5" then console.writeline("RECOGNISED! Enter password:") password = console.readline() if password = "Alive" then console.writeline("Please enter " & name) else console.writeline("INCORRECT! Get out!") end if else console.writeline("Username not recognised. Get out!") end if ```

 Extension: Single line IF statements As you should be aware by now a lot of programming is doing things as quickly as possible. You might be fed up with writing long if statements, having to keep hitting that enter key to make new lines. There is a faster way to code: single line IF statements. ```If(input >= 18,console.writeline("drink beer"),console.writeline("drink cola")) ``` This is a much shorter way of writing: ```If input >= 18 then console.writeline("drink beer") Else console.writeline("drink cola") End if ``` But be careful, code like this can often be harder to read and therefore debug. Once it has been through the interpreter / compiler it almost certainly won't be running any faster either, it's just there for you to save a little space. For the exam keep to the longer version.

## Case Statement

The other type is the Case statement, this can be summarised by several if statements where the value is compared to several criteria and the action of first criteria matched is performed, otherwise a default action may be performed.

```Case Enter Restaurant and pick up menu
If Egg and Chips available Then
Order Egg and Chips
End If
If Pie and Chips available Then
Order Pie and Chips
End If
If Curry and Chips available Then
Order Curry and Chips
End If
If Pizza and Chips available Then
Order Pizza and Chips
End If
Default
Leave hungry
End
```

However, most programming languages will give you a shortened way of implementing a case statement without the need to write all of these if statements. For example in VB.NET we use the `select case`

```Dim number As Integer = 5
Select Case number
Case 1, 2, 3
Console.WriteLine("Between 1, 2, 3 inclusive")
Case 4 to 8
Console.WriteLine("Between 4 and up to 8")
'This is the only case that is true
Case 9
Console.WriteLine("Equal to 9")
Case 10
Console.WriteLine("Equal to 10")
Case Else
Console.WriteLine("Not between 1 and up to 10")
End Select
```
Code Output

Between 4 and up to 8

Exercise: Case statements
Create a program where someone types in the name of an animal and it outputs the sound the animal makes. The animals it should handle are:
• Pig - Oink
• Cow - Moo
• Bear - Grr
• Sheep - Baa
• Tiger - Grr
• everything else - Meow

Try and complete this task by only using 5 case statements.

```Dim animal As string
Select Case animal
Case "Pig"
Console.WriteLine("Oink")
Case "Cow"
Console.WriteLine("Moo")
Case "Bear", "Tiger"
Console.WriteLine("Grr")
Case "Sheep"
Console.WriteLine("Baa")
Case Else
Console.WriteLine("Meow")
End Select
```
You are now going to use a case statement to create an electronic piano.
Note Frequency
A 220.00
B 246.94
C 261.63
D 293.66
E 329.63
F 349.23
G 392.00

Create a case statement in the code below, that will play the notes written above. The while true loop means that the code will never end and will continue for ever. For bonus points try and get the code to accept both upper and lower case inputs

```'instruction statement here
While True
'input and case statements here
While End
```

Remember to make sound you use:

```console.beep(2000,500) 'beep at 2000Hz for 0.5 seconds
```

```dim note as char
console.writeline("please insert a musical note:")
While True
'note =  Console.Readline() 'also works, but it less fun
Select Case UCase(note)
Case "A"
Console.Beep(220,50)
Case "B"
Console.Beep(247,50)
Case "C"
Console.Beep(262,50)
Case "D"
Console.Beep(294,50)
Case "E"
Console.Beep(330,50)
Case "F"
Console.Beep(349,50)
Case "G"
Console.Beep(392,50)
End Select
End While
```