# title=Fundamentals of Programming: Built-in functions

 ← Iteration Built-in functions One-Dimensional Arrays →

You need to be familiar with several programming routines that come built into most common programming languages. These routines are very useful and should save you a lot of effort in writing code to perform common tasks. You might be asked to use them in the exam so learn them!

## Arithmetic functions

You'll have to be familiar with several

### Round

The round function is used to round numbers to a limited number of decimal places using the `Math.Round()` function

```Math.Round(1.94, 1) 'Returns 1.9
Math.Round(1.95, 1) 'Returns 1.9 !0.5 rounds down!
Math.Round(1.96, 1) 'Returns 2.0
Math.Round(1.9445, 2) 'Returns 1.94
Math.Round(1.9545, 3) 'Returns 1.954
Math.Round(6.765, 2) 'Returns 6.76
Math.Round(1.9445) 'Returns 2 - the equivalent of saying round to 0 dp
```

### Truncation

The truncate function returns the integer part of a number, regardless of the decimal places.

```Math.Truncate(19.45) 'Returns 19
Math.Truncate(19.9999) 'Returns 19
```

This is particularly useful when you are trying to perform DIV in modular arithmetic.

 Extension: Random numbers An essential part of most games is the ability to use random numbers. These might be used to randomly place gold coins on a map, or to calculate whether you hit a target with a rifle at some distance. ```Dim rndGen As New Random() Dim randomNumber As Integer randomNumber = rndGen.Next() ``` The above code will give you a random number between 1 and 2,147,483,647. You might well require a number that is a little smaller. To get a random number between two set numbers, in this case 5 and 10 you can use the following: ```randomNumber = rndGen.Next(5,10) ``` So how exactly can we use this? Take a look at the following game: ```Dim rndGen As New Random() Dim randomNumber As Integer Dim guess as Integer randomNumber = rndGen.Next(1,100) console.writeline("Please guess the random number between 1 and 100") Do console.write("your guess:") guess = console.readline() if guess > randomNumber console.writeline("Too High") end if if guess < randomNumber console.writeline("Too Low") end if Loop While guess <> randomNumber console.writeline("Well done, you took x guesses to find it!") ``` Adjust the code above to tell the user how many guesses they took to find the random number. HINT: you'll need a variable Answer: ``` Sub Main() Dim rndGen As New Random() Dim randomNumber As Integer Dim guess As Integer Dim count As Integer = 1 randomNumber = rndGen.Next(1, 100) Console.WriteLine("Please guess the random number between 1 and 100") Do Console.Write("your guess:") guess = Console.ReadLine() If guess > randomNumber Then Console.WriteLine("Too High") End If If guess < randomNumber Then Console.WriteLine("Too Low") End If If guess <> randomNumber Then count = count + 1 End If If guess = randomNumber Then Console.WriteLine("Well done, you took " & count & " guesses to find it!") End If Loop End Sub ```
 Exercise: Arithmetic function What does the following code output: ```dim num1 as single = 12.75 dim num2 as single = 12.499 dim total as single num2 = Math.Round(num2, 1) num1 = Math.Truncate(num1) total = num1 + num2 console.writeline(Math.Round(total)) ``` Write some code to output the integer part of a number input by the user Answer: Math.Truncate(input) Write code to output the integer and decimal parts of an input number: Please insert a decimal number: 13.78 The whole number part of this number is: 13 The decimal part is: 0.78 Answer: ```dim num as single console.write("Please insert a decimal number: ") num = console.readline() console.writeline("The whole number part of this number is: " & Math.Truncate(num)) console.writeline("The decimal part is: " & num - Math.Truncate(num)) ```

## String handling functions

Very popular examination questions involve manipulating strings. These simple functions will help you with this task.

### Length

This function is used to find the length of any string you pass it, counting all the characters, including the spaces. In visual basic to find the length of a string we use the `Len("some string")` function that returns the integer length of the string that it has been passed:

```someText = "Gary had a little lamb"
Console.writeline(Len(someText))
```

### Position

This function allows us to find the position of an item within a given string and returns the position's location. In visual basic this is performed by the following command: `InStr([string], [item])` For example we might want to find the location of an end of a sentence by looking for a fullstop:

```someText = "Gary had a little lamb. His fleece was white as snow."
Console.writeline(InStr(someText,"."))
```

We can also use this command to search for strings within strings. For example if we were to look for to see if a sentence contained a certain name:

```someText = "Gary had a little lamb. Dave's fleece was white as snow."
Console.writeline(InStr(someText,"Dave"))
```

If the search item is not contained in the string then it will return 0

```someText = "Gary had a little lamb. Dave's fleece was white as snow."
Console.writeline(InStr(someText,"Julie"))
```

### Substring

This function allows you to snip items out of a string and return a substring. Visual Basic uses the following command: `[string].Substring([startPosition],[lengthOfReturnString])`. For example we might want to find the local number from a landline phone number we have been given. We'll have to ignore the area code:

```phone = "(01234)567890"
local = phone.Substring(7, 6)
console.writeline(local)
```

### Concatenation

This function allows you to stick strings together (concatenate) so that you can start to build strings using variables. Visual Basic uses the following command: `[stringA & stringB]` For example we might have a users name stored in a variable `dim name as string` and a greeting that we would like to give them:

```name = "Charles"
console.writeline("Hello " & name & ". How are you today?")
```

Hello Charles. How are you today?

### String conversion functions

When you declare a variable you give it a datatype. This datatype restricts the values that you can place into the variable. For example:

`dim age as integer`
would allow: `age = 34`
would NOT allow: `age = "cabbages"`

This seems to make sense, but what would happen when you try to place a real number into a integer:

```dim age as integer
age = 34.3
console.writeline(age)
```

This might seem OK, but in other lanuages we might run into trouble. To perform this we would have to convert from one datatype to another:

```dim age as decimal
age = 34.3
console.writeline(age)
age = CInt(34.3) 'converts the decimal into an integer
console.writeline(age)
```

 Exercise: String functions Write a short program to tell someone how many letters they have in their name (just in case they don't know!), for example: Input: Fremlin Hello Fremlin, you have 7 letters in your name. Answer: ``` Dim name As String console.write("Input: ") name = console.readline() console.writeline("Hello " & name & " you have " & Len(name) & " letters in your name.") ``` Some people have stupidly typed their firstname and their surname into a database, write some code to display the first name, then their surname ```dim fistname as string = "Elizabeth Sheerin" ``` Input: Elizabeth Sheerin Firstname: Elizabeth Surname: Sheerin Answer: ``` Dim name As String = "Elizabeth Sheerin" Dim firstname, secondname As String Dim space, textlength As Integer space = InStr(name, " ") textlength = Len(name) firstname = name.Substring(0, space) secondname = name.Substring(space, textlength - space) Console.WriteLine("first name is: " & firstname) Console.WriteLine("second name is: " & secondname) ``` A telephone number has been typed into a computer as a string: (01234)567890 ```dim phonenum as string = "(01234)567890" ``` Write some code to output the number without brackets: Input: (01234)567890 Output: 01234567890 Answer: ``` Dim phonenum As String = "(01234)567890" Dim firstbracket, secondbracket As String Dim textlength, arealength As Integer firstbracket = InStr(phonenum, "(") secondbracket = InStr(phonenum, ")") textlength = Len(phonenum) arealength = secondbracket - firstbracket Console.Write(phonenum.Substring(firstbracket, arealength - 1) & phonenum.Substring(secondbracket, textlength - secondbracket)) ``` A similar question to the one above, telephone numbers are currently stored in a very unreadable format: 01234567890, completely missing off the area code. Can you convert them to display the first 5 figures are the area code: ```dim phonenum as string = "01234567890" ``` This should then be output as: Input: 01234567890 Output: (01234)567890 Answer: ``` Dim phonenum As String = "01234567890" Console.Write("(" & phonenum.Substring(0, 5) & ")" & phonenum.Substring(6, 5)) Console.ReadLine() ``` A palindrome is a word, phrase or number that may be read the same way in either direction. For example 1234321, RACECAR, TOOT and NUN. You need to write a program that checks to see if any input given is a palindrome and let the user know: Input: NUN That is a palindrome! Input: nune That is NOT a palindrome Answer: ``` Dim name As String Dim length As Integer Dim Pal As Boolean = TRUE console.write("Input: ") name = console.readline() length = Len(name) For x = 0 to (length / 2) If name.Substring(x, 1) != name.Substring(length - x, 1) then Pal = FALSE End If Next If Pal then console.writeline("That is a palindrome!") Else console.writeline("That is NOT a palindrome!") End If ```
 Extension: REGEX You will often want to check the format of a string being input and if it is incorrect you will want it to be submitted again. For example you might want someone to input the name of their best friend, meaning that they shouldn't be inputting any letters or spaces, and it should start with a capital letter: Name of best friend: Beanie(CORRECT) Name of best friend: jonny5(STOP THIS) To do this we can match the input string against some rules, regular expressions or regex, in this case we only want characters from the alphabet: `[A-Z][a-z]+` Breaking apart the rule: `[A-Z]` - start exactly one instance of a capital letter `[a-z]+` - followed by as many lower case letters as you like (that's what the `+` means) Another example might be checking for the correct spelling of a famous composer: ```"Handel", "Händel", and "Haendel" ``` We can check this using the pattern `H(ä|ae?)ndel`. Let's take a look at what this means: `H` - start with an `H` `(ä|ae?)` - includes an `ä` or (the `|` symbol) an `a` followed by an optional `e` (`e?` means the e is optional) Most regular expression tools provide the following operations to construct expressions. Boolean "or" A vertical bar separates alternatives. For example, `gray|grey` can match "gray" or "grey". Grouping Parentheses are used to define the scope and precedence of the operators (among other uses). For example, `gray|grey` and `gr(a|e)y` are equivalent patterns which both describe the set of "gray" and "grey". Quantification A quantifier after a token (such as a character) or group specifies how often that preceding element is allowed to occur. `?` The question mark indicates there is zero or one of the preceding element. For example, `colou?r` matches both "color" and "colour". `*` The asterisk indicates there is zero or more of the preceding element. For example, `ab*c` matches "ac", "abc", "abbc", "abbbc", and so on. `+` The plus sign indicates there is one or more of the preceding element. For example, `ab+c` matches "abc", "abbc", "abbbc", and so on, but not "ac". Most programming languages have regular expression functions. In VB.NET we can use regular expressions by using the Regex routine: ```' this code enforces the name rule from earlier Dim name As String Console.Write("Name of best friend: ") name = Console.Readline() ' match the string against a regular expression Dim m As Match = Regex.Match(name, "[A-Z][a-z]+") If (m.Success) Then Console.WriteLine("You have input the name correctly") Else Console.WriteLine("Incorrect format!") End If ``` A common use for regular expressions is in checking that you have a correctly typed email address. A rule for that is this: `^[a-zA-Z0-9_.+-]+@[a-zA-Z0-9-]+\.[a-zA-Z0-9-.]+\$`. You can find out more about Regular expression on wikipedia and you will cover regular expressions in more detail in A2.

to/from integer, real, date/time.