A-level Chemistry/OCR (Salters)/Halogens

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to: navigation, search

Gallery[edit]

Diatomic halogen molecules[edit]

halogen molecule structure model d(X−X) / pm
(gas phase)
d(X−X) / pm
(solid phase)
fluorine
F2
Difluorine-2D-dimensions.png
Fluorine-3D-vdW.png
143
149
chlorine
Cl2
Dichlorine-2D-dimensions.png
Chlorine-3D-vdW.png
199
198
bromine
Br2
Dibromine-2D-dimensions.png
Bromine-3D-vdW.png
228
227
iodine
I2
Diiodine-2D-dimensions.png
Iodine-3D-vdW.png
266
272

Fluorine[edit]

Fluorine is the most electronegative element in the periodic table, and is also the most reactive. Flourine is a special case as Fluorine has anomalous properties due to its small size. It has a lower electron affinity than Chlorine due to electron repulsions in the overcrowded outer shell. However, it is a stronger oxidising agent than Chlorine due to its unusually low bond energy. This is due to the repulsions between outer electrons in the F2 molecule.

Chlorine[edit]

Bromine[edit]

Iodine[edit]

Astatine[edit]