A-level Chemistry/OCR (Salters)/Alkenes
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ALKENES Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one double bond. What should be the general formula of alkenes? If there is one double bond between two carbon atoms in alkenes, they must possess two hydrogen atoms less than alkanes. Hence, general formula for alkenes is CnH2n. Alkenes are also known as olefins (oil forming) since the first member, ethylene or ethene (C2H4) was found to form an oily liquid on reaction with chlorine. Structure of Double Bond Carbon-carbon double bond in alkenes consists of one strong sigma (σ) bond (bond enthalpy about 397 kJ mol–1) due to head-on overlapping of sp2 hybridised orbitals and one weak pi (π) bond (bond enthalpy about 284 kJ mol–1) obtained by lateral or sideways overlapping of the two 2p orbitals of the two carbon atoms. The double bond is shorter in bond length (134 pm) than the C–C single bond (154 pm). You have already read that the pi (π) bond is a weaker bond due to poor sideways overlapping between the two 2p orbitals. Thus, the presence of the pi (π) bond makes alkenes behave as sources of loosely held mobile electrons. Therefore, alkenes are easily attacked by reagents or compounds which are in search of electrons. Such reagents are called electrophilic reagents. The presence of weaker π-bond makes alkenes unstable molecules in comparison to alkanes and thus, alkenes can be changed into single bond compounds by combining with the electrophilic reagents. Strength of the double bond (bond enthalpy, 681 kJ mol–1) is greater than that of a carbon-carbon single bond in ethane (bond enthalpy, 348 kJ mol–1).