Exercise as it relates to Disease/Exercise Effects on Substance Addiction
- 1 The Effects of Exercise on Substance Addiction
- 2 Excercise Effects on Addiction
- 3 Research and Further Reading
- 4 References
The Effects of Exercise on Substance Addiction
What is Addiction?
Substance Addiction is defined as a chronic brain disease that involves compulsive drug use and seeking, regardless of any harmful consequences.  Substance Addictions this can vary from illicit drugs such as heroin, cocaine and amphetamines, legal substances such as alcohol and tobacco, and to over the counter pharmacy drugs such as pain killers. Addictions to substances such as these can have effects on both health and lifestyle, varying depending on level of addiction and the substance.
Effects of sustained substance addiction include:
- Changes in personality or behavior
- Mood swings or irrational behavior
- Decrease in motivation
- Decrease in performance at school/work
Possible reasons for addiction:
- Genetics; family history of addiction can play a large role in a persons susceptibility to become addicted
- Mental or personality disorders
- Abuse or trauma
- Use of drugs at an early age
Excercise Effects on Addiction
The addiction of substances have an effect on the brain and body that stimulates a particular sense. In most cases it is the stimulation of the dopamine receptors in the brain. The stimulation of these receptors induce a pleasant sensation on the brain and stimulates whats known as the 'reward parthway'. How exercise increases such 'happy' feeling is still debated, most speculation is centered around endorphins and neurotransmitters in the brain. After a person has exercised dopamine receptors in the brain are stimulated, if exercise is maintained on a regular program, the stimulation of the dopamine receptors will lower the addictive desire for a particular substance.  It has been shown however that exercise mimics the rewards of acute or chronic opiate exposure.  Therefore by using exercise as a healthy substitute to substance addiction, the person is able to change the addictive desires for a particular substance,
Most medications prescribed to people who suffer depression influence the brain by stimulating the dopamine receptors, just like most addictive substances do. As stated above, people who suffer depression can increase levels of these neurotransmitters via exercise. Depression is associated with addiction with 1/3 of people suffering depression experience substance addictions. For more information on excercise and depression visit Exercise as a clinical treatment for depression amongst adolescents
The effects of exercise on anxiety fall under self-efficacy. Self efficacy is described as belief of ones own ability to reach goals and complete tasks. Under anxiety symptoms this falls generally low. Research has shown however that during exercise pain and fatigue are high when first starting. However as the body develops the adaptions to exercise the pain and fatigue lessen, and self efficacy will rise reducing anxiety symptoms. Exercise will also reduce anxiety symptoms quicker and for longer than other treatments. 
|Aerobic low - moderate intensity||Cross trainer/stair master, nature walks||Increase blood flow to brain, increases heart strength|
|Stretching||Yoga, pilates||relieves stress, increases flexibility and strength|
|Resistance training||Weight programs||Increases muscle activity and size, increases self esteem|
Further benefits of exercise as treatment for substance addictions
- Change in Lifestyle
- Positive Change in Health
- Increase in Self Esteem
- Increased Energy Levels
- Reduced Stress
- Increase Social Interaction
Research and Further Reading
- . Drugabuse.gov. 2013. The Science of Drug Abuse and Addiction | National Institute on Drug Abuse. [online] Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/media-guide/science-drug-abuse-addiction [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].
- , Helpguide.org. 2013. Drug Abuse and Addiction: Signs, Symptoms, and Help for Drug Problems and Substance Abuse. [online] Available at: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/drug_substance_abuse_addiction_signs_effects_treatment.htm [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013]..
- , Learn.genetics.utah.edu. 2013. Drugs Alter the Brain's Reward Pathway. [online] Available at: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/ [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].
- , Meeusen, R. and De Meirleir, K. 1995. Excercise and Brain Neurotransmission. Sports Med, 20 pp. 160-188. Available at: http://web1.ulb.ac.be/facs/ism/docs/Neurotransmission.pdf [Accessed: 21/10/13].
- , Smith, M. and Lynch, W. 2011. Exercise as a potential treatment for drug abuse: evidence from preclinical studies. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2..
- , J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992 April; 55(4): 247–250.
- , Dualdiagnosis.org. 2013. The Double Demons of Depression and Addiction. [online] Available at: http://www.dualdiagnosis.org/resource/depression/ [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].
- , Petruzzello, S.J., Landers, D.M., Hatfield, B.D., Kubitz, K.A., Salazar, W. (1991), 'A meta-analysis on the anxiety-reducing effects of acute and chronic exercise. Outcomes and Mechanisms', In Sports Medicine, Vol.3, March 11, pp.143-182. ISSN: 0112-1642 .