User:Sjlain/An Answer Key to Collar's and Daniell's First Year Latin

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This wikibook is an answer key to the revised 1918 edition of Collar's and Daniell's First Year Latin. There are two copies of this edition in the Internet Archive: [1] and another copy).


About References[edit]

The references are to the paragraph numbers (§ N) and the original page numbers (p. N) of First Year Latin.


acc accusative
act active voice
abl the ablative case
dat the dative case
gen the genitive case
imp the imperative mood
imperf the imperfect tense
ind the indicative mood
inf the infinitive mood
nom the nominative case
pass the passive voice
perf the perfect tense
pl the plural
pluperf the pluperfect tense
sg the singular
subj the subjunctive mood

About Prose Translations[edit]

All prose translations have been kept as literal as possible. This should not be taken as a model to emulate. Quite contrary, one should hardly ever aim at a literal translation instead of a fluent one.


§ 30, p. 25[edit]

  1. A sailor is singing.
  2. Sailors are singing.
  3. A farmer is working.
  4. Farmers are working.
  5. A girl swims.
  6. Girls swim.
  7. Cornelia draws near.
  8. Are the girls drawing near? (In a boys-only school this might have stirred the pupils somewhat.)
  9. Cornelia and the girls are singing.
  10. Julia works and sings.
  11. What is approaching?
  12. Are the sailors swimming?
  13. Who is walking?

§ 31, p. 25[edit]

  1. Nauta natat.
  2. Puellae cantant.
  3. Quis appropinquat?
  4. Appropinguantne nautae?
  5. Cantatne Cornēlia?
  6. Cornēlia et Iūlia ambulant et cantant.
  7. Puella cantat, et agricola labōrat.
  8. Nautae et agricolae labōrant.

§ 36, p. 27[edit]

  1. Galba has a trumpet.
  2. Does Galba have trumpets?
  3. Girls praise Cornelia and Julia.
  4. A sailor sees a letter.
  5. Galba calls together the sailors.
  6. Who sees Galba?
  7. Whom Galba is seeing?
  8. The farmer now calls the girls together.
  9. Do the sailors see land?
  10. Girls like Cornelia.

§ 37, p. 27[edit]

  1. Quis appropinquat?
  2. Nauta et Galba appropinquant.
  3. Quid agricola habet?
  4. Agricola terram habet.
  5. Laudatne Galba agricolae?
  6. Puella aquam et terram videt.
  7. Nautae agricolās convocant.
  8. Iūlia litterās nunc habet.

§ 41, p. 29[edit]

  1. She walks, calls together, sings.
  2. Are they calling together? Singing? Praising?
  3. You (sg.) swim, work, walk.
  4. We like, draw near, walk.
  5. You (pl.) are calling together, are singing, are liking.
  6. They like, she is giving, we are praising.
  7. Whom are you looking at?
  8. I praise the inhabitants.
  9. You (pl.) often praise Julia.
  10. But we are praising the letter.
  11. What are you (pl.) giving now?

§ 42, p. 29[edit]

  1. Natō, natat, natō.
  2. Labōrāsne/labōrātisne? cantāmus, laudatne?
  3. Appropinquant, dant, ambulās/ambulātis.
  4. Laudās/laudātis, natant, labōrat.
  5. Incolās convocāmus, sed nautās convocātis.
  6. Puellae aquam nunc spectant.

§ 46, p. 31[edit]

  1. She delights, we are routing, you set free.
  2. We are waiting, they carry, you delight.
  3. We delight, you (pl.) rout, they are setting free.
  4. Is she freeing? I am freeing, we are carrying.
  5. They are setting free the farmers' daughters.
  6. The poet's fortune pleases the queen.
  7. We are looking at the woman's daughters. (Quite possibly a true story from a boy school.)
  8. Does Galba's daughter expect a letter?
  9. Even the trumpets of the sailors put the inhabitants to flight.
  10. Whose letter are you carrying?

§ 47, p. 31[edit]

  1. Nautās rēgīnae convocō.
  2. Fīliae poetārum terram amant.
  3. Cuius fīliam liberās/liberātis?
  4. Laudantne fīliās Galbae?
  5. Agricolās nunc expectāmus.
  6. Quem fortūna agricolārum dēlectat?

§ 52, p. 33[edit]

  1. You have money.
  2. I teach Julia.
  3. You often advice the inhabitants.
  4. Do they frighten the girls?
  5. Whom are they seeing?
  6. We advice and we teach.
  7. What do we have?
  8. I now see a booty.
  9. You (pl.) see a trumpet.
  10. Are you (pl.) warning the farmers?
  11. They have a letter.
  12. Julia teaches the poet's daughters.
  13. The pirates have even the farmers' money.
  14. The daughters' fate pleases the woman. (Obviously they got married off to better men than the boys of this school became.)
  15. Why do you warn Julia and Cornelia?
  16. Whom do you teach and advice?
  17. The women praise the girls because they work. (Hopefully nothing beyond the chaste exercise of weaving, though.)

§ 53, p. 33[edit]

  1. Monent.
  2. Habent.
  3. Moneō.
  4. Terrēs/terrētis.
  5. Vidēmus.
  6. Puellāsne docet?
  7. Pīrātamne Iūlia et Cornēlia spectant?
  8. Cūr pīrātae incolās terrent?
  9. Pecūniam et praedam habent.
  10. Fēminam laudāmus quod puellās docet.
  11. Quis vidēs/vidētis? Quid spectās/spectātis?

§ 61, p. 35[edit]

  1. A farmer shows the road to a woman.
  2. Cornelia tells the story even to the girls.
  3. We dwell on an island.
  4. Who shows the island to the poets?
  5. Why are the pirates remaining in the water?
  6. To whom are you giving the money?
  7. The sailors show the booty to the farmers.
  8. The inhabitants are approaching on the road and they are looking at the queen.
  9. They like the mistress because she tells stories.

§ 62, p. 35[edit]

  1. Cuī fēminam dēmonstrās/dēmonstrātis?
  2. Iūliae letterās dēmonstrō.
  3. Rēgīnae fābulās narrant.
  4. Fīlia Galbae nautīs pecūniam dat.
  5. Habitantne pīrātae in īnsulā?
  6. Cuius fīliae in viam appropinquant?

§ 66, p. 37[edit]

  1. Why are the poets remaining in the woods?
  2. To whom are you telling about the queen's victory?
  3. I see Julia and Cornelia in the portal.
  4. In Germany and Greece they often assemble the farmers.
  5. Do they live in the province?
  6. The sailors' victory frightens the farmers.
  7. The girls' diligence pleases the woman.
  8. In the fight we put to flight the pirates of Italy.
  9. Galba tells about the flight of the pirates.

§ 67, p. 37[edit]

  1. In prōvinciā Graeciae incolō.
  2. Silvae prōvinciārum poetīs dēlectant.
  3. Fīliae Iūliae pecūniam dat.
  4. Cuī aquam dās/dātis?
  5. Cuius dīligentiam laudās/laudātis?
  6. In viā exspectant et silvās spectant.

§ 75, p. 41[edit]

  1. I see a town.
  2. We are seeing towns.
  3. Is the master warning a slave?
  4. The tribune is looking at a horse.
  5. The masters' horses delight the slaves.
  6. Marcus is narrating a story to a friend.
  7. The masters give the spoils friends.
  8. We often call together the friends in the town.
  9. Slaves are approaching, and they are carrying grain and water.

§ 76, p. 41[edit]

  1. Quis equum tribūnī habet?
  2. Servī dōna dominōrum nunc habent.
  3. Amicōsne in hortō habēs/habētis?
  4. Servus frūmentum tribūnī portat.
  5. Cuius dōnum Marcō dēmonstrant?
  6. Oppidum et hortōs oppidī vidēmus.

§ 83, p. 43[edit]

  1. We are looking at and also approving of the large horses.
  2. The tribune gives a javelin to a good friend.
  3. The sailor's welcome gift delights Julia.
  4. A strong sailor has strong oars.
  5. A girl sees good slaves.
  6. Great winds do not frighten sailors.
  7. Where do you see the strong farmers' grain?
  8. They are carrying the grain in a large cart.
  9. The pirates are frightening the farmers because they have javelins.

§ 84, p. 43[edit]

  1. Carrum magnum habeō.
  2. Dominus bonus servum bonum habet.
  3. Atque servō bonō dōnum grātum dat.
  4. Probatne servus dōnum?
  5. Magnō in oppidō Graeciae nōn habitant.
  6. Nautās bonōs nōn convocat.
  7. Ubi silvam magnam vidēs/vidētis?

§ 91, p. 45[edit]

  1. Galba is a farmer.
  2. Galba is strong.
  3. Julia and Cornelia are my daughters.
  4. My daughter is small.
  5. Is your town large?
  6. Britain is an island of Europe.
  7. Vesta was a Roman goddess.
  8. The carts of the Romans were good and strong.
  9. War is not welcome.
  10. Wars aren't welcome.
  11. Greece is a small country of Europe.
  12. We are friends of the tribune.
  13. In the large town we see wide roads.

§ 92, p. 45[edit]

  1. Viae oppidī sunt longae.
  2. Viae Rōmae nōn erant lātae.
  3. Viae Britanniae sunt lātae et longae.
  4. Ubi es/estis?
  5. Dōna nova tribūnī sunt grāta.
  6. Deōs laudāmus quod dōna dant.
  7. Rōmānī sumus sed in Britanniā habitāmus.

§ 101, p. 49[edit]

  1. The sons of the men are in Britain.
  2. The men are allies.
  3. I am a messenger of the allies.
  4. We are waiting for the small boys, sons of the tribune.
  5. The boys have Marcus' sword and javelin.
  6. Who shows the way to the man?
  7. The battle is long, and the allies are waiting for help.
  8. A man and sons of the messenger are toiling in the field.
  9. Why are you giving rewards to the men?

§ 102, p. 49[edit]

  1. Fīlius nūntī est puer parvus.
  2. Gladium tuum vidēmus sed pilum tuum nōn habēmus.
  3. Puerōs parvōs et fēminam terrent.
  4. Virī sociōs fugant.
  5. Ubi nūntiī habitant?
  6. Gladium fīlī meī habeō.
  7. Bella et proelia Rōmānōs dēlectant.

§ 105, p. 50[edit]

  1. I see horses in Marcus', friend's, field.
  2. A wretched messenger is telling a miserable story of the allies' flight.
  3. They are giving rewards to your friends.
  4. Money, Cornelia's gift, is pleasing to our sons.
  5. We are free men in a free town.
  6. The Greek goddesses were many.
  7. Our associate is miserable because he has no sword.
  8. They are subduing the Romans in a battle.
  9. Are you calling your son?
  10. A miserable slave prepares food for a master.

A bonus question about the translation of 10. for the boys in the back row: Are all slaves miserable because they prepare food for their masters or is this particular slave miserable because he's preparing food for his master or is this particular slave miserable because he's preparing food for a master not his own?

§ 106, p. 51[edit]

  1. Amīcī nostrī, Mārcus et Galba, sunt miserī.
  2. Multī carrī in viīs oppidī nostrī sunt.
  3. Fīliōs miserōs nūntiōrum convocat.
  4. Ubi equum tuum vides?
  5. Ventī nautās nōn terrent.
  6. Fīliī virōrum līberōrum sumus.
  7. Pīlum dōnum āmicī habeō.

§ 113, p. 53[edit]

  1. She is, she was, she will be.
  2. They are, they were, they will be.
  3. We are, we were, we will be.
  4. I am, I was, I will be.
  5. You (sg.) are, you (sg.) were, you (sg.) will be.
  6. You (pl.) are, you (pl.) were, you (pl.) will be.
  7. Certainly we were hostile towards Marcus, your son.
  8. Next to the town were many fields.
  9. Injuries of the allies were many.
  10. I see an island near to the (main)land.
  11. The winds will not be pleasing to the sailors.
  12. Farmers were not fit for a long war.
  13. Meanwhile, we will be favourable to your sons.
  14. Swords and javelins are suitable for a battle.

§ 114, p. 53[edit]

  1. Sum, sumus.
  2. Ubi eramus? In oppidō eram.
  3. Erō, erimus.
  4. Estne tribūnus? Sociī sunt.
  5. Interim vir līber eris.
  6. Oppida nostra Graeciae propinqua sunt.
  7. Virī in oppidīs nostrīs Rōmae inimīcī sunt.
  8. Erit magnum proelium in Britanniā.
  9. Librī Mārcō amicō meō grātī certē erunt.

§ 124, p. 57[edit]

  1. They were showing, she was preparing, you (pl.) were filling.
  2. I was telling, you (sg.) were seeing, we were dwelling.
  3. You (sg.) were overcoming, you (pl.) were having, she was approving.
  4. You (sg.) were singing, I was freeing, you (pl.) were staying.
  5. I was frightening, she was calling, you (pl). were delighting.
  6. I was calling together the lieutenants.
  7. Farmers were bringing grain and food in small carts.
  8. Meanwhile they were fighting with swords in forests.
  9. We were equipping our allies with shields.
  10. I was calling the lieutenant, my friend.
  11. They were subduing the tribune and the lieutenant in the fight with javelins.
  12. Your gifts were pleasing to the gods.
  13. The village was next to the sea.

§ 125, p. 57[edit]

  1. Ambulābam sed in agrō exspectābās.
  2. Armābāmus, manēbant.
  3. Appropinquābātis et pugnābant.
  4. In vicō labōrābant.
  5. Fābulīs et librīs docēbāmus.
  6. Amicōs vestrōs gladiīs vestriīs liberābātis.
  7. Cibus Helvetiīs dēfessīs grātus erat.
  8. Virī pīlīs longīs pugnābant.
  9. Lēgātus vīcum cibō et frūmentō complēbat.

§ 130, p. 59[edit]

  1. They will call, they will fill, they will hasten.
  2. Is she arming? She will overcome, we will keep.
  3. Will they stay? We will show, I will frighten.
  4. You (sg.) will work, you (pl.) will teach, I will dwell.
  5. Where to is the strong farmer hurrying?
  6. A farmer and boys will hurry to the fields.
  7. They toil in the fields with great zeal.
  8. They will carry the grain into the village with care.
  9. You (pl.) will build boats with great diligence.

§ 131, p. 59[edit]

  1. Aedificābis.
  2. Properābit.
  3. Quis nōn manēbit?
  4. Tenēbitis.
  5. Virōs aegrōs magnō cum cūrā portābimus.
  6. Quō lēgātus properābit?
  7. In Graeciam properābit atque incolās armābit.
  8. Ubi amīcī nostrī cum studiō pugnābunt?
  9. Virī nāvigia cum dīligentiā complēbant.

§ 135, p. 61[edit]

  1. Has she called? She has called together, she has subdued.
  2. They have fought, they have expected, they have worked.
  3. We have hastened, we have built, we have equipped.
  4. Did I praise? You (sg.) have called, you (pl.) have hastened.
  5. She has brought, she has delighted, she has given.

§ 136, p. 61[edit]

  1. Laudāvistī/-istis, dēmonstrāvistī/-istis, narrāvistī/-istis.
  2. Dedī, portāvī, liberāvī.
  3. Probāvērunt, cantāvērunt, natāvērunt.
  4. Dedimus, habitāvimus, dēmonstrāvimus.

§ 140, p. 62[edit]

  1. She has warned, they have warned, she has taught.
  2. They have taught, she has had, they have had.
  3. You (sg.) have frightened, you (pl.) have frightened, have you (sg.) kept?
  4. I have seen, have they seen? We have stayed.
  5. She has kept, they have kept, they have frightened.

§ 141, p. 62[edit]

  1. Complēvī, vīdistī, tenuimus.
  2. Terruit, habuit, complēvērunt.
  3. Mānsit, docuī, monuistis.

§ 145, p. 63[edit]

  1. The boys have filled our cart with grain.
  2. They have carried a sick girl with care.
  3. I have seen the shields and swords of the captives in front of the gates.
  4. The place was not suitable for a battle.
  5. The lieutenant has hurried to Germany with many men.
  6. He will show the cause of the war.
  7. I have spent the winter in Greece with your friends.
  8. With great risk they have stayed.

§ 146, p. 63[edit]

  1. Gladiī et pīla captivōs terruērunt.
  2. Longō in bellō cum tribūnō pugnāvērunt.
  3. Fēminae in Italiā hiemābant.
  4. Quis causam bellī lēgātō narrābit?
  5. Locum armīs complēvērunt.
  6. Rōmānī cum sociīs prō Rōmā pugnāvērunt.

§ 148/b, p. 64[edit]

id dōnum is nūntius ea patria
eius dōnī eius nūntiī eius patriae
eī dōnō eī nūntiō eī patriae
id dōnum eum nūntium eam patriam
eō dōnō eō nūntiō eā patriā
ea dōna iī nūntiī eae patriae
eōrum dōnōrum eōrum nūntiōrum eārum patriārum
iīs dōnīs iīs nūntiīs iīs patriīs
ea dōna eōs nūntiōs eās patriās
iīs dōnīs iīs nūntiīs iīs patriīs

§ 150, p. 65[edit]

  1. I have seen that shield.
  2. That sword is mine.
  3. That battle was long.
  4. I will fight with this sword.
  5. She has given food for that prisoner.
  6. That was yours.
  7. He was showing the danger of those lieutenants.
  8. We have been in Germany and in the land of the Helvetii.
  9. Has your daughter been sick?
  10. That slave's master was tired.
  11. That victory has delighted the Romans.
  12. I was hurrying to Britain with that friend.
  13. Where were you (pl.)?

§ 151, p. 65[edit]

  1. Iīs armīs pīrātās in ōceanō superābimus.
  2. Id auxilium Rōmānōs dēlectat.
  3. In iīs silvīs saepe fuī.
  4. Fīliōs eōrum agricolārum docuī.
  5. Eōs sociōs vīdistī et laudāvistī quod cum studiō pugnāvērunt.
  6. Quō properābatis cum eō puerō?
  7. Causae eius bellī fuērunt multae.

§ 155, p. 67[edit]

  1. Who have built that temple?
  2. Which lieutenants have armed those men?
  3. What is in that field?
  4. To whom does Marcus give that reward?
  5. To which countries is Britain near?
  6. Whom are you praising?
  7. Which book Cornelia has praised?
  8. With which sword have they injured the prisoner?
  9. What risk are you reporting?

§ 156, p. 67[edit]

  1. Quis nūntius deōrum erat?
  2. Quod dōnum eī puerō dedit?
  3. Cuius scūtum is servus habuit?
  4. Cui causās eius bellī dēmonstrāvērunt?
  5. Quem superāvistī?
  6. Quibus armīs Helvetiōs superāvērunt?
  7. Quō in vicō habitāvērunt?

§ 161, p. 68[edit]

  1. She rules, she was ruling, she will rule.
  2. I am buying, I was buying, I will buy.
  3. They are leading, they will lead, she was leading.
  4. She has ruled, they have ruled, she has led.
  5. They have led, you (sg.) have bought, you (pl.) have bought.
  6. I have sent, we have sent, she has sent.
  7. We are sending, they are sending, they will send.
  8. This farmer has many fields.
  9. He will send grain into a big town with boats.
  10. He will send grain into a village with strong horses.
  11. Who will lead the horses on the way?
  12. Sons of the farmer, Marcus and Galba, have led the horses, and they will lead (them) today.
  13. Then they will buy new arms.
  14. Formerly the Romans have ruled Italy well.

§ 162, p. 69[edit]

  1. Regunt, rēxērunt, regent.
  2. Dūcit, dūcēbat, dūcet.
  3. Ēmī, ēmimus, ēmērunt.
  4. Mittō, mittam, mīsī.
  5. Mittis, mittes, mīsistī.
  6. Ōlim Rōmānī multās terrās habuērunt.
  7. Eās terrās saepe nōn bene rēxērunt.
  8. Tum sociī auxilium mīsērunt.
  9. Quae puellae in Italiā hiemāvērunt?
  10. Lēgātum cum iīs captīvīs in Italiam mittam.

§ 171/d, p. 75[edit]

§ 173, p. 75[edit]

  1. Today I have seen the king and the general.
  2. We have seen the heads of many foot soldiers.
  3. Both kings and generals have led our soldiers.
  4. Besides, the horsemen were fighting bravely for the king and the general.
  5. They have overcome the allies with courage and zeal.
  6. They have injured many farmers with stones and javelins.
  7. Certainly the bravery of the horsemen and also the zeal of the foot soldiers will delight the legate.
  8. Who will procure shields for these horsemen?
  9. We have sent our soldiers in the forest too.

§ 174, p. 75[edit]

  1. Imperia rēgis fuerunt multa.
  2. Imperia rēgum probābimus.
  3. Helvetiōs virtūte eōrum mīlitum superābimus.
  4. Cum duce hiemābō.
  5. In oppidō rēgem vīdī.
  6. Is rēx erat dux bonus et benē rēxit.
  7. Cibum peditibus miserīs ēmit.
  8. Et arma et frūmenta in id oppidum mīsit.

§ 181, p. 77[edit]

  1. She will take, she takes, they take.
  2. I am hurling, I will hurl, I was hurling.
  3. They have taken, she has thrown, we have thrown.
  4. We have fled, we are fleeing, we have sent away.
  5. They running out from the conference.
  6. They will flee from (the vicinity of) the village into fields.
  7. She has fled (down) from the town to the ocean.
  8. Who have sent letters to the king?
  9. They have hurled javelins down from the walls of this town.
  10. He has sent the tired soldiers away from the battle.
  11. Why are you fleeing from that place?
  12. They will take our wagons.

§ 182, p. 77[edit]

  1. Iaciet, iacient, iaciunt.
  2. Iacis, iaciēs, iēcistī.
  3. Pedēs equitim vulnerāvērunt.
  4. Ex Ītaliā in prōvinciam properābō.
  5. Et fēminae et puellae ex agrīs fugiēbant.
  6. Ā Germāniā in Ītaliam properāvērunt.
  7. Lēgātum ad conloquium dūxit.

§ 187, p. 79[edit]

  1. For many reasons the Romans did not send help.
  2. They have injured these men with stones and javelins.
  3. They have many wounds in (their) heads and bodies.
  4. Today the fathers of the sons will grieve because of the wounds.
  5. Our general will praise the centurions because of the great victory.
  6. The peril of the scouts has frightened the soldiers.
  7. At that time you were not fleeing onto the walls of the town on the account of injuries.
  8. For the lack of food we were in great danger.
  9. The legate has led the horsemen and the foot soldiers to a conference.

§ 188, p. 79[edit]

  1. Vulneribus saepe dēfessī fuimus.
  2. Mīlitēs nostrōs virtūte studiōque eōrum laudābo.
  3. Patrēs nostrī diū pugnābunt et multam praedam capient.
  4. Quis centuriō pīla dē mūrō iaciēbat?
  5. Ob inopiam cibī aquaeque Marcus et Galba, centuriōnēs, nōn cum virtūte pugnāvērunt.
  6. Soror mea dolet quod fēminae Britanniae miserae sunt.
  7. Interim explōrātōrēs imperia ducis narrābant.

§ 191, p. 81[edit]

  1. The victory of enemies has frightened the citizens of the city of Rome.
  2. I have not seen the hills and the mountains of Italy.
  3. The scouts and centurions have fled out from the Sabines' territory.
  4. The Romans have had many boats and ships on the sea.
  5. Because of a great danger the citizens carry food and grain into the city.
  6. We too will send cohorts, and we will overcome the enemies.
  7. The town was near a mountain.
  8. The citizens' bravery was pleasing to the general.

§ 192, p. 81[edit]

  1. Habēmusne multās navīs hodiē?
  2. Ōlim in collīs montibusque incolēbant.
  3. Fīnēs Rōmānōrum erant lātī.
  4. Iī cīvēs nōn idōneī bellō sunt.
  5. Quī pīla dē mūrīs urbium iaciunt?
  6. Puerī ignīs magnōs in urbe vident.

§ 197, p. 83[edit]

  1. Our men have seen a centurion among the prisoners.
  2. Neighbour(ing tribe)s lament account of that victory of the Romans.
  3. Why the cohorts were fleeing through the woods to the town?
  4. With care you (pl.) have taught your daughters with books.
  5. The horsemen and the foot soldiers are in front of the gate.
  6. We will stay in the city without danger.
  7. And they even have carried out from that city many things.
  8. She has led the scouts across a wide field.
  9. He was in the province with many soldiers.

§ 198, p. 83[edit]

  1. Post id proelium nostrōs in Germāniam mittet.
  2. Oppidum sine auxiliō cēpērunt.
  3. Fīnitimī contrā hostīs fortiter pugnābant.
  4. Ante oppidum erat collis.
  5. Apud lēgātum nūntius exspectābat.
  6. Per Ītaliam properābimus et apud eōs montīs hiemābimus.

§ 210, p. 89[edit]

  1. Caesar was a daring leader of the Romans.
  2. The authority of this leader has been great.
  3. All soldiers greatly liked Caesar because he has often overcome the enemy.
  4. In a war the hardships of soldiers were often severe.
  5. Enemies were many and brave, and they were throwing many javelins at the Romans.
  6. But our cohorts did not flee from the public danger.
  7. They have fought bravely for Rome.
  8. That war was short.

§ 211, p. 89[edit]

  1. Gladius Rōmānōrum et brevis et gravis erat.
  2. Pedes socium audācem habuit.
  3. Nostrī multās gravīs portābant.
  4. Dōna omnibus amīcīs meīs dabō.
  5. Dux equitum ācrium propter multōs labōrēs dolēbat.
  6. Omnīs trībūnōs ā colloquiō dīmīsit.

§ 214, p. 90[edit]

  1. I am hearing, I was hearing, I shall hear.
  2. Does she hear? She was hearing, she will hear.
  3. They are hearing, they were hearing, they will hear.
  4. We are hearing, we have heard, you (pl.) will hear.
  5. I have heard, you are hearing, they have heard.
  6. You are coming, she is coming, you (sg.) did come.
  7. She has come, we are coming, we have come.
  8. Do you (sg.) find? You (pl.) have found, you (pl.) are finding.
  9. I have found, she is finding, she has found.

§ 215, p. 90[edit]

  1. Repperit, repperērunt, vēnērunt.
  2. Audīs/audītis, vēnistī/vēnistis, audīvit.
  3. Audīvimus, reperiēbāmus, vēnimus.
  4. Venis/venitis, reperiēbant, veniemus.
  5. Audiam, audimus, audivērunt.
  6. Vēnit, vēnit, audiunt.
  7. Dēfendent, oppugnāvērunt, dēfendit.

§ 220, p. 92[edit]

  1. During the winter winds on the sea are violent.
  2. In summer the farmers were toiling on the fields.
  3. At daybreak they came to Caesar.
  4. Caesar has waged war with strong enemies.
  5. In a few years he has conquered all provinces.
  6. At what time in the night did you (pl.) come into the city?
  7. They capture ten scouts during the second hour of the battle.
  8. At that time a messenger showed the document to a legate.

§ 221, p. 92[edit]

  1. Brevī tempore aestās grāta veniet.
  2. Secundā hōrā noctis ea imperia audīvimus.
  3. Decem vulnera in corpore peditis repperit.
  4. Prīmā lūce Caesar eam cohortem inter collem montemque mīsit.
  5. Prīmō annō bellī ā prōvinciā fūgērunt.
  6. Cūr hieme bellum cum Rōmānōs nōn gessērunt?

§ 225, p. 95[edit]

  1. They will have bought, I had waged, you (pl.) had spent the winter.
  2. They had shown, you (pl.) will have heard, we had subdued.
  3. I shallhave kept, I had filled, you (sg.) had armed.
  4. You (sg.) will have dwelt, she had called, I shall have stayed.
  5. You (pl.) will have told, you (sg.) had sent, we shall have fled.
  6. I had expected, I shall have suffered, she will have strenghthened.
  7. She had kept in check, I had ruled, you (sg.) will have hastened.
  8. Labienus had praised the chief for courage.
  9. A strong man will have had friends many and brave.
  10. Caesar had waged war not only in Gaul but also in Britain.
  11. At what time of the night you (sg.) will have taken the arms?
  12. The Gauls had defended the town with great bravery.
  13. The Roman People had liberated the citizens of that state.

§ 226, p. 95[edit]

  1. Terruerimus, vēnerās, dīmīseritis.
  2. Pugnāverit, cēperat, dēfenderant.
  3. Dūxerāmus, vulnerāverint, iēcerit.
  4. Aedificāveris, reppererāmus, portāverint.
  5. Pōpulus Rōmānus longō temporē Gallōs sustinuerat.
  6. Prīncipēs omnīs cīvitātēs convocāverant.
  7. In eō locō Labiēnus multa tēpa reppererit.
  8. Gallī auxilium exspectāverant.
  9. Tandem eum collem oppugnāverāmus.

§ 232, p. 97[edit]

  1. The general has sent those horsemen and foot soldiers to Capua.
  2. Finally, because of public danger, he has hurried out of Italy to Carthago.
  3. These soldiers had come from Athens, and they were fighting in Gaul.
  4. He sent a messenger to Corinth at the second hour of that night.
  5. Those legates had carried the plunder to Rome.
  6. In that island a bold people had dwelt.
  7. I had been a friend of this centurio.
  8. From this territory all chiefs had fled to Delphi, because at that time enemies were preparing for a war.

§ 233, p. 97[edit]

  1. Delphīs Athēnās vēnerant.
  2. Domō frāter meus Corinthum properāvit.
  3. Caesar nūntiōs per illās cīvitātēs mīserat.
  4. Hīs annīs Gallī amīcī fuerant populī Rōmānī.
  5. Hī hostēs magnā virtūte cum Caesar pugnāverint.
  6. Hoc pīlum, ille gladius est.

§ 240, p. 100[edit]

  1. She loves, he is loved.
  2. He was loving, she was loved.
  3. She will love, he will be loved.
  4. They love, they are loved.
  5. They were loving, they were loved.
  6. Will they love? Will they be loved?
  7. We are loving, we are loved.
  8. I advice, I am adviced.
  9. I was advicing, I was being adviced.
  10. I will warn, I will be warned.
  11. You (pl.) will warn, you (pl.) will be warned.
  12. You (sg.) warn, you (sg.) are warned.

§ 241, p. 101[edit]

  1. Laudās/laudātis, laudāris/laudāminī.
  2. Laudābant, laudābantur.
  3. Laudābis/laudābitis, laudāberis/laudābiminī.
  4. Doceō, doceor.
  5. Docēmus, docēmur.
  6. Docēbimus, docēbimur.
  7. Docent, docentur.

§ 244, p. 101[edit]

  1. This boy was praised by my brother.
  2. This booty will be brought to Rome by Caesar.
  3. By whom is power not loved?
  4. Many stories about Britain will be told by these messengers.
  5. The town is stormed by the soldiers.
  6. In this fight ten men are wounded by the Gauls.
  7. The grain will be brought with ships.

§ 245, p. 101[edit]

  1. Omnēs hī Gallī āb illīs equitibus sustinebuntur.
  2. Frātrēs meī ab illō puerō laudābantur.
  3. Auxilium ā hostibus expectātur.
  4. Paucae cohortēs ā prīncipe vidēbantur.
  5. Rōma āb omnīs Rōmānīs amābātur.

§ 250, p. 103[edit]

  1. That woman you see is Cornelia's mother.
  2. The merchants are bringing many (things) into Germany.
  3. The brave enemies by whom our native land is laid waste are Romans.
  4. These men with whose bravery and determination the city was guarded will come home from war.
  5. The towers which were built with care will be destroyed by the enemy.
  6. The hostages, who are liberated by the Romans, will hurry to Athens.
  7. The commander of legions whom Caesar sent across the river was Labienus.

§ 251, p. 103[edit]

  1. Arma, quae portāvimus, nōn bona sunt.
  2. Eā aestāte cum Caesare, quī prōvinciam dēfendit, pugnābi(ti)s.
  3. Cōnsilium, quō illud oppidum vastātur, laudābō.
  4. Caesar decem legiōnēs in bellīs, quae cum Gallīs gessit, habuit.
  5. Fēmina, cui viam dēmonstrāvī, māter huius obsidis miserī est.

§ 258, p. 106[edit]

  1. She rules, he's ruled.
  2. She was ruling, he was ruled.
  3. She will rule, he will be ruled.
  4. They rule, they are ruled.
  5. They will rule, they will be ruled.
  6. You (sg.) rule, you (sg.) are ruled.
  7. You (sg.) were ruling, you (sg.) were ruled.
  8. You (sg.) will rule, you (sg.) will be ruled.
  9. We are ruling, we are ruled.
  10. You (pl.) rule, you (pl.) are ruled.
  11. I shall rule, I shall be ruled.
  12. They are seizing, they are captured.
  13. She was seizing, he was being captured.
  14. She will seize, he will be captured.
  15. They will seize, they will be captured.
  16. You (sg.) will seize, you (sg.) will be captured.
  17. You (sg.) seize, you (sg.) are captured.
  18. You (sg.) were seizing, you (sg.) were being captured.

§ 259, p. 106[edit]

  1. Dūcit, dūcitur.
  2. Dūcent, dūcentur.
  3. Dūcunt, dūcuntur.
  4. Dūcis/dūcitis, dūceris/dūciminī.
  5. Dūcēmus, dūcēmur.
  6. Mittimus, mittimur.
  7. Mittiturne? Mittunturne?
  8. Mittet, mittētur.
  9. Mittiris/mittiminī, mittēris/mittēminī.
  10. Gerēbant, gerēbam.
  11. Gerimus, gerēmus.
  12. Iacimus, iacimur.
  13. Iaciēbāmus, iaciēbāmur.
  14. Quis recipit? Quis recipiēbatur?

§ 261, p. 107[edit]

  1. Ambassadors have come into consul's camp for peace.
  2. At last these legates are led to the consul.
  3. They will be received well by the consul.
  4. No longer is the enemy's city defended.
  5. The javelins which were thrown down from the walls wounded many.
  6. The soldiers of the consul are not defeated often by the Gauls.
  7. The peace will be welcome to the Roman people.

§ 262, p. 107[edit]

  1. Labiēnus paucīs cum cohortibus Rōmā in Galliam mittētur.
  2. Illa oppida Galliae fortiter dēfendentur.
  3. Legiō ex castrīs dūcuntur.
  4. Hodiē multae cīvitātēs Galliae vincuntur.
  5. Nova cōnsilia sociōrum nostrōrum fīnitimīs nūntiābantur.
  6. Illī recipientur ā Caesare, quī Helvetiōs vīcit.

§ 269, p. 109[edit]

  1. His shield was heavy.
  2. Their friends have been soldiers.
  3. Their zeal is praised.
  4. I will stay with you (pl.) because of the storm.
  5. The war is waged against them.
  6. Is Marcus with you (sg.)?
  7. He was walking with her.
  8. They will hurry to Athens without you (pl.).
  9. We are miserable, you (pl.) are sick and exhausted.
  10. All your (pl.) plans are acceptable to us.
  11. His father and mother were received well by you (pl.)
  12. The remaining chiefs, who were arming themselves, did not come to the meeting.
  13. And thus he calls a centurion to himself and explains the plan to him.
  14. Caesar led the foot soldiers out the camp daily.

§ 270, p. 109[edit]

  1. Māter eius et pater meus tē vīdērunt.
  2. Nunc sunt cum mē.
  3. Eī, eī, eīs praemia dabō.
  4. Castra eōrum oppugnātur.
  5. Egō in oppidum tēcum properābō.
  6. Magnō cum labōre nōs līberāmus.
  7. Ea sē gladiō eius patris vulnerāvit.
  8. Reliquī sē interficient.
  9. Ea aestāte oppida eōrum ā Gallīs vāstābuntur.

§ 272, p. 110[edit]

  1. She hears, she's being heard.
  2. She was hearing, she was being heard.
  3. She will hear, she will be heard.
  4. We hear, we are being heard.
  5. We will hear, we will be heard.
  6. I shall hear, I shall be heard.
  7. You (pl.) hear, you (pl.) are being heard.
  8. You (pl.) will hear, you (pl.) will be heard.
  9. You (sg.) hear, you (sg.) are being heard.
  10. I was hearing, I was being heard.
  11. They hear, they are being heard.
  12. They were hearing, they were being heard.

§ 273, p. 110[edit]

  1. Impediō, impedior.
  2. Impediēbam, impediēbar.
  3. Impediam, impediar.
  4. Impediunt, impediuntur.
  5. Impedient, impedientur.
  6. Reperit, reperītur.
  7. Reperiēbat, reperiēbatur.
  8. Reperiet, reperiētur.

§ 284, p. 113[edit]

  1. Caesar, however, sent his own soldiers across the river.
  2. Caesar will find his (not his own) brother in the camp.
  3. That sick man was deprived of water.
  4. Afterwards that state was lacking food and grain.
  5. He kept soldiers away from this people by buildings and money for a long time.
  6. Because of want of arms the Germans left off from the battle.
  7. Our (troops), who had hurried to the camp of the Germans, kept them away from weapons.
  8. A river was cutting off our troops from the road.
  9. At that time boats were being built near the river by the enemy.

§ 285, p. 113[edit]

  1. Amīcī nostrī pecūniam carēbat.
  2. Hostēs sua aedificia dēfendent.
  3. Nōs ā cūrā līberābis/līberābitis.
  4. Caesar sua cōnsilia dē pāce suīs nūntiāvit.
  5. Posteā ex omniā potestāte Germānōs prīvābunt.
  6. Reliquī prīncipum ab suīs oppidīs interclūdēbantur.

§ 287, p. 114[edit]

  1. A man has been loved, a woman has been loved, a war has been loved.
  2. The men have been loved, the women have been loved, the wars have been loved.
  3. The soldiers had been warned, the boy will have been warned, the town had been warned.
  4. A farmer has been captured, a city has been ruled, a province had been ruled.
  5. I have been captured, I had been captured, I shall have been captured.
  6. You (sg.) have been heard, you (sg.) had been heard, you (sg.) will have been heard.
  7. We have been heard, we had been heard, we shall have been heard.

§ 288, p. 115[edit]

  1. Gallia monita est, Gallia monita erat, Gallia monita erit.
  2. Aedificia capita sunt, aedificia capita erant, aedificia capita erunt.
  3. Fīnēs ā Germānīs rectī erant.
  4. Urbēs dēfensae erunt.
  5. Itaque audītae erimus.

§ 290, p. 115[edit]

  1. Many towns in Italy have been built by the Romans.
  2. Few Germans there have been killed with our javelins.
  3. Your words will have been heard by me.
  4. At that time the commander was cut off from the baggage and carts.
  5. The war, which has been waged by Caesar, was long.
  6. The soldiers, who were sent to Gaul by him, lacked grain.
  7. The booty that had been captured by our commander has been carried to Rome without delay.
  8. In a meeting Caesar said to his own (troops): "My plans have not been hampered by the enemy."

§ 294, p. 117[edit]

  1. The arrival of the legions delights us.
  2. Our army, however, has cut off the Germans from supplies.
  3. Between our (troops) and the enemy was a lake.
  4. Consuls were commanders of Roman armies.
  5. They had fought violently for a long time on the flanks.
  6. Labienus' camp was protected with a swamp and a lake.
  7. In the ports of Greece we have seen many ships during the winter.
  8. We observed the armed force of the enemy.

§ 295, p. 117[edit]

  1. Et pedibus et cornibus pugnant.
  2. Inter montīs multī lacūs āb eīs videntur.
  3. Ab adventū mercātōrum dēlectātī erāmus.
  4. Haec domus est mea, illa est tua.
  5. Prīmā luce autem commeātūs ē castrīs ad portūs portāvērunt.
  6. Statim Rōma ā manibus cīvium mūnita est.
  7. Cūr domū properās/properātis?

§ 299, p. 119[edit]

  1. Which way is shorter?
  2. Which way is the shortest?
  3. Nevertheless, the cavalry had travelled through the neighbouring villages.
  4. The Germans asked for peace from the Roman senate.
  5. The friendship of the allies will be very pleasing to the Roman people.
  6. Our army will make an attack upon the enemy.
  7. This river is wide, but the sea is wider.
  8. The Gauls certainly were very brave in the war.
  9. Where have you seen more brave citizens?

§ 300, p. 119[edit]

  1. Domus tua novissima est.
  2. Imperātōr equitātūs per iter longius mīsit.
  3. Aestās in Brītanniā nōn brevissima est.
  4. Hōc pīlum gravius est.
  5. Pāx autem ab omnibus cīvitātibus Galliae petetur.
  6. Impetum in turrem parvō cum studiō faciunt.
  7. Excercitus per silvās palūdēsque iter faciēbat.

§ 311, p. 123[edit]

  1. A large part of the route is narrow but very easy.
  2. At daybreak we saw a part of the enemy on the mountain.
  3. That of all the roads of the city was shortest.
  4. The men of Britain are different from the men of Italy.
  5. Straightaway ten of the soldiers leave off from the battle.
  6. On a beach the women were grieving because the road was difficult.
  7. The enemy was fiercest and swiftest ff all the Gauls.
  8. The most difficult is often very easy.
  9. They will strengthen (their) friendship with the nearest tribes.

§ 312, p. 123[edit]

  1. Habemusne cōpiam armōrum?
  2. Iter per montīs facile nōn erit.
  3. Quinque ex amīcīs meīs in lītore mittentur ā mē per iter facilius.
  4. Pars mīlitum ā reliquō excercitū interclūdēbātur.
  5. Manus tua similis est meae (manuī).
  6. Hōc est facillimum omnium itinerum per fīnīs Gallōrum.

§ 323, p. 127[edit]

  1. Six legions are led into the lower part of the province by Caesar.
  2. The roads of our city are narrower by many feet.
  3. A very large armed force of the enemy had been assembled, and they were preventing the Romans from march(ing).
  4. They have thrown very many javelins down from the higher ground.
  5. That tower is ten feet taller than the wall.
  6. A smaller fort was defended by a hundred soldiers.
  7. Your part of the work is larger than mine.
  8. Occasionally our friends give us bad advice.
  9. I see the top of the mountain.
  10. The lower (southern) part of Italy was called "Great Greece" on account of many Greek cities (there); the upper (northern) part of Italy, because the Gauls dwelt there, was called "Cisalpine Gaul" or "the Nearer Gaul".

§ 324, p. 127[edit]

  1. Virī optimī interdum plūrimōs amīcōs nōn habent.
  2. In itinere plūrimī (virī) interficiēbantur; reliquī in silvām magnam fūgērunt.
  3. Cornēlia pede altior quam Iūlia erat.
  4. Gallī plūrēs equitēs quam Rōmānī habēbant.*
  5. Pars hostium in locīs superiōribus exspectābat.
  6. Cōnsilium melius senātuī praebitum est.*
  7. Urbēs maximae centum obsidēs Caesarī mīsērunt.
  • While the imperfect tense describes, the perfect tense advances a narrative.

§ 329, p. 129[edit]

  1. Fathers and mothers love very greatly their own children.
  2. They give to them very good advice and work for them very diligently.
  3. At that time we will send ahead a great number of foot soldiers in that large forest, which we see from here.
  4. From this mountaintop I easily see six cities and a hundred roads.
  5. In the lowest (southern) parts of the country rivers are very small.
  6. Our troops have been hindered longer by the lake than the mountains.
  7. Most of the soldiers have been left behind near the port; the remaining (soldiers) have suddenly attacked the enemy.
  8. They will build walls with trees and stones.
  9. This river is wider than that by a hundred feet.

§ 330, p. 129[edit]

  1. Interdum hostēs Caesaris multō fortius quam mīlitēs Rōmānī pugnāvērunt.
  2. Sed mīlitēs eius ācerrimē audacissimēque pugnābant.
  3. Diūtissimē cum Gallīs bella gerēbat.
  4. Ampla praemia saepe centuriōnibus suīs deit quod multa praeda cēperant.
  5. In urbe Rōmae ā suīs inimīcīs interfectus est.

§ 335, p. 131[edit]

  1. At first Caesar pitched the camp on the top of the mountain.
  2. The camp has been pitched on the top of the mountain by Caesar.
  3. From this place the enemy have been seen on the large plain.
  4. Between this mountain and that plain was a river, which was hundred feet wide and five feet deep.
  5. However, Caesar drew up the battle line and was waiting the enemy's attack.
  6. For the larger part of the day his horsemen remained in the flanks.
  7. But the enemy did not attack, because they had a small hope of victory.
  8. At that time the young lacked corn for many days.
  9. The hills behind our camp is higher by many feet.

§ 336, p. 131[edit]

  1. Caesar hanc rem ē plūrimīs nūntiīs audivit.
  2. Eō diē fidēs Gallōrum parvissima erat.
  3. Flūmen in eō locō decem pedem altum erat; itaque in lītore tota impedīmenta relīquērunt.
  4. Hae rēs (mīlitēs) nostrī omnī spē prīvāvit.
  5. In Italiā sex diēs manēbimus.

§ 345, p. 135[edit]

  1. He sends a messenger in order that she may warn the citizens.
  2. A youth is being sent that the citizens may be warned.
  3. The legion is sent lest the town will be captured by the enemy.
  4. The legions are fighting bravely to capture the town.
  5. The boy has come so that he will hear the story.
  6. The boys have come so they may hear your words.
  7. We are sending them to govern the province.
  8. We send them in order that the province is ruled by them.
  9. You hasten to Gaul in order to wage war.
  10. We send ahead a hundred soldiers to fortify the camp.

§ 346, p. 135[edit]

  1. Mittitur ut pugnet.
  2. Eōs mittīmus ut viam reperiant.
  3. Mitteris nē in urbem hostēs impetum faciant.
  4. Mīlitēs ē castrīs dūcentur ut aciēs īnstruātur.
  5. Veniam tē mātremque (tuam) videam.
  6. Pugnat ut sē dēfendat.

§ 353, p. 137[edit]

  1. They come that they may seek peace.
  2. They came that they might seek peace.
  3. They will come that they may seek peace.
  4. They had come that they might have sought peace.
  5. They were fighting bravely lest they might be overcome by the Gauls.
  6. They had hurried across the river so they might storm the town.
  7. The legions will be sent to cut off the enemy from supplies.
  8. In order that they might defend the port our (troops) have been sent ahead.
  9. The consul will speak very boldly to rouse the rabble Roman people.

§ 354, p. 137[edit]

  1. Labōrant ut laudent.
  2. Labōrābant ut laudārent.
  3. Labōrābunt ut laudent.
  4. Labōrāvērant ut laudārent.
  5. Dē locīs superiōribus pīla iaciēbant ut Rōmānōs impedīrent.
  6. Prīncipēs convocāverat ut novum cōnsilium audīrent.
  7. Dē proeliō dēsistent nē interficiantur.

§ 360, p. 139[edit]

  1. The boy acted in such a way that he was liked by everyone.
  2. The city has been laid waste lest it would have been captured by the enemy.
  3. We advice him lest he become a soldier.
  4. He commanded them not to travel through our province.
  5. So great is the lack of food that very many are sick.
  6. The city has been defended so bravely that for ten days it was not captured.
  7. The enemy have fled to the forests lest they be surrounded by our (troops).
  8. First Caesar ordered them to give aid to our (troops).

§ 361, p. 139[edit]

  1. Paucī tam erant ut fugerent.
  2. Erant tam fortitēs ut nōn fugerent.
  3. Eum moneō ut fortior sit.
  4. Lēgātus mīlitēs ē castrīs dūxit ut āciem īnstrueret.
  5. Postulat ut castra in eō locō pōnant.
  6. Pālus tantus est ut nostrī impediantur.

§ 375, p. 145[edit]

  1. She asks what they are doing, they have done.
  2. She knew what the were doing, they had done.
  3. I shall tell you why they were toiling, they have toiled.
  4. They had heard whence the soldiers were coming, had come.
  5. They asked why they were being praised, they had been praised.
  6. She knows why they are staying, they had stayed.
  7. She has told us what those boys had done.
  8. I asked whether she had been often in Italy.
  9. Do you know how many years the Romans held Britain?

§ 376, p. 145[edit]

  1. Tibi dīcam ubi fuissent et quid fēcerint.
  2. Hī veniunt ut videant, illī ut videantur.
  3. Dēfessī tam sunt ut hōdiē nōn labent.
  4. Mē rogāvit ut cūr venissem.
  5. Audīveram ut ubi fuisset.
  6. Dūx rogāvit num (illī) omnēs venīrent.
  7. Scīsne quot mīlitēs veniant?

§ 383, p. 147[edit]

  1. On the way two rivers, ten feed deep, will be found.
  2. The memory of these events had roused the army.
  3. They had marched three miles and (then) the first line of battle was drawn up.
  4. Caesar ordered that on the right wing were arranged the third legion and the fourth legion on the left.
  5. Of the three brothers Marcus was the bravest.
  6. For desire of victory this one legion kept back the Gauls.
  7. The heavy javelin of the Romans was six feet long.
  8. The next day they marched eight miles (away) from that place.
  9. The four scouts, whom had been sent ahead, fled because of fear of the enemy.

§ 384, p. 147[edit]

  1. Spēs praemī līberōs Marcī incitābat.
  2. In eō colle decem mīlia peditēs et duo mīlia equitēs īnstructī sunt.
  3. Impedīmentum excertitūs mīlia passuum ā lītore relictum est.
  4. Imperātōr secundam legiōnem prō castra īnstruet.
  5. Adventū duarum legiōnum hostēs ē sinistrō cornū dēcessērunt.
  6. Timor Caesaris Rōmānōrumque ūnam cīvitātem impedeet.
  7. Ūnus hominum erat mihi inimīcus.

§ 388, p. 149[edit]

§ 389, p. 149[edit]

  1. Caesar virtūtem tōtīus legiōnis laudāverat.
  2. Uter adulēscēns maiorem virtūtem dēmonstrāvit?
  3. Caesar sine morā cum sōlā secundā legiōne iter faciet.
  4. Aliī castra ponēbant, aliī aciēs īnstruēbant.
  5. Nūllō in locō plūrimās arborēs repperimus.

§ 396, p. 151[edit]

§ 397, p. 151[edit]

  1. Castra mūrō altō munīre erit facile.
  2. Auxilium dare dēbēs/dēbētis.
  3. Mīlitēs decimae legiōnis incitāre nōn potest.
  4. Bellum gerere nōn saepe est optimum.
  5. Fortēs bonīque esse dēbēmus.
  6. Aliī pugnāre, aliī fugere coepērunt.

§ 404, p. 154[edit]

§ 405, p. 154[edit]

  1. Legātus suōs turrīs aedificāre iubēbit.
  2. Sciō duās legiōnēs praemissās esse.
  3. Per captīvōs cognōvit hostēs cibō carēre.
  4. Eōs in illā cīvitāte hiemāre iussit.
  5. Mercātōrēs respondērunt nūllum frūmentum in fīnibus Germānōrum esse.

§ 413, p. 159[edit]

§ 414, p. 159[edit]

§ 421, p. 162[edit]

§ 422, p. 163[edit]

§ 430, p. 165[edit]

§ 431, p. 165[edit]

§ 436, p. 167[edit]

§ 437, p. 167[edit]

§ 447, p. 171[edit]

§ 448, p. 172[edit]

§ 457, p. 176[edit]

§ 458, p. 177[edit]

§ 464, p. 179[edit]

§ 465, p. 179[edit]

§ 476, p. 183[edit]

§ 477, p. 183[edit]

§ 485, p. 187[edit]

§ 486, p. 187[edit]

§ 491, p. 189[edit]

§ 492, p. 189[edit]

§ 499, p. 193[edit]

§ 500, p. 193[edit]

§ 504, p. 195[edit]

§ 505, p. 195[edit]

Reading Lessons[edit]

Translations for the reading lessons are kept as literal as possible. These should not be taken as an example neither for translation nor reading.

§ 96, p. 46-7[edit]

Cornelia and Julia are small girls. Where do they dwell? They dwell not in Greece but in a renowned town of Italy. They are inhabitants of Rome. Italy is the native country of the Romans. Rome has wide roads and large temples. The Romans like and approve of war.
Cornelia is a poet's daughter. The poet often walks in wide gardens. He also sings about the long war and the flight of the Germans because he approves the victory of the Romans.
Julia is a farmer's daughter. The farmer has horses and new carts. The farmer's horses carry food and grain. The farmer's slaves give water to the horses. Julia likes the horses and praises the slaves. The farmer is a good master.
Marcus and Galba, tribunes, are friends of the girls. Marcus is a friend of the poet's and tells pleasing stories to Cornelia. Galba shows forests and islands of the sea to Julia. (During the modern times this could, and probably would, end up being understood horribly wrong, and the whole affair would end badly for both Marcus and Galba.)
A good woman teaches the girls. Cornelia's diligence delights the woman. She calls together the girls in the poet's garden, and she tells stories. The stories of war frighten the small girls.
They (= presumably the girls and the woman) often prepare gifts for Vesta. Who is Vesta? Vesta is a Roman goddess, and she has a temple. The girls often walk on Roman roads and behold the booty of Germany and Britain.

§ 138, p. 61[edit]

Romulus has built Rome, the renowned city of Italy. The Romans were strong men, and they loved their fatherland. They were fighting often for their fatherland, and with arms they subdued often the Sabines in battle. The Sabines had fine arms, and they fought with great zeal for a long time with long javelins. But the Romans put the Sabines in flight, and they wounded many men with (their) swords.

§ 158, p. 67[edit]

Mars, ancestor of the Romans, was fond of arms, battles and wars. Romulus and Remus, sons of the god of arms, have built Rome. And so, battles and wars delighted the minds of the Romans. The Romans worshipped Mercury, Neptune, and Vesta. Mercury, a messenger of the gods, related commands of the gods to inhabitants of the Earth. Sailors worshipped Neptune, the god of water and sea. Women worshipped Vesta, the goddess of hearth, and they prepared many offerings for the goddess.

§ 169, p. 72[edit]

Marcus: My friend told me a good story today.

Julia: About what did your friend tell?

Marcus: (He told) about Icarus, son of Daedalus, an unfortunate boy.

Julia: Where did Icarus live? In Britain?

Marcus: He did not live in Britain, but in Crete, a large and famous island. Daedalus conceived and prepared wings for (his) son. These wings he put on Icarus using wax with great care. The wings were pleasing to Daedalus. The he taught Daedalus, the boy, to fly, but Icarus flew too high. An so the sun melted the wax, and the wings fell off.

Julia: And what about Icarus?

Marcus: Icarus too fell down into the sea.

Julia: Alack, poor Icarus!

§ 170, p. 73[edit]

The Romans fight for (their) allies

Because injuries have been many, our allies ask for succour. And accordingly, the Romans have sent a legate with men into the land of Helvetians. Presently this legate has called men together in a town. He has bought food and carts, and he has armed the men with swords and shields. Meanwhile the allies have prepared grain. Today the legate will strengthen the spirits of the men. Then he will lead the men in neighbouring lands and will wait for a battle. The spot of that battle is near to the Helvetians('s troops). Our men will fight with great zeal for the allies, and they will subdue the Helvetians. They will lead many prisoners into the town. Those prisoners will pass the winter in our villages.

§ 200, p. 84[edit]

Porsena, an enemy of the Romans, was a famous king. Once he was besieging the city, Rome. Terror of the Romans was great, because Porsena had many soldiers. Frightened women were supplicating the gods in temples. But brave men protected Rome. For with a few comrades Horatius kept back the enemy in front of the Sublician bridge. Meanwhile the citizens dismantled and broke down the bridge in the rear. Then Horatius sent away (his) comrades, and he (alone) defended the bridge against the enemy. Finally the bridge fell down, and among the javelins of the enemy Horatius leapt down into the Tiber and swam to his comrades. This example of bravery saved Rome. Today we praise the deeds of Horatius.

§ 202, p. 85[edit]

Spain, Gaul, and Germany were countries of Europe. Nearest to the Strait of Gibraltar (= the Pillars of Hercules) was Spain. The Gauls lived between Spain and Germany, and Germans dwelled on the other side of Rhine. The Germans had a few villages in Gaul too. Because these nations were enemies (of the Romans), the Romans have fought with the Spaniards, the Gauls, and the Germans often.

Between Gaul and the (mediterranean) sea was a new province of Rome. For a long time the inhabitants of that province warded off violence of the Gauls. Finally they requested help from the Romans; for they were greatly afraid of the neighbouring Helvetians. The Helvetians were hostile not only to the province but also to the Germans, and they were fighting the Germans with almost daily battles.

§ 216, p. 91[edit]

§ 222, p. 93[edit]

§ 234, p. 98[edit]

§ 236, p. 99[edit]

§ 275, p. 111[edit]

§ 277, p. 111[edit]

§ 291, p. 115[edit]

§ 314, p. 124[edit]

§ 316, p. 125[edit]

§ 337, p. 132[edit]

§ 339, p. 133[edit]

§ 368, p. 142[edit]

§ 370, p. 143[edit]

§ 391, p. 149[edit]

§ 406, p. 156[edit]

§ 408, p. 156-7[edit]

§ 423, p. 163[edit]

§ 438, p. 168[edit]

§ 439, p. 168[edit]

§ 440, p. 168-9[edit]

§ 449, p. 173[edit]

§ 451, p. 173-4[edit]

§ 479, p. 184-5[edit]

§ 494, p. 190-1[edit]


§ 68, p. 38[edit]

§ 69, p. 38[edit]

§ 70, p. 39[edit]

§ 71, p. 39[edit]

§ 72, p. 39[edit]

  1. Rule: The subject of a sentence is in the nominative case.
    Equus natat.
  2. Rule: A verb agrees with its subject in number and person.
    Equī natant.
  3. Rule: The object of a verb is in the accusative case.
    Puella equum exspectat.
  4. Rule: The word enoting the owner or possessor is in the genitive case.
    Equus puellae natat.
  5. Rule: The cause of and action may be expressed by a dependent clause introduced by quod.
    Equus natat quod puella equum exspectat.
  6. Rule: The indirect object of a verb is in the dative case.
    Rēgīna puellae equum dat.
  7. Rule: Plase where is commonly expressed by a phrase consisting of a preposition, usually in, with the ablative case.
    Puella in agrō equum spectat.
  8. Rule: -.
    Quis puellae equum dat?
    Rēgīnane puellae equum dat?
    Cuius equum rēgīna puellae dat?

§ 115, p. 54[edit]

§ 116, p. 54[edit]

§ 117, p. 55[edit]

§ 118, p. 55[edit]

§ 119, p. 55[edit]

  1. Rule: Adjectives agree with their nouns in case, gender, and number.
    Ea puella equum bonum et parvam habet.
  2. Rule: A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb.
    Cornēlia est puella.
  3. Rule: A predicate adjective agrees in case, gender, and number with the subject of the verb.
    Iūlia et Cornēlia sunt amīcae.
  4. Rule: An appositive agrees in case with the noun it explains.
    Cornēlia puella equum probat.
  5. Rule: Certain adjectives meaning near, fit, friendly, pleasing, like, and their opposites may be accompanied by a dative to show the person or the thin toward which the quality of the adjective is directed.
    Equus Cornēliae grātus est.

§ 163, p. 70[edit]

§ 164, p. 70[edit]

§ 165, p. 70[edit]

§ 166, p. 71[edit]

§ 167, p. 71[edit]

  1. Rule: The means by which an action is accomplished is expressed by the ablative without a preposition.
    Sociōs vulnerōs scutīs portāvērunt.
  2. Rule: The ablative with cum is used with abstract nouns to denote the manner of an action; but cum may be omitted if an adjective modifies the noun of the phrase.
    In eō locō cum studīo pugnāvērunt; sed prō eō vīcō magnā cūrā pugnāvērunt.
  3. Rule: The ablative with cum is used to show accompaniment.
    Is lēgātus in Italiam cum sociīs properāvit.

§ 203, p. 86[edit]

§ 204, p. 86[edit]

§ 205, p. 87[edit]

§ 206, p. 87[edit]

§ 207, p. 87[edit]

  1. Rule: Place from which is expressed by the ablative with ā (ab), or ē (ex).
    Ab urbē Horātius properat.
    Dē pontē Horātius desiluit.
    Ē portā Horātius properāvit.
  2. Rule: The place to which is expressed by the accusative with ad or in.
    Ad pontem Horātius cucurrit.
    In flūmen Horātius desilit.
  3. Rule: The ablative without a preposition is used to express cause.
    Multīs vulneribus mīlitēs dēfessī sunt.
  4. Rule: Cause may also be expressed by a prepositional phrase consisting of ob or propter with the accusative, or of or ex with the ablative.
    Ob virtūtem Horātiī eum laudāmus.
    Rōmānī multīs dē iniūrīs cum Helvetiīs pugnāverunt.
  5. Rule: -
    Ad pontem contrā hostīs Horātius properat.
    Ante pontem inter sociōs Horātius apud hostīs pugnāvit.
    Ob iniūriās per urbem et trāns pontem Horātius, et post Horātium cīvēs, properāvērunt.
  6. Rule: -
    Ab urbe et ē portās cum sociīs prō Rōmā Horātius, sine terrōre, properat.
  7. Rule: -
    Nostrī dēfessī sunt.
    Dux dēfessōs ā proeliō dīmīsit.

§ 252, p. 104[edit]

§ 253, p. 104[edit]

§ 254, p. 104[edit]

§ 255, p. 105[edit]

§ 256, p. 105[edit]

§ 301, p. 120[edit]

§ 302, p. 120[edit]

§ 303, p. 121[edit]

§ 304, p. 121[edit]

§ 305, p. 121[edit]

§ 362, p. 140[edit]

§ 363, p. 140[edit]

§ 364, p. 141[edit]

§ 365, p. 141[edit]

§ 366, p. 141[edit]

§ 415, p. 160[edit]

§ 416, p. 160[edit]

§ 417, p. 161[edit]

§ 418, p. 161[edit]

§ 419, p. 161[edit]

§ 466, p. 180[edit]

§ 467, p. 180[edit]

§ 468, p. 181[edit]

§ 469, p. 181[edit]

§ 470, p. 181[edit]

§ 506, p. 196[edit]

§ 507, p. 196[edit]

§ 508, p. 197[edit]

§ 509, p. 197[edit]

§ 510, p. 197[edit]

§ 511, p. 197[edit]