Niw Englisc/Grammar/Pronouns

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Niw Englisc is based on the same pronouns of Old English, carried forward today:

First Person Pronoun
I We two We
Nominative ic wit wiȝ
Genitive mein unker user
Dative miȝ unk us
Accusative mic unkit usic

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Second Person Pronoun
Thou Ye two Ye
Nominative þu ȝit ȝiȝ
Genitive þein inker ȝuer
Dative þiȝ ink ȝu
Accusative þic inkit ȝuic

Note: it is grammatically correct to use ȝit when referring to two people as a pair, rather than ȝiȝ.

Third Person Pronoun
He She It They
Nominative he scie it hje
Genitive his her his hjer
Dative him her him hjem
Accusative hin scie/sca it hje

Note: Third person pronouns agree in gender with the noun they reference, be it masculine, feminine, or plural.

Examples:

  • He is an Hund. It is a dog.
  • Scie is ane Rose. It is a rose.

In these cases, the pronoun used (he, scie) agrees with the grammatical gender of the noun, even though modern English uses 'it' in both cases.

Question Words: Who? What?[edit | edit source]

These words are similar to modern English, but with the question word agreeing in gender to the noun referenced. Who is used with persons, and What with things.

Third Person Pronoun
Who? What?
Nominative ƕa ƕat
Genitive ƕas ƕas
Dative ƕam ƕam
Accusative ƕan ƕat

Examples:

  • Ƕa is scie? Who is she?
  • Ƕat is þat Þing? What is that thing?

Demonstrative Pronouns

Þe, Þat[edit | edit source]

þe
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nominative þe þat þie þie
Genitive þes þes þer þer
Dative þem þem þer þen
Accusative þen þat þie þie

This pronoun can be translated as "the" or "that"

Þis[edit | edit source]

þis
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nominative þis þis þisse þisse
Genitive þisses þisses þisser þisser
Dative þissem þissem þisser þissen
Accusative þissen þis þisse þisse

This demonstrative pronoun can be translated as "this" indicating something close by the speaker, as opposed to "þe" or further, "ȝon."

Ȝon[edit | edit source]

ȝon
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nominative ȝon ȝon ȝone ȝone
Genitive ȝones ȝones ȝoner ȝoner
Dative ȝonem ȝonem ȝoner ȝonen
Accusative ȝonen ȝon ȝone ȝone

This demonstrative pronoun can be translated as "that one (over there)" and indicates a farther distance than 'þe' either spatially or conversationally.

Example:

  • Ic was in ȝoner Burg. I was in that city over there.
  • Ic was in ȝoner Burg, na þisser Burg. I was in that city over there, not this city.
  • Scie sprak ȝestern um ȝon Auto, and um þis Auto todæȝ. She spoke about that car yesterday, and this car today.

Each, Every[edit | edit source]

ælc
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nominative ælc ælc ælce ælce
Genitive ælces ælces ælcer ælcer
Dative ælcem ælcem ælcer ælcen
Accusative ælcen ælc ælce ælce

This is an adjective that acts like a demonstrative. It is used like English 'each' or German 'jeder'.

Example:

  • Ælc Auto hæfþ AC. Each car has AC.
  • Innen ælces Huses findeþ man Glowperen. Inside of each house one finds lightbulbs.

Every one, Everything[edit | edit source]

ælc
Masculine Neuter Feminine
Nominative Æȝƕa Æȝƕat Æȝƕa
Genitive Æȝƕas Æȝƕas Æȝƕas
Dative Æȝƕam Æȝƕam Æȝƕam
Accusative Æȝƕan Æȝƕat Æȝƕan

Every (adj)[edit | edit source]

ælc
Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
Nominative Æȝƕilc Æȝƕilc Æȝƕilce Æȝƕilce
Genitive Æȝƕilces Æȝƕilces Æȝƕilcer Æȝƕilcer
Dative Æȝƕilcem Æȝƕilcem Æȝƕilcer Æȝƕilcen
Accusative Æȝƕilcen Æȝƕilc Æȝƕilce Æȝƕilce

Example:

  • Every car is white: Æȝƕilc Auto is ƕeit.
  • All cars can drive on the road: Æȝƕilce/Alle Autos kunneþ on þer Raad faren. Usually all is used to emphasize the group as a whole, while æȝƕilc emphasizes each individual of that group.

Other Pronouns[edit | edit source]

  • Declined like an adjective:
    • Æƕæðer: someone, any one
    • Æniȝ: any
    • Nan: none
    • Næniȝ: none, not any
    • Ƕæðer: which of two?
    • Ƕilc: which of many?
    • Ilc: the same; used with the definite article (þeilc, þesilcen, þemilcen)
    • Naƕæðer: neither (of two)
    • Natƕilc: someone (unknown)
    • Swilc: such, the same, the like
    • Þilc: such; (closer to the speaker, more concrete than 'swilc')
  • Declined like pronouns:
    • Geƕa: everyone
    • Natƕa: someone (unknown)


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