Issues in Interdisciplinarity 2019-20/Evidence: Is private school really better than public school?

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In this chapter, "public school" refers to state-funded schools that do not require any fees to attend (not to be confused with English boarding school), while "private school" refers to privately-funded schools, usually through tuition fees and endowments. (sometimes called Independent or autonomous schools as well)

Introduction[edit]

It is a common, worldwide belief that private school provides a higher quality of education than public school. Combined with the long-standing reputation and prestige associated with many such institutes, this forms the main reason behind parents sending their children into private education. This chapter aims to discuss the validity of these claims by examining the veracity of the evidence supporting them from multiple disciplinary perspectives; these reflect the fundamental disciplines encompassed by Education Studies. ...areas an example of interdisciplinary issues within the wider field of Education Studies.

- History section 1 (Elina) - Private schools or also known as non-governmental schools first appeared in 1660 in New Netherland, and after were found across America by the 18th century. First, the notion of "private schooling" came from the religious aspects, particularly from the importance of Catholic schooling. Mostly, Americans wanted to invade the "moral and religious education," that led to changing a classical curriculum. During the eighteenth century, nongovernmental schools started to create a new curriculum from basic academic (arithmetics, writing, reading) to more "practical" or field-specific subjects such as business, accounting, and languages. By the end of the eighteenth century, parents decided that they need to participate in their children's' academic performance. Private schools started to implement extracurricular activities as sports, music lessons, painting, and drawing as well as make parent meetings and parties where parents can involve in children's school life.... (will add 2-3 more sentences)

- History section 2 (Zewei) -

- Philosophy section (Jason)-

Disciplinary Approaches[edit]

Economics[edit]

From an economic point of view, the most commonly used measure of effectiveness when comparing private and public schools is academic achievement, particularly in key disciplines such as mathematics and English. Attendance and failure to complete high school, as well as post-graduation performance at university and in the labor market, are also considered amongst other elements. Research is mainly conducted by means of quantitive methods, analyzing cross-sectional data to compare performance across different schools.

Results are shown to be mixed, with some research supporting the superior standing of private school, while others do not find a notable difference between public and private schools. Even when factoring in socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, and disabilities, in an attempt to control all other potential variables, the nature of studying human behavior means that it is near impossible to be able to conclude with certainty that correlation equals causation in this context.

potential references dump:

private school vouchers and student achievement

public and private schools : mathematic achievement

parents: public-private school choice

public and private schools: includes data, hard to read (old)

private vs public (spain) : uses DEA

influence of private school on choosing maths

cognitive outcomes in public and private : first page only

public vs private school : performance at college (university)

comparing student achievement across several areas in various types of schools

benefits of private schooling: downloaded pdf on laptop

willingness to pay for private school

public vs private achievement

first page only - mentions studies about private school achievement being greater even when considering individual characteristics

examining earnings : may not be useful in this context but worth a look

investment in human capital

catholic vs public school - starting college : something else to consider next to private schools as similar

private school research : may be worth a look

Indonesia: labour market earnings, private vs public

inconclusive research on private vs public in Chile

public vs private Chile : includes data

private vs public Chile again

school quality vs return to education later on

private vs public school performance in college : public performed better overall

public vs private in India : private performs better academically

(Econ) The progress of school education in India. https://academic.oup.com/oxrep/article/23/2/168/504868

Sociology[edit]

According to sociology, socio-economic statuses significantly influence choices for education. Naturally, there is a socio-economic selection system in education. (Mata, Anna. "How Families’ Socio-Economic Inequalities Affect Schools." 2019) Parents participation in a student’s educational progress directly depends on their economic status. Parents who have lower income do not involve themselves in student’s education as much as those of high financial income counterparts. Ethnicity examples will cover The Black Americans, Hispanic, and Asian Americans.

1) Demie, Feyisa, and Christabel McLean. "Black Caribbean Underachievement in Schools in England." 2017. https://www.lambeth.gov.uk/rsu/sites/www.lambeth.gov.uk.rsu/files/black_caribbean_underachievement_in_schools_in_england_2017.pdf.

2) Griffith, James. "The Relation of School Structure and Social Environment to Parent Involvement in Elementary Schools." The Elementary School Journal 99, no. 1 (1998): 53-80. www.jstor.org/stable/1002225.

3) InternationsGo. "International Schools and the Education System in Hong Kong GO!" Community for Expatriates & Global Minds | InterNations. Last modified July 2019. https://www.internations.org/go/moving-to-hong-kong/education.

4) Mata, Anna. "How Families’ Socio-Economic Inequalities Affect Schools." 2019. doi:10.15405/epsbs.2019.04.02.81.

5)O ’Keeffe, Denise. "INEQUALITIES IN SCHOOLS: Socio-Economic Background Or Culture, Method Of Curriculum Transmission And Language." July 2001. http://mural.maynoothuniversity.ie/5177/1/Denise_O_Keefe_20140709081624.pdf

6) Williams, Trevor, and Peter G. Carpenter. “Private Schooling and Public Achievement.” Australian Journal of Education 34, no. 1 (April 1990): 3–24. doi:10.1177/000494419003400101.

7) https://www.isc.co.uk/media/3140/16_02_26-cem-durham-university-academic-value-added-research.pdf

Psychology[edit]

Educational psychology investigates the ways in which academic performance and learning outcomes are affected by topics such as motivation, cognitive development, and pedagogy.


1) Teachers' workload is found to be higher in private schools, and teachers' wellbeing can affect their teaching and subsequently students' learning experience and outcomes (Secondary literature)https://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/teacher-blog/2014/nov/18/teachers-private-schools-work-hours-money (Research paper, Nigeria) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329352363_Teachers'_Instructional_Workload_Management_and_Students'_Academic_Performance_in_Public_and_Private_Secondary_Schools_in_Akoko_North-East_Local_Government_Ondo_State_Nigeria

2) Competition within private schools decreases pupil wellbeing but raises achievement and lowers educational costs. Mechanisms: more traditional teaching and stronger parental achievement pressure. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775717301619


More papers to read

(Sociology) Comparing Public and Private Schools https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1443&context=stu_hon_theses

also sociology social benefits of education

research suggesting private school enrolment is linked to religion and race rather than the quality of public school

public vs private student performance by race: only slightly advantageous for white students concluded

A comparison of Academic Achievement in Independent and State Schools. https://www.isc.co.uk/media/3140/16_02_26-cem-durham-university-academic-value-added-research.pdf

The role and impact of private schools in developing countries https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/439702/private-schools-full-report.pdf

The relative effectiveness of private and public schools: evidence from Kenya https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/3KtpAiEBwmqaqFiwN6Pz/full

Conclusion[edit]

Notes:

Meeting 2

potential focus: k-12 education and a specific focus on high schools

Potential case study: Hong Kong

Potential disciplines, keywords, and points for comparison

Philosophy: definition of success, the aim, and purpose of education

Psychology: success measured by academic performance and learning outcomes, academic workload, amount and types of assessments, motivation, personality, maturation, intelligence, nature and nurture, pedagogy

Sociology: success as bettering social outcomes, well-rounded education, production of good, democratic, critical, self-reflective citizens, effects of social class, ethnicity, and gender on achievement, Bourdieu's idea of cultural capital, inclusion and exclusion

According to sociology, socio-economic statuses significantly influence choices for education. Naturally, there is a socio-economic selection system in education. (Mata, Anna. "How Families’ Socio-Economic Inequalities Affect Schools." 2019) Parents' participation in a student’s educational progress directly depends on their economic status. Parents who have lower income do not involve themselves in student’s education as much as those of high financial income counterparts.

Ethnicity examples will cover Black Americans, Hispanic, and Asian Americans.

Economics: success as training productive economic assets who can thrive in the labor market, education as an investment, chain effect (having good K-12 education - getting into a good university - landing a well-paying job), alumni network and connection

Meeting 3

1) add a part on limitation: to point out that further research is needed, to clarify what success means in different disciplines, to add that our page highlights the limitations of social scientific research

2) add content on philosophical and historical insights

3) add citation (page 8 of the book) and justification for choosing sociology, psychology, and economics as they are traditional what make up the field of education studies

4) point out the difference in methodology shows conflicting results, suggest that collaboration within the disciplines to unify methods would be good, as well as the potential in collaboration across disciplines

5) Tentative word count: 200 intro, 300 per discipline, 100 conclusion