Oracle Database/Tables

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Architecture[edit]

The Oracle architecture considers one database per server, in which we can find several tablespaces, equivalent to the MySQL and MS-SQL databases objects, containing tables and stored procedures.

vignette

In the Windows Express version, these data are stored into C:\oraclexe\app\oracle\oradata\XE.

These variables and keywords are not sensible to casing.

Create tablespaces[edit]

Once connected, it's possible to begin to create some tables directly, in the default tablespace. However before, we can add some tablespaces in some defined files:

   CREATE TABLESPACE Wikibooks
   DATAFILE 'C:\oraclexe\app\oracle\oradata\XE\Wikibooks.dbf' size 10M reuse
   DEFAULT STORAGE (INITIAL 10K NEXT 50K MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 999) 
   ONLINE;

Create schemas[edit]

A schema is a permission accorded to a set of elements[1], like tables and stored procedures. The keyword AUTHORIZATION specifies the user name:

CREATE SCHEMA AUTHORIZATION root
  CREATE TABLE TableName1...
  CREATE TABLE TableName2...
;

Create tables[edit]

Example:

CREATE TABLE client1 (last VARCHAR(10), first VARCHAR(10), address VARCHAR(20));
Table created.

In SQL Developer, with a right click on the tables, New table..., we can generate and execute this creation in an array, which is translated into PL/SQL in the DDL tab:

CREATE TABLE client1
( id INT NOT NULL 
, last VARCHAR2(50) 
, first VARCHAR2(50) 
, address VARCHAR2(255) 
, CONSTRAINT client1_PK PRIMARY KEY (ID) ENABLE
) TABLESPACE Wikibooks;

We can also set the table tablespace, by selecting it into the GUI, or with the keyword TABLESPACE in the creation clause.

Available data types[edit]

The possible column types are:[2]

  1. Characters:
    1. CHAR: 2 kB.
    2. VARCHAR: 4 kB.
    3. VARCHAR2: 4 kB, synonymous of VARCHAR.
    4. NCHAR: 2 kB.
    5. NVARCHAR2: 4 kB.
  2. Numeric:
    1. NUMBER.
    2. BINARY_INTEGER.
    3. BINARY_FLOAT.
    4. BINARY_DOUBLE.
  3. Date:
    1. DATE.
    2. TIMESTAMP.
  4. RAW.
  5. LONG RAW.
  6. BLOB.
  7. CLOB.
  8. NCLOB.
  9. ROWID.
  10. UROWID.
  11. BFILE.
  12. XMLType.
  13. UriType.

List tables[edit]

The following system view can display the system and the users tables:

SELECT owner, table_name FROM all_tables;

Manage tables content[edit]

Insert rows[edit]

INSERT INTO client1 (id, last, first, address) VALUES (1, 'Doe', 'Jane', 'UK');
1 line created.

Multiple rows:

INSERT ALL
 INTO client1 (id, last, first, address) VALUES (2, 'Doe', 'Jack', 'US')
 INTO client1 (id, last, first, address) VALUES (3, 'Doe', 'John', 'US')
 SELECT 1 FROM DUAL;
2 lines created.

Update rows[edit]

UPDATE client1 SET address = 'US' WHERE id = 1;

Delete rows[edit]

DELETE client1 WHERE ID = 2;

Read tables[edit]

Structure[edit]

To get its structure, we can use either the function desc (description) or the system view ALL_TAB_COLUMNS.

desc[edit]

desc client1;
Name    NULL     Type          
------- -------- ------------- 
ID      NOT NULL NUMBER(38)    
LAST             VARCHAR2(10)  
FIRST            VARCHAR2(10)  
ADDRESS          VARCHAR2(20) 

If the table doesn't exist, the error which occurs is: ORA-00923: FROM keyword not found where expected.

ALL_TAB_COLUMNS[edit]

 SELECT * FROM ALL_TAB_COLUMNS WHERE TABLE_NAME = "client1"
OWNER
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TABLE_NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
COLUMN_NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DATA_TYPE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DAT
---
DATA_TYPE_OWNER
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DATA_LENGTH DATA_PRECISION DATA_SCALE N  COLUMN_ID DEFAULT_LENGTH
----------- -------------- ---------- - ---------- --------------
DATA_DEFAULT
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NUM_DISTINCT
------------
LOW_VALUE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HIGH_VALUE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   DENSITY  NUM_NULLS NUM_BUCKETS LAST_ANA SAMPLE_SIZE
---------- ---------- ----------- -------- -----------
CHARACTER_SET_NAME                           CHAR_COL_DECL_LENGTH GLO USE
-------------------------------------------- -------------------- --- ---
AVG_COL_LEN CHAR_LENGTH C V80 DAT HISTOGRAM       DEF IDE
----------- ----------- - --- --- --------------- --- ---
EVALUATION_EDITION
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
UNUSABLE_BEFORE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
UNUSABLE_BEGINNING
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Content[edit]

To get its content:

SELECT * from client1;
LAST        FIRST     ADDRESS
---------- ---------- --------------------
Doe         Jane      UK

The number of dashes represents the field size.

Indexes[edit]

Create indexes using the CREATE TABLE statement[edit]

Create function-based indexes[edit]

Constraints[edit]

In essence, constraints safeguard and validate the data.

Primary Key (PK) and Unique constraints both ensure the data is not duplicated. PK also ensure the data is not null. Oracle will automatically generate index for PK and Unique constraints. A table can only have one PK, but it can have multiple unique constraints.

Foreign Key (FK) ensure the data exists in the column of the parent table it refer to. Each parent record can have multiple child records, but each child can relate to ONLY one parent record. A column with FK may not necessary to have an index.

FK can only refer to column with PK or Unique constraint. Example:

    create table tblA (colX number, colY char);
    create table tblB (colX number);

    alter table tblB add (constraint colX_FK foreign key (colX) references tblA(colX));
    -- ORA-02270: no matching unique or primary key for this column-list

    alter table tblA add (constraint colX_PK primary key (colX));
    alter table tblB add (constraint colX_FK foreign key (colX) references tblA(colX));
    -- alter table success.

A table can ONLY have one Primary Key, but it can have multiple UNIQUE key. if the child table(s) require to referencing column other than primary key, the column on the parent table must have UNIQUE constraint.

    alter table tblA add (constraint colY_PK primary key (colY));
    -- ORA-02260: table can have only one primary key

Cannot create PK or Unique on a column contains duplicate data

    insert into tblA values(1,'A');
    insert into tblA values(2,'A');
    alter table tblA add (constraint colY_UK unique (colY));
    -- ORA-02299: cannot validate (HR.COLY_UK) - duplicate keys found


    delete from tblA where colx = 2;
    alter table tblA add (constraint colY_UK unique (colY));
    -- alter table success.

    create table tblC (colY char);
    alter table tblC add (constraint colY_FK foreign key (colY) references tblA(colY));
    -- alter table success.

Insert data into a column with FK, the value must already exist in the column that the FK reference to.

    insert into tblC values ('B');
    -- ORA-02291: integrity constraint (HR.COLY_FK) violated - parent key not found

    insert into tblC values ('A');
    -- 1 rows inserted

As long as a foreign key exist, the parent table can truncate/delete the data or disable the PK or Unique constraint

    truncate table tblA;
    -- ORA-02266: unique/primary keys in table referenced by enabled foreign keys

Find out the constraint information in Oracle

    desc all_constraints;

    select
      a.owner, a.table_name, a.constraint_name,
      a.constraint_type, a.status, a.r_owner, a.r_constraint_name,
      b.table_name as r_table_name, b.status as r_status
    from all_constraints a
      left join all_constraints b on a.owner = b.owner and a.r_constraint_name = b.constraint_name
    where a.table_name like 'TBL%';

    select *
    from all_cons_columns
    where table_name like 'TBL%';

Disable constraint that have foreign key refer to is not allowed, in order to do this, you have to disable the foreign key first.

    alter table tblA disable constraint colX_PK;
    -- ORA-02297: cannot disable constraint (HR.COLX_PK) - dependencies exist
    alter table tblA disable constraint colY_UK;
    -- ORA-02297: cannot disable constraint (HR.COLY_UK) - dependencies exist

    alter table tblC disable constraint colY_FK;
    alter table tblB disable constraint colX_FK;

    alter table tblA disable constraint colX_PK;
    alter table tblA disable constraint colY_UK;
    truncate table tblA;

If the data in parent table is deleted, re-enable the foreign key that contain data reference to the missing data is not allowed.

    select * from tblC;
    alter table tblA enable constraint colY_UK;
    alter table tblC enable constraint colY_FK;
    -- ORA-02298: cannot validate (HR.COLY_FK) - parent keys not found

Generate a SQL statements to disable all the Foreign Key on a specified table

    select
      'alter table '||a.owner||'.'||a.table_name||
      ' disable constraint '||a.constraint_name||';' as STMT
    from all_constraints a, all_constraints b
    where a.constraint_type = 'R'
      and a.r_constraint_name = b.constraint_name
      and a.r_owner = b.owner
      and b.table_name = 'TBLA';

Modify tables structure[edit]

Example of renaming:

ALTER TABLE client1 RENAME to client2

First field values constraint addition:

ALTER TABLE client1 CHECK id > 1;

Primary key addition:

ALTER TABLE client1 ADD CONSTRAINT client1_pk PRIMARY KEY (id);

Primary key removal:

ALTER TABLE client1 ADD PRIMARY KEY (id) DISABLE;

Foreign key addition:

ALTER TABLE client1
ADD CONSTRAINT fk_client2
  FOREIGN KEY (client2_id)
  REFERENCES client2(id);

Drop tables[edit]

DROP TABLE client1;

Partitioning[edit]

The Oracle partitioning is a process to split a huge table into several smaller ones in order to increase its performance.

Range[edit]

Example:

CREATE TABLE t_range 
( t1      VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL,
  t2      NUMBER       NOT NULL,
  t3      NUMBER  
) 
PARTITION BY RANGE (t2) 
( PARTITION part1 VALUES LESS THAN (1),
  PARTITION part2 VALUES LESS THAN (11),
  PARTITION part3 VALUES LESS THAN (MAXVALUE)
);

Hash[edit]

Example:

CREATE TABLE t_hash 
( t1      VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL,
  t2      NUMBER       NOT NULL,
  t3      NUMBER  
PARTITION BY HASH (t2)
PARTITIONS 4
;

List[edit]

Example:

CREATE TABLE t_list 
( ort     VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL,
  t2      NUMBER,
  t3      NUMBER  
)
PARTITION BY LIST(ort) 
( PARTITION part_nord VALUES IN ('Hamburg','Berlin'),
  PARTITION part_sued VALUES IN ('Muenchen', 'Nuernberg'),
  PARTITION part_west VALUES IN ('Koeln','Duesseldorf'),
  PARTITION part_ost VALUES IN ('Halle'),
  PARTITION part_def VALUES (DEFAULT)
);

Interval[edit]

Example:

CREATE TABLE t_interval 
( buchungs_datum  DATE NOT NULL,
  buchungs_text   VARCHAR2(100),
  betrag          NUMBER(10,2)
)  
PARTITION BY RANGE (buchungs_datum)
INTERVAL(NUMTOYMINTERVAL(1, 'MONTH'))
( PARTITION p_historie VALUES LESS THAN (TO_DATE('2014.01.01', 'YYYY.MM.DD')),
  PARTITION p_2014_01  VALUES LESS THAN (TO_DATE('2014.02.01', 'YYYY.MM.DD')),
  PARTITION p_2014_02  VALUES LESS THAN (TO_DATE('2014.03.01', 'YYYY.MM.DD'))
);

Drop columns and set column UNUSED[edit]

Perform FLASHBACK operations[edit]

Create and use external tables[edit]

References[edit]