Novoslovnica/Lesson4

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Hi! Here is the fourth lesson of Novoslovnica. The topic of this lesson is verb conjugation. We've seen how the verbs "byti" and "hteti" change by the numbers and persons, so it's time to generalize this theory.

We should say that Novoslovnica has 4 types of conjugation, which are closely related to the terms of the verbal types[1]. Formally, the type of the verb depends on its suffix before "TI". Semantically, this suffix shows the continuity degree of the action. There are four main types of the verb:

  • -A- type
  • -E- (-O-) type
  • -I- type
  • -U- (-NU-) type

The first one shows the most continuous action. This can be strongly stretched in time. The second has a middle degree of continuity and the third - low degree. The last type shows no continuity actions - so the action is point. Sometimes we can bypass using Concrete Tense by changing the type of the verb. But mostly each verb has only 1-2 degrees of continuity.

So, let's see the conjugation of the verbs.

Type -A-[edit]

The verb "to see" - viđati.

Present Common Tense Present Concrete Tense
Sg Du Pl Sg Du Pl
1p Viđam Viđama Viđame Viđaju Viđajema Viđajeme
2p Viđaš Viđata Viđate Viđaješ Viđajeta Viđajete
3p Viđa Viđat Viđut Viđaje Viđajat Viđajut

Type -E- (-O-)[edit]

The verb "can" - "možeti"

Present Common Tense Present Concrete Tense
Sg Du Pl Sg Du Pl
1p Možem Možema Možeme Možujem Možujema Možujeme
2p Možeš Možeta Možete Možuješ Možujeta Možujete
3p Može Možat Možut Možuje Možujat Možujut

Type -I-[edit]

The verb "to change" - proměniti.

Present Common Tense Present Concrete Tense
Sg Du Pl Sg Du Pl
1p Proměnim Proměnima Proměnime Proměnujim Proměnujima Proměnujime
2p Proměniš Proměnita Proměnite Proměnujiš Proměnujita Proměnujite
3p Proměni Proměnat Proměnut Proměnuji Proměnujat Proměnujut

Type -NU-[edit]

The verb "to glance" - glědnuti.

Present Concrete Tense
Sg Du Pl
1p Glědnujem Glědnujema Glědnujeme
2p Glědnuješ Glědnujeta Glědnujete
3p Glědnuje Glědnujat Glědnujut

This type has no Present Common Tense, as the verb "byti" (to be) has no Present Concrete Tense. But instead of the verb "byti", these verbs have no concrete tense, because they describe a point action, so Present Tense describes a number of direct actions over time

Related links[edit]

The main page of the book

References[edit]

  1. Novoslovnica as a project of a panslavic language, Information about types of the verbs in Russian.