Novoslovnica/Lesson2

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To be (Byti)[edit]

The main verb practically in every Indo-European language is the verb "to be". It's quite likewise in Novoslovnica too. The verb "to be" sounds like "byti". You see it's even similar to English one. Here we should take into account, how verbs look like in this language. You know English verb consists of the main part - "BE" and a particle - "TO". So, "TO" + "BE" = the verb "To be". In Novoslovnica you can find the full analogue of it. The only difference is that its sintax particle stayed as a suffix of the verb - "TI". So, let's swap the main part and the auxiliary one - "BY" + "TI" = "BYTI". So, every verb in Novoslovnica have the suffix "TI" so as every English verb has a particle "TO".

Further we'll find that Novoslovnica has two different Present Tenses, but the verb "BYTI" has only one - The Present Common Tense (analogue of Present Simple Tense in English). In Novoslovnica it sounds like "Pritomen Čas".

Singular Singular Dual Dual Plural Plural
Short form Full form Short form Full form Short form Full form
1p Sům Jesům Sma Jesma Sme Jesme
2p Si Jesi Sta Jesta Ste Jeste
3p Je Jestj Jesų Su Jesu

You see that Novoslovnica has 3 persons and 3 numbers. The dual one is used when we speak about a pair of something (i.e. eyes, hands, legs, ears, etc.).

What is the difference between full and short forms? The only difference is the existence of a pronoun/noun next to the verb. If we have a pair of subject-predicate, we use the short form of the verb "byti". If we have only the predicate - the full form should be used.

Personal Pronouns[edit]

The second topic of our lesson are pronouns. Personal pronouns are used everywhere and we won't be able to discuss something without noticing them. So let's introduce them:

Singular Dual Plural
1p Ja (Az) Ma My
2p Ty Va Vy
3p, masc. On Ona Oni
3p, fem. Ona One Oně
3p, neutr. Ono Oná Onjï/Onï

As you see the pronoun of 1 person in singular has two variants - "Ja" and "Az". Az is named formal and Ja - informal. In your everyday speaking use the second one, but when you write a formal letter, please, use "Az". Moreover, you can use "Vy" in formal cases adressing to the only human. So as you use English "you" in everyday life (Instead "thou", that has passed away in everyday life). But don't be keen on it - prefer to use "Ty" in adressing the one human.

Also it could be strange to see the division on masculine, feminine and neutral in dual and plural numbers. You should remember the simple formula: "MASC > FEM > NEUTR". It means that speaking about the group of objects, where exists at least one masculine object, use "3p-masculine". If there is no masculine object, but exists at leat one feminine object, use "3p-feminine". And only if all objects are neutral, use "3p-neutral".

Related lins[edit]