Neo-Quenya/Stem-forms

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A number of changes in modern Quenya seem rather irregular at first sight, when we look at the evolution from Old-Elvish to Quenya however, they can be explained. Let’s look at an example:

  • `C7E5 aran "king" → `C7E5% arani "kings"
  • `Vj$5 elen "star" → `Vj$5% eleni "stars"

but...

  • 1Ej#5 talan "floor" → 1Dj#t% talami "floors"


Notice how 1Ej#t% talami has an t m in the plural, and not an 1Ej#t% n.


On the page Nouns we have said that 1Ej#t\ talam- was the stem of 1Ej#5 talan and we find the word as 1Ej#5 ›1Ej#t\› talan (talam-) in the word-lists. This makes for the word 1Ej#5 talan to be an irregular noun as it doesn't end with t m.


The reason for this irregularity is that modern Quenya no longer allows an t m to appear at the end of a word (see Phonology). So during the evolution of the language this t m turned into an 5 n in the nominative form. In all other cases it kept the t m, as it wasn't the final sound at the end of the word, thus allowing t m to stay.


All nouns with a u-dual that belong to one of the categories on this page, use their stem-forms but are otherwise regular (we use 9C7E5 haran, 9C65\ harn- "leader"):

Case Dual Quenya
Nominative 9C65& harnu
Genitive 9C65&`N harnuo
Possessive 9C65&yE harnuva
Dative 9C65&5 harnun
Ablative 9C65&j°^ harnullo
Allative 9C65&5:# harnunna
Locative 9C65&,F harnussë
Instrumental 9C65&5$5 harnunen
Respective 9C65&8 harnus

The irregular stem-forms can be found on a separate page: Exceptional stems.


d-/t- stems[edit]

The first group of words ends in \5n, \6r or \jl. Their stem-forms are made by adding a \2\d–.

The second group ends in \5n, \6r or \8s and add \1 -t to form the stem.

A list of the known Quenya-words belonging to this group can be found on following page: Neo-Quenya/Nouns: d/t-stems.


The adjectives on \5n probably also belong to the 2\ d- stems (PE 14 pg. 77):

`B cE7T2% i hwarindi "the crooked (ones)"
cE7T2% 5$7T hwarindi neri "crooked men"


When they are used as final declinable words (see Inflected adjectives), they get the vowels \`V\e– or \`B\i– between the stem and the case-ending:

9C6t# eU7T2$,F harma furindessë "in a concealed treasure"
`M7U6 ~M7T2$5 urur úrindinen "with blazing hot fires"


The declension of 2\ d- and 1\ t- stems is regular except in the possessive singular. In this case we use the suffix \nEwa with the nominative (all nouns in this group have u-duals):

Case Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative eG`N5
fion
eG`N2%
fiondi
eG`N2&
fiondu
eG`N2$j%
fiondeli
Genitive eG`N2^
fiondo
eG`N2%`N5
fiondion
eG`N2&`N
fionduo
eG`N2$j%`N5
fiondelion
Possessive eG`NnE
fionwa
eG`N2%yE
fiondiva
eG`N2&yE
fionduva
eG`N2$j~ByE
fiondelíva
Dative eG`N2$5
fionden
eG`N2%5
fiondin
eG`N2&5
fiondun
eG`N2$j%5
fiondelin
Ablative eG`N2$j°^
fiondello
eG`N2%j°^5
fiondillon
eG`N2%j°^6
fiondillor
eG`N2&j°^
fiondullo
eG`N2$j%j°^5
fiondelillon
eG`N2$j%j°^6
fiondelillor
Allative eG`N2$5:#
fiondenna
eG`N2%5:#6
fiondinnar
eG`N2&5:#
fiondunna
eG`N2$j%5:#
fiondelinna
eG`N2$j%5:#6
fiondelinnar
Locative eG`N2$,F
fiondessë
eG`N2%,F5
fiondissen
eG`N2&,F
fiondussë
eG`N2$,F
fiondelissë
eG`N2$,F5
fiondelissen
Instrumental eG`N2$5$5
fiondenen
eG`N2%5$5
fiondinen
eG`N2&5$5
fiondunen
eG`N2$j~B5$5
fiondelínen
Respective eG`N2$8
fiondes
eG`N2%8
fiondis
eG`N2&8
fiondus
eG`N2$j%8
fiondelis

Contracted stems[edit]

Another group of stems lose the vowel of the second syllable. So the stem-form is a contracted form of the nominative.


Following nouns belong to this group:

aH7Y5 coron, aH65\ corn- "ball"
eR7R5 feren, eR65\ fern- "beech"
9C7E5 haran, 9C65\ harn- "leader"
9U`C5 huan, 9~M5\ hún- "dog"
j#t#5 laman, j#t5\ lamn- "animal"
iH7Y5 soron, iH65\ sorn- "eagle"


In quite a number of cases of the singular these words use the nominative to produce these cases. In the partitive plural they also use the nominative:

Case Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative 9C7E5
haran
9C65%
harni
9C65$1
harnet
9C7Ej°%
haralli
Genitive 9C65^
harno
9C65%`N5
harnion
9C7E4^
haranto
9C7Ej°%`N5
harallion
Possessive 9C7E5nE
haranwa
9C65%yE
harniva
9C65$1nE
harnetwa
9C7Ej°%yE
haralliva
Dative 9C65$5
harnen
9C65%5
harnin
9C65$4
harnent
9C7Ej°%5
harallin
Ablative 9C7Ej°^
harallo
9C65%j°^5
harnillon
9C65%j°^6
harnillor
9C7Rj1Y
harelto
9C7Ej°%j°^5
harallillon
9C7Ej°%j°^6
harallillor
Allative 9C7E5:#
haranna
9C65%5:#6
harninnar
9C65$4#
harnenta
9C7Ej°%5:#
harallinna
9C7Ej°%5:#6
harallinnar
Locative 9C7E2$
harandë
9C65%,F5
harnissen
9C65$1R+
harnetsë
9C7Ej°%,F
harallissë
9C7Ej°%,F5
harallissen
Instrumental 9C7E5:$5
harannen
9C65%5$5
harninen
9C65$4$5
harnenten
9C7Ej°%5$5
harallinen
Respective 9C65$8
harnes
9C65%8
harnis
9C65$1R8
harnetes
9C7Ej°%8
harallis


There is a second group that have lost the final vowel + n in the nominative

aDjt#6 calmar, aDjt#65\ calmarn- "child of light"
9Cj#1T6 halatir, 9Cj#1T65\ halatirn- "kingfisher"
t$`C6 mëar, t$`C65\ mëarn- "gore, blood"
qU6 pur, qU65\ purn- "(artificial) fire"
1EyE6 tavar, 1EyE65\ tavarn- "dale sprite"


and also

iFj$6 seler, iFj°\ sell- "sister"


They have in the singular only two exceptional cases:

Case Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative iFj$6
seler
iFj°%
selli
iFj°$1
sellet
iFj°$j%
selleli
Genitive iFj°^
sello
iFj°%`N5
sellion
iFj$61Y
selerto
iFj°$j%`N5
sellelion
Possessive iFj$6nE
selerwa
iFj°%yE
selliva
iFj°$1nE
selletwa
iFj°$j~ByE
sellelíva
Dative iFj°$5
sellen
iFj°%5
sellin
iFj°$4
sellent
iFj°$j%5
sellelin
Ablative iFj°$j°^
sellello
iFj°%j°^5
sellillon
iFj°%j°^6
sellillor
iFj°$j1Y
sellelto
iFj°$j%j°^5
sellelillon
iFj°$j%j°^6
sellelillor
Allative iFj°$5:#
sellenna
iFj°%5:#6
sellinnar
iFj°$4#
sellenta
iFj°$j%5:#
sellelinna
iFj°$j%5:#6
sellelinnar
Locative iFj°$,F
sellessë
iFj°%,F5
sellissen
iFj°$1R+
selletsë
iFj°$j%,F
sellelissë
iFj°$j%,F5
sellelissen
Instrumental iFj$65$5
selernen
iFj°%5$5
sellinen
iFj°$4$5
sellenten
iFj°$j%5$5
sellelinen
Respective iFj°$8
selles
iFj°%8
sellis
iFj°$1R8
selletes
iFj°$j%8
sellelis

Doubled stems[edit]

There are also words in -t that have a doubled stem but they can be found on the page about Exceptional stems.

doubled stems in ss-[edit]

A number of stems double their final -s:

aDj#8 calas, aDj#,\ calass- "brass"
alYt#8 coimas, alYt#,\ coimass- "lembas" [1]
`VzF8 eques, `VzF,\ equess- "saying"
eDj#8 falas, eDj#,\ falass- "shore, beach"
`B2%8 indis, `B2%,\ indiss- "bride"
`B5nTj%8 inwilis, `B5nTj%,\ inwiliss- "fairy"
`B8 is, `B,\ iss- "light snow"
`B1T8 itis, `B1T,\ itiss- "fly bite"
j%8 lis, j%,\ liss- "honey"
5$8 nes, 5$,\ ness- "mead, valley, land"
5%zG8 niquis, 5%zG,\ niquiss- "frost-pattern"
5~B8 nís, 5~B,\ niss- "woman" [2]
lY5#j%8 oinalis, lY5#j%,\ oinaliss- "ointment"
`Nj^8 olos, `Nj^,\ oloss- "snow" [3]
iG4%j%8 sintilis, iG4%j%,\ sintiliss- "sparkling (of crystal)"
1T7T8 tiris, 1T7T,\ tiriss- "watch"
1Yj^8 tolos, 1Yj^,\ toloss- "knob, lump"
1ÎY8 tyos, 1ÎY,\ tyoss- "cough"
  1. alYt#8 coimas also has the stem-form alYt#81\ coimast-.
  2. The long ~B í shortens before a double consonant.
  3. This word also has the nominative `Nj^,R olossë. It should not be confused with `Nj^8 olos "dream" which has an irregular stem-form (see Exceptional stems).


The proper name 1UjaD8 Tulcas also belongs to this group.

Case Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative eDj#
falas
eDj#,G
falassi
eDj#,F1
falasset
eDj#,Fj%
falasseli
Genitive eDj#,H
falasso
eDj#,G`N5
falassion
eDj#81Y
falasto
eDj#,Fj%`N5
falasselion
Possessive eDj#,FyE
falasseva
eDj#,GyE
falassiva
eDj#,F1nE
falassetwa
eDj#,Fj~ByE
falasselíva
Dative eDj#,F5
falassen
eDj#,G5
falassin
eDj#,F4
falassent
eDj#,Fj%5
falasselin
Ablative eDj#,Fj°^
falassello
eDj#,Gj°^5
falassillon
eDj#,Gj°^6
falassillor
eDj#,Fj1Y
falasselto
eDj#,Fj%j°^5
falasselillon
eDj#,Fj%j°^6
falasselillor
Allative eDj#,F5:#
falassenna
eDj#,G5:#6
falassinnar
eDj#,F4#
falassenta
eDj#,Fj%5:#
falasselinna
eDj#,Fj%5:#6
falasselinnar
Locative eDj#,F
falassë
eDj#,F5
falassen
eDj#,F1R+
falassetsë
eDj#,Fj%,F
falasselissë
eDj#,Fj%,F5
falasselissen
Instrumental eDj#,F5$5
falassenen
eDj#,G5$5
falassinen
eDj#,G4$5
falassenten
eDj#,Fj~B5$5
falasselínen
Respective eDj#,F8
falasses
eDj#,G8
falassis
eDj#,F1R8
falassetes
eDj#,Fj%8
falasselis

The word iHj^6 solor "surf" has stem-form iHj^,\ soloss- and uses the same forms as these words except the possessive singular which is iHj^6nE solorwa.

doubled stems in ll-/nn-[edit]

Final j l and 5 n can also be doubled:

`Ct%j amil, `Ct%j°\ amill- "mother"
`C7E5$j aranel, `C7E5$j°\ aranell- "princess"
9Y7T5$j horinel, 9Y7T5$j°\ horinell- "pine-needle"
t%7Tj miril, t%7Tj°\ mirill- "jewel"
7T`Vj riel, 7T`Vj°\ riell- "flower-girl"
`BiGj isil, `BiGj°\ isill- "moon"
1Yj tol, 1Yj°\ toll- "island" [1]
  1. The cases of 1Yj tol are formed with an \`N\o– between stem and ending (see Exceptional stems).


lDj%5 ailin, lDj%5:\ ailinn- "lake"
alDj$5 cailen, alDj$5:\ cailenn- "throat"
aDj%w#5 calimban, aDj%w#5:\ calimbann- "barbarian land"
aDr%5 campin, aDr%5:\ campinn- "hips"
aHjt#5 colman, aHjt#5:\ colmann- "summit"
`VjnR5 elwen, `VjnR5:\ elwenn- "heart"
9Rj%5 helin, 9Rj%5:\ helinn- "pansy"
`B7T5 irin, `B7T5:\ irinn- "town"
`B6t%5 irmin, `B6t%5:\ irminn- "inhabited world"
j#1~MaF5 latúcen, j#1~MaF5:\ latúcenn- "tin"
j%aG5 licin, j%aG5:\ licinn- "horn"
t%2^5 mindon, t%2^5:\ mindonn- "turret"
`NjnR5 olwen, `NjnR5:\ olwenn- "branch, wand"
`N5%5 onin, `N5%5:\ oninn- "anvil"
qRzF5 pequen, qRzF5:\ pequenn- "comb"
1Et%5 tamin, 1Et%5:\ taminn- "forge"
1~M7T5 túrin, 1~M7T5:\ túrinn- "province"
nTj%5 wilin, nTj%5:\ wilinn- "bird"


The proper name iGjt#7Tj Silmaril also belongs to these words.


The exceptional cases are: the possessive singular and the allative or ablative in singular and plural forms.

Case Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative `Ct%j
amil
`Ct%j°%
amilli
`Ct%j°$
amillet
`Ct%j°$j%
amilleli
Genitive `Ct%j°^
amillo
`Ct%j°%`N5
amillion
`Ct%j1Y
amilto
`Ct%j°$j%`N5
amillelion
Possessive `Ct%jnE
amilwa
`Ct%j°%yE
amilliva
`Ct%j°$1nE
amilletwa
`Ct%j°$j~ByE
amillelíva
Dative `Ct%j°$5
amillen
`Ct%j°%5
amillin
`Ct%j°$4
amillent
`Ct%j°$j%5
amillelin
Ablative `Ct%j°%j°^
amillello
`Ct%j°^5
amillon
`Ct%j°^6
amillor
`Ct%j°$j1Y
amillelto
`Ct%j°%j°^5
amillillon
`Ct%j°%j°^6
amillillor
Allative `Ct%j°$5:#
amillenna
`Ct%j°%5:#6
amillinnar
`Ct%j°$4#
amillenta
`Ct%j°$j%5:#
amillelinna
`Ct%j°$j%5:#6
amillelinnar
Locative `Ct%j°$,F
amillessë
`Ct%j°%,F5
amillissen
`Ct%j°$1R+
amilletsë
`Ct%j°$j°%,F
amillelissë
`Ct%j°$j°%,F5
amillelissen
Instrumental `Ct%j°$5$5
amillenen
`Ct%j°%5$5
amillinen
`Ct%j°$4$5
amillenten
`Ct%j°$j~B5$5
amillelínen
Respective `Ct%j°$8
amilles
`Ct%j°%8
amillis
`Ct%j°$1R8
amilletes
`Ct%j°$j%8
amillelis


Case Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative `NjnR5
olwen
`NjnR5:%
olwenni
`NjnR5:$1
olwennet
`NjnRj°%
olwelli
Genitive `NjnR5:^
olwenno
`NjnR5:%`N5
olwennion
`NjnR4^
olwento
`NjnRj°%`N5
olwellion
Possessive `NjnR5nE
olwenwa
`NjnR5:%yE
olwenniva
`NjnR5:$1nE
olwennetwa
`NjnRj°%yE
olwelliva
Dative `NjnR5:$5
olwennen
`NjnR5:%5
olwennin
`NjnR5:$4
olwennent
`NjnRj°%5
olwellin
Ablative `NjnR5:$j°^
olwennello
`NjnR5:%j°^5
olwennillon
`NjnR5:%j°^6
olwennillor
`NjnR5:$j1Y
olwennelto
`NjnRj°%j°^5
olwellillon
`NjnRj°%j°^6
olwellillor
Allative `NjnR5:#
olwenna
`NjnR5:#6
olwennar
`NjnR5:$4#
olwennenta
`NjnRj°%5:#
olwellinna
`NjnRj°%5:#6
olwellinnar
Locative `NjnR5:$,F
olwennessë
`NjnR5:%,F5
olwennissen
`NjnR5:$1R+
olwennetsë
`NjnRj°%,F
olwellissë
`NjnRj°%,F5
olwellissen
Instrumental `NjnR5:$5$5
olwennenen
`NjnR5:%5$5
olwenninen
`NjnR5:$4$5
olwennenten
`NjnRj°%5$5
olwellinen
Respective `NjnR5:$8
olwennes
`NjnR5:%8
olwennis
`NjnR5:$1R8
olwennetes
`NjnRj°%8
olwellis

doubled stems in rr-[edit]

A list of words that have the rr- stem:

aH2^6 condor, aH2^7;\ condorr- "warrior"
9Y81E6 hostar, 9Y81E7;\ hostarr- "tribe"
`B2^6 indor, `B2^7;\ indorr- "groom"
j#t#2#6 lamandar, j#t#2#7;\ lamandarr- "herdsman"
j#6 lar, j#7;\ larr- "place, region"
t#zD6 maquar, t#zD7;\ maquarr- "(human) jaw"
t%j5#6 milnar, t%j5#7;\ milnarr- "sown field"
5$m^6 neldor, 5$m^7;\ neldorr- "beech"


They are declined as follows:

Case Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative j#6
lar
j#7;T
larri
j#7;R1
larret
j#j°%
lalli
Genitive j#7;Y
larro
j#7;T`N5
larrion
j#61Y
larto
j#j°%`N5
lallion
Possessive j#6nE
larwa
j#7;TyE
larriva
j#7;R1nE
larretwa
j#j°%yE
lalliva
Dative j#7;R5
larren
j#7;T5
larrin
j#7;R4
larrent
j#j°%5
lallin
Ablative j#7;Rj°^
larrello
j#7;Tj°^5
larrillon
j#7;Tj°^6
larrillor
j#7;Rj1Y
larrelto
j#j°%j°^5
lallillon
j#j°%j°^6
lallillor
Allative j#7;R5:#
larrenna
j#7;T5:#6
larrennar
j#7;R4#
larrenta
j#j°%5:#
lallinna
j#j°%5:#6
lallinnar
Locative j#7;R,F
larressë
j#7;T,F5
larrissen
j#7;R1R+
larretsë
j#j°%,F
lallissë
j#j°%,F5
lallissen
Instrumental j#7;R5$5
larrenen
j#7;T5$5
larrinen
j#7;R4$5
larrenten
j#j°%5$5
lallinen
Respective j#7;R8
larres
j#7;T8
larris
j#7;R1R8
larretes
j#j°%8
lallis

m- stems[edit]

As told in the introduction, the letter t m is no longer allowed at the end of a word and has changed into 5 n in the nominative:

`C61E5 artan, `C61Et\ artam- "hammer"
`Bj%5 ilin, `Bj%t\ ilim- "milk"
t$5 men, t$t\ mem- "nose, beak"
zG5 quin, zGt\ quim- "female"
7E5 ran, 7Et\ ram- "noise"
1Ej#5 talan, 1Ej#t\ talam- "floor"


These words have exceptional locatives, instrumentals and partitive plurals:

Case Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative t$5
men
t$t%
memi
t$t$1
memet
t$j°%
melli
Genitive t$t^
memo
t$t%`N5
memion
t$4^
mento
t$j°%`N5
mellion
Possessive t$t$yE
memeva
t$t%yE
memiva
t$t$1nE
memetwa
t$j°%yE
melliva
Dative t$t$5
memen
t$t%5
memin
t$t$4
mement
t$j°%5
mellin
Ablative t$t$j°^
memello
t$t%j°^5
memillon
t$t%j°^6
memillor
t$t$j1Y
memelto
t$j°%j°^5
mellillon
t$j°%j°^6
mellillor
Allative t$t$5:#
memenna
t$t%5:#6
meminnar
t$t$4#
mementa
t$j°%5:#
mellinna
t$j°%5:#6
mellinnar
Locative t$2$
mendë
t$t%,F5
memissen
t$t$1R+
memetsë
t$j°%,F
mellissë
t$j°%,F5
mellissen
Instrumental t$t5$5
memnen
t$t%5$5
meminen
t$t$4$5
mementen
t$j°%5$5
mellinen
Respective t$t$8
memes
t$t%8
memis
t$t$1R8
memetes
t$j°%8
mellis


The words with stem on \s -ng also behave like these words:

eDj#8nT5 falaswin, eDj#8nTs\ falaswing- "wavecrest"
eF5 fen, eFs\ feng- "reed"


The locative is eF2$ fendë and the partitive plural eFj°% felli (but the instrumental is regular: eFs$5$5 fengenen).


c- stems[edit]

Four words originally ended in \a -c, and this letter is also not allowed at the end of a word:

eGj%1 filit, eGj%a\ filic- "little bird"
5$j$1 nelet, 5$ja\ nelc- "tooth"
`N7ÎD1 oryat, `N7ÎDa\ oryac- "badger"
zF,F1 quesset, zF,Ra\ quessec- "pillow"


They are declined as follows:

Case Singular Plural Dual Partitive Plural
Nominative eGj%1
filit
eGj%aG
filici
eGj%aJ
filicu
eGj%aFj%
filiceli
Genitive eGj%aH
filico
eGj%aG`N5
filicion
eGj%aJ`N
filicuo
eGj%aFj%`N5
filicelion
Possessive eGj%zD
filiqua
eGj%aGyE
filiciva
eGj%aJyE
filicuva
eGj%aFj~ByE
filicelíva
Dative eGj%aF5
filicen
eGj%aG5
filicin
eGj%aJ5
filicun
eGj%aFj%5
filicelin
Ablative eGj%aFj°^
filicello
eGj%aGj°^5
filicillon
eGj%aGj°^6
filicillor
eGj%aJj°^
filicullo
eGj%aFj%j°^5
filicelillon
eGj%aFj%j°^6
filicelillor
Allative eGj%aF5:#
filicenna
eGj%aG5:#6
filicinnar
eGj%aJ5:#
filicunna
eGj%aFj%5:#
filicelinna
eGj%aFj%5:#6
filicelinnar
Locative eGj%a|F
filixë
eGj%aG,F5
filicissen
eGj%aJ,F
filicussë
eGj%aFj%,F
filicelissë
eGj%aFj%,F5
filicelissen
Instrumental eGj%f$5
filincen
eGj%aG5$5
filicinen
eGj%aJ5$5
filicunen
eGj%aFj~B5$5
filicelínen
Respective eGj%aF8
filices
eGj%aG8
filicis
eGj%aJ8
filicus
eGj%aFj%8
filicelis


The locative of 5$j$1 nelet is 5$j$1R+ neletsë, but otherwise it is declined the same as the other three nouns.



>> Neo-Quenya >> Nouns >> Stem-forms