Neo-Quenya/Perfect Tense

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Regular formation[edit]

This tense is formed in the following way:

  • Repeat the central vowel of the verb and put it in front of it,
  • Lengthen the central vowel, if possible,
  • Add the ending \`B`V - (\`B`V6 -ier in the plural).


So we find e.g.

  • t#1\ mat- "eat" → `Ct~C1T`V amátië
  • 1Ra\ tec- "write" → `V1~VaG`V etécië
  • 5^1\ not- "count" → `N5~N1T`V onótië


The A-verbs and U-verbs lose their final vowel before adding \`B`V -:

  • t#qE\ mapa- "take" → `Ct~CqT`V amápië
  • qEj&\ palu- "spread" → `Cq~Cj%`V apálië


Exceptional cases[edit]

Verbs with long central syllable[edit]

Verbs with a central vowel that cannot be lengthened are divided into three types:

When the stem ends in a consonant-cluster, we cannot lengthen the central vowel, but otherwise the basic rule is followed:
  • 5#81E\ nasta- "prick" → `C5$81T`V anastië
  • 5&7;U\ nurru- "grumble" → `M5&7;T`V unurrië


However, t$4#\ menta- and eD4#\ fanta- have attested perfect `Vt~V5%`V eménië and `Ce~C5%`V afánië,

While `N61E\ orta- and 9R4#\ henta- have `N1E5%`V ortanië and `VdR4#5%`V ehentanië.


When the central vowel is long, we put a short version of this vowel in front of the stem:
  • t~N1E\ móta- "labour" → `Nt~N1T`V omótië


When the central vowel is a diphthong, we add the first vowel of the diphthong:
  • 9.D1E\ hauta- "stop" → `Cd.D1T`V ahautië
  • qlY1E\ poita- "cleanse" → `NqlY1T`V opoitië
  • ylD1E\ vaita- "wrap" → `CylD1T`V avaitië
  • 8lUj#\ suila- "greet" → `M8lUj%`V usuilië
  • 1.G1E\ tiuta- "fatten" → `B1.G1T`V itiutië


Verbs starting in a vowel[edit]

When the verb starts in a vowel, we don't add an extra vowel to the beginning of the stem:

  • `C4#\ anta- "give" → ~C5%`V ánië
  • `Cj°&\ allu- "wash" → `Cj°%`V allië
  • `MjzD\ ulqua- "rend" → `MjzG`V ulquië
  • `B1E\ ita- "sparkle" → ~B1T`V ítië


Verbs with a prefix[edit]

Some verbs are formed by placing a prefix before another verb, in this case we first form the perfect tense of the original verb and then we put the prefix again in front:

  • `V5Ì#j\ enyal- "recall" → `V5 \ `ChÎ~Cj%`V en + ayálië`V5#hÎ~Cj%`V enayálië


Verbs on -ya[edit]

Verbs on hÍE -ya lose both these letters:

  • 9C5Ì#\ hanya- "understand" → `Cd~C5%`V ahánië
  • 1Uj´#\ tulya- "lead" → `M1~Mj%`V utúlië


Some ancient verbs end on a diphtong followed by \1ÎE -tya, they probably follow the same rule as the others:

  • qlD1ÎE\ paitya- "repay" → `CqlD1T`V apaitië


Some verbs have a vowel before the ending \hÍE -ya.


Possibly the perfect can be formed by the insertion of an \5\ -n- between the stem and the ending:

  • `ChÍE\ aya- "honour" → ~C5%`V ánië
  • j#hÍE\ laya- "flourish" → `Cj~C5%`V alánië
  • 5#hÍE\ naya- "grieve" → `C5~C5%`V anánië
  • qEhÍE\ paya- "punish" → `Cq~C5%`V apánië
  • yEhÍE\ vaya- "enfold" → `Cy~C5%`V avánië
  • `NhÍE\ oya- "salve, rub" → ~N5%`V ónië
  • j^hÍE\ loya- "be thirsty" → `Nj~N5%`V olónië
  • 8~VhÍE\ séya- "appear, seem" → `V8~V5%`V esénië
  • 8~MhÍE\ súya- "breathe" → `V8~M5%`V esúnië
  • `CdÍE ahya- "change": as is mentioned on the page about Quenya/Phonology, the combination hy has to be seen as a unit, so the perfect tense is probably `CdÍ~C5%`V ahyánië


Some verbs can be conjugated by using an ancient stem and don't need an extra n

  • e.RhÍE\ feuya- "abhor" → `Ve~VyT`V efévië (ancient stem eRn phew)
  • t.DhÍE\ mauya- "compel" → `Cw~CyT`V ambávië (ancient stem w#n mbaw, see also below: historical influences)
  • 1.GhÍE\ tiuya- "swell" → `B1~BnT`V itíwië (ancient stem 1Tn tiw)


The verb 1.G`C\ tuia- comes from the ancient stem 1UhÍ tuy, so the perfect tense would also need 5 n:

  • 1.G`C\ tuia- "sprout" → `M1~M5%`V utúnië


Historical influences on the perfect tense[edit]

Most likely certain verbs undergo historical influences. The problem can be found in the prefixed vowel. Quite a few letters are allowed in the middle of a word but not in the beginning, so they have evolved differently in the perfect tense.

In most verbs there is no problem because they begin in a letter that is allowed in both places: 1Uj\ tul- "come" has `M1~Mj%`V utúlië "has come" as perfect tense.


In Primitive-Elvish this verb was 1Uj tul and there is no problem here because t is allowed at the beginning of a word
(note: the Passive infinitive shows the same irregularities as a prefixed `C\ a- has the same effect).


Verbs in d-[edit]

Take now the Primitive-Elvish verbs 2#4 'dant' "fall" and 2#w 'dab' "allow". The letter d is no longer a separate letter in Neo-Quenya, neither in the beginning nor in the middle of a word. In the evolution a d in the beginning of a word changed into an j l and in the middle of a word it changed into 6 r.


So these verbs evolved into the Quenya verbs j#4#\ lanta- "fall" and j#y\ lav- "allow"
(the b changed into v but here there is no problem as this letter never appears at the end of a word).


But in the perfect tense the d changed into r:

  • j#4#\ lanta- "fall" → `C7E4%`V arantië


If we apply this to j#y\ lav- we get a nice consequence: Primitive-Elvish also had a verb j#w\ 'lab' "lick".
In Quenya this verb also evolved into j#y\ lav-, but their perfect tenses have remained different:

  • j#y\ lav- "allow" → `C7~CyT`V arávië
  • j#y\ lav- "lick" → `Cj~CyT`V alávië


Verbs in mb- / nd- / ng-[edit]

These verbs are however not the only ones, in Primitive-Elvish we had verbs that began with the consonant clusters tw\ mb-, 52\ nd- or g\ ng-. In Quenya these are no longer allowed in the beginning of a word, but in the middle of words they are still allowed.


The verbs 5#w#\ namba- "hammer" and 5~M1E\ núta- "set (of sun and moon)" have evolved from the Primitive-Elvish stems 52#t 'ndam' and 52~M 'ndú'.


So in the perfect tense we find:

  • 5#w#\ namba- "hammer" → `C2#w%`V andambië
  • 5~M1E\ núta- "set" → `M2~M1T`V undútië


The next verbs show Primitive-Elvish forms to Quenya, then to their perfect tenses:

  • tw#6 'mbar't#6\ mar- "dwell" → `Cw~C7T`V ambárië
  • tw#d 'mbakh't#f#\ manca- "trade" → `Cw#f%`V ambancië
  • tw#7E1 'mbarat't#61ÍE\ martya- "destine" → `Cw#61T`V ambartië
  • tw#8 'mbas't#81E\ masta- "bake" → `Cw#81T`V ambastië

The verbs beginning with g\ ng- can in Tengwar script can still be recognised, as they are still written with the Tengwar g ñoldo or ngoldo (Tengwa 19).


In Exilic Quenya pronunciation, there is no difference between g ñoldo and the normal 5 n (númen). Because of this, they can be written with either characters and both forms are acceptable. Note that g can only be written as an initial consonant of a word only.


At the moment we know two verbs in this category:

  • g^j 'ngol'g^j\ = 5^j\ nol- "smell" → `Ns~Nj%`V ongólië
  • g#5#2 'nganad'g#2#\ = 5#2#\ nanda- "harp" → `Cs#2%`V angandië


Verbs in h-[edit]

Verbs beginning with 9\ h- can show the same problems because this 9 h could have evolved from either d\ 'kh'- or 8a\ 'sk'-.

This last combination gives in Neo-Quenya the letter 9 h at the beginning of a word and an a| x in the middle of a word.


Here we have following verbs and perfect tenses:

  • 8aDj 'skal'9Cj´#\ halya- "hide" → `Ca|~CjT`V axálië
  • 8aD6 'skar'9C65#\ harna- "wound" → `Ca|D65%`V axarnië
  • 8aD1 'skat'9C1\ hat- "split" → `Ca|~C1T`V axátië
  • 8aRj 'skel'9Rj1E\ helta- "undress" → `Va|Rj1T`V exeltië


When this starting h appears in the combinations hy-, hl- or hr- then we find following forms:

  • 9ÍC6\ hyar- "cleave" → `C7Î~C7T`V aryárië
  • ½j#6\ hlar- "hear" → `Cj°~C7T`V allárië
  • ½7Es#\ hranga- "thwart" → `C7;Es%`V arrangië


In the combination c hw- the changes are like these:

  • cR81E\ hwesta- "breathe" → `V8nR81T`V eswestië
  • cT5Ì#\ hwinya- "swirl" → `B8n~B5%`V iswínië


Verbs in -s- / -þ-[edit]

The final irregularity is found with verbs starting in s. This s can either be a pure 8 - i s (Tengwa 29 & 30 silmë & silmë nuquerna) or have evolved from 3 th (Tengwa 9 thúlë / súlë). The only irregularity is within how it can be written in Tengwar.

Words derived from 3 thúlë/súlë can be written with either 3 thúlë/súlë or with 8 - i silmë / silmë nuquerna in Tengwar, but words that originally came from an "s" are never written with 3 thúlë/súlë and only with 8 - i silmë / silmë nuquerna.


Derived from -s-:

  • iDjqE\ salpa- "sip" → `CiDjqT`V asalpië
  • iR6\ ser- "rest" → `V8~V7T`V esérië
  • iGj\ sil- "shine" → `B8~Bj%`V isílië
  • iG6\ sir- "flow" → `B8~B7T`V isírië
  • iUa\ suc- "drink" → `M8~MaG`V usúcië


Derived from -th- / -þ-:

  • yEiD7ÎE\ vasarya- "veil" → `CyE8~C7T`V avasárië
  • yE3D7ÎE\ vaþarya`CyE3~C7T`V avaþárië



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