Neo-Quenya/Numerals

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Numbers[edit]

0 to 10[edit]

Quenya from 1 - 10
ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ðñ
t&4# - aUt5# t%5 `C1;E 5$m$ aD4# j$r$ `Vv$ `N1Y+ 1Ym^ 5$61R zlD5 - zR`C5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
cumna, munta [1] min atta neldë canta lempë enquë otso toldo nertë quain, quëan
  1. Not words for zero, but can be used for zero: cumna "empty", munta "nothing".


11 to 19[edit]

The numbers 11 to 19 follow the pattern of using the stem form of the numeral with the suffix –quë. There also exists other names for several of these numbers resulting from Tolkien's experimentation of the numeral system:

Quenya from 11 - 19
ññ òñ óñ ôñ õñ öñ ÷ñ øñ ùñ
t%v$ hÍUv$ 5$jzF aD5#zR j$qRv$ `V5$v$ `N1YzR 1Yj^zR 5$1R6zR
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
minquë yunquë nelquë canaquë lepenquë enenquë otoquë toloquë neterquë
Alternate Quenya names from 12 - 16
12 7D81E rasta [1]
13 zlD5$j quainel 5$j$zF nelequë hÍUv$4# yunquenta [2]
14 zlDaD5 quaican aDv$ canquë
15 zlDj$qR5 quailepen
16 zlDv$ quainquë
  1. hÍUv$ yunquë is used for counting, 7D81E rasta for "Dozen", possibly Duodecimal in origin.
  2. From hÍUv$ yunquë + `V4# enta "another, one more"; "Twelve and one more".


20 to 100[edit]

Note: 20 and onwards[edit]

From here, the following numbers are conjectured constructions of what these numbers would be based on the material we know, and are not attested.
These are based on the earlier stages of Quenya, going back to Qenya, and our knowledge of Quenya word construction.

The multiples of 10, from 20 to 90, are constructed with either the suffixes –quëan, –quain, or "Qenya" –cain from alD5$5 cainen:

Numerals Quenya: -quain Quenya: -quëan "Qenya": -cain
ðñ 10 zlD5 quain zR`C5 quëan alD5$5 cainen
ðò 20 hÍ~MzlD5 yúquain hÍ~MzR`C5 yúquëan hÍ~MalD5 yúcain
ðó 30 5$jzlD5 nelquain 5$jzR`C5 nelquëan 5$jalD5 nelcain
ðô 40 aD5#zlD5 canaquain aD5#zR`C5 canaquëan aD5#alD5 canacain
ðõ 50 j$qRvlD5 lepenquain j$qRv$`C5 lepenquëan j$qRflD5 lepencain
ðö 60 `V5$vlD5 enenquain `V5$v$`C5 enenquëan `V5$flD5 enencain
ð÷ 70 `N1YzlD5 otoquain `N1YzR`C5 otoquëan `N1YalD5 otocain
ðø 80 1Yj^zlD5 toloquain 1Yj^zR`C5 toloquëan 1Yj^alD5 tolocain
ðù 90 5$1R6zlD5 neterquain 5$1R6zR`C5 neterquëan 5$1R6alD5 netercain
ððñ 100 1Ua|D tuxa 9C7D5Ì$ haranyë [1]
  1. Possible known word for 100 from the Númenorean calendar. Meaning uncertain whether it's the word for century, or the last year of a century.


To make a number between the multiples of 10, the units are written first, then the tens (Similar to German and Dutch Numerals):

Tengwar Quenya
ôõ aD4# j$qRvlD5 54 canta lepenquain

The numbers between 100 and 200 can be made in the same fashion:

Tengwar Quenya
ðôñ aD5#zlD5 1Ua|D 140 canaquain tuxa
ò÷ñ `C1;D `N1YzlD5 1Ua|D 172 atta otoquain tuxa


Just as for 12, the numbers 110 and 120 can be written in two different ways:

Numerals Quenya Alt. Quenya
ðññ 110 zlD5 1Ua|D quain tuxa t%5%zlD5 miniquain
ðòñ 120 hÍ~MzlD5 1Ua|D yúquain tuxa hÍ~M5$vlD5 yúnenquain


100 to 1,000[edit]

To write the numbers 200 to 900 we use the same prefixes as the multiples of 10, but this time with the suffix –tuxa:

Numerals Quenya Alt. Quenya
ððñ 100 1Ua|D tuxa
ððò 200 hÍ~M1Ua|D yútuxa 1Ua|D `C1;E tuxa atta
ððó 300 5$j1Ua|D neltuxa 1Ua|D6 5$m$ tuxar neldë
ððô 400 aD5#1Ua|D canatuxa 1Ua|D6 aD4# tuxar canta
ððõ 500 j$qR4&a|D lepentuxa 1Ua|D6 j$r$ tuxar lempë
ððö 600 `V5$4&a|D enentuxa 1Ua|D6 `Vv$ tuxar enquë
ðð÷ 700 `N1Y1Ua|D ototuxa 1Ua|D6 `N1Y+ tuxar otso
ððø 800 1Yj^1Ua|D tolotuxa 1Ua|D6 1Ym^ tuxar toldo
ððù 900 5$1R61Ua|D netertuxa 1Ua|D6 5$61R tuxar nertë
ðððñ 1,000 t$f$ mencë [1] 1Ua|D6 zlD5 tuxar quain 9~Mt$ húmë [2]
  1. From Sindarin: t5$x$73Y Menegroth "The Thousand Caves".t5$x$ meneg? (Primitive Elvish? "menekē") "thousand"?
  2. Attested Qenya word, may not be part of Late-Quenya.


1,000 to 10,000:[edit]

Numerals Quenya Alt. Quenya
ðððñ 1,000 t$f$ mencë 1Ua|D6 zlD5 tuxar quain
ððññ 1,100 `C1Ua|D t$f$ tuxa mencë 1Ua|D6 t%v$ tuxar minquë
ððòñ 1,200 hÍ~M`C1Ua|D t$f$ yútuxa mencë 1Ua|D6 hÍUv$ tuxar yunquë
ððóñ 1,300 5$j`C1Ua|D t$f$ neltuxa mencë 1Ua|D6 5$jzR tuxar nelquë
ððôñ 1,400 aD5#`C1Ua|D t$f$ canatuxa mencë 1Ua|D6 aD5#zR tuxar canaquë
ððõñ 1,500 j$qR4&a|D t$f$ lepentuxa mencë 1Ua|D6 j$qRv$ tuxar lepenquë
ððöñ 1,600 `V5$4&a|D t$f$ enentuxa mencë 1Ua|D6 `V5$v$ tuxar enenquë
ðð÷ñ 1,700 `N1Y`C1Ua|D t$f$ ototuxa mencë 1Ua|D6 `N1YzR tuxar otoquë
ððøñ 1,800 1Yj^`C1Ua|D t$f$ tolotuxa mencë 1Ua|D6 1Yj^zR tuxar toloquë
ððùñ 1,900 5$1R6`C1Ua|D t$f$ netertuxa mencë 1Ua|D6 5$1R6zR tuxar neterquë


Tengwar Quenya Alt. Quenya
ðððñ 1,000 t$f$ mencë 1Ua|D6 zlD5 tuxar quain
ðððò 2,000 hÍ~Mt$f$ yúmencë t$f$ `C1;E mencë atta 1Ua|D6 hÍ~MzlD5 tuxar yúquain
ðððó 3,000 5$jt$f$ nelmencë t$f% 5$m$ menci neldë 1Ua|D6 5$jzlD5 tuxar nelquain
ðððô 4,000 aD5#t$f$ canamencë t$f% aD4# menci canta 1Ua|D6 aD5#zlD5 tuxar canaquain
ðððõ 5,000 j$qRt"$f$ lepemmencë t$f% j$r$ menci lempë 1Ua|D6 j$qRvlD5 tuxar lepenquain
ðððö 6,000 `V5$t"$f$ enemmencë t$f% `Vv$ menci enquë 1Ua|D6 `V5$vlD5 tuxar enenquain
ððð÷ 7,000 `N1Yt$f$ otomencë t$f% `N1Y+ menci otso 1Ua|D6 `N1YzlD5 tuxar otoquain
ðððø 8,000 1Yj^t$f$ tolomencë t$f% 1Ym^ menci toldo 1Ua|D6 1Yj^zlD5 tuxar toloquain
ðððù 9,000 5$1R6t$f$ netermencë t$f% 5$61R menci nertë 1Ua|D6 5$1R6zlD5 tuxar neterquain
ððððñ 10,000 zlDt$f$ quaimencë t$f% alD5 menci quain 1Ua|D6 1Ua|D tuxar tuxa


10,000 to 1 Million:[edit]

Tengwar Quenya Alt. Quenya
ððððñ 10,000 zlDt$f$ quaimencë t$f% zlD5 menci quain
ððððò 20,000 hÍ~MzlDt$f$ yúquaimencë t$f% hÍ~MzlD5 menci yúquain
ððððó 30,000 5$jzlDt$f$ nelquaimencë t$f% 5$jzlD5 menci nelquain
ððððô 40,000 aD5#zlDt$f$ canaquaimencë t$f% aD5#zlD5 menci canaquain
ððððõ 50,000 j$qRvlDt$f$ lepenquaimencë t$f% j$qRvlD5 menci lepenquain
ððððö 60,000 `V5$vlDt$f$ enenquaimencë t$f% `V5$vlD5 menci enenquain
ðððð÷ 70,000 `N1YzlDt$f$ otoquaimencë t$f% `N1YzlD5 menci otoquain
ððððø 80,000 1Yj^zlDt$f$ toloquaimencë t$f% 1Yj^zlD5 menci toloquain
ððððù 90,000 5$1R6zlDt$f$ neterquaimencë t$f% 5$1R6zlD5 menci neterquain
ðððððñ 100,000 1Ua|Dt$f$ tuxamencë t$f% 1Ua|D menci tuxa
Numerals Quenya Alt. Quenya
ðððððñ 100,000 1Ua|Dt$f$ tuxamencë t$f% 1Ua|D menci tuxa
ðððððò 200,000 hÍ~M1Ua|Dt$f$ yútuxamencë t$f% hÍ~M1Ua|D menci yútuxa
ðððððó 300,000 5$j1Ua|Dt$f$ neltuxamencë t$f% 5$j1Ua|D menci neltuxa
ðððððô 400,000 aD5#1Ua|Dt$f$ canatuxamencë t$f% aD5#1Ua|D menci canatuxa
ðððððõ 500,000 j$qR4&a|Dt$f$ lepentuxamencë t$f% j$qR4&a|D menci lepentuxa
ðððððö 600,000 `V5$4&a|Dt$f$ enentuxamencë t$f% `V5$4&a|D menci enentuxa
ððððð÷ 700,000 `N1Y1Ua|Dt$f$ ototuxamencë t$f% `N1Y1Ua|D menci ototuxa
ðððððø 800,000 1Yj^1Ua|Dt$f$ tolotuxamencë t$f% 1Yj^1Ua|D menci tolotuxa
ðððððù 900,000 5$1R61Ua|Dt$f$ netertuxamencë t$f% 5$1R61Ua|D menci netertuxa
ððððððñ 1,000,000 t%2~N7D mindóra t$f% t$f$ menci mencë


1 Million to 100 Million:[edit]

Tengwar Quenya Tengwar Quenya
ððððððñ t%2~N7D 1,000,000 mindóra ðððððððñ zF`C2~N7D 10,000,000 quëandóra
ððððððò hÍU2~N7D 2,000,000 yundóra ðððððððò hÍ~MzF`C2~N7D 20,000,000 yúquëandóra
ððððððó 5$m~N7D 3,000,000 neldóra ðððððððó 5$jzF`C2~N7D 30,000,000 nelquëandóra
ððððððô aD5#2~N7D 4,000,000 canandóra ðððððððô aD5#zF`C2~N7D 40,000,000 canaquëandóra
ððððððõ j$qR2~N7D 5,000,000 lependóra ðððððððõ j$qRv$`C2~N7D 50,000,000 lepenquëandóra
ððððððö `V5$2~N7D 6,000,000 enendóra ðððððððö `V5$v$`C2~N7D 60,000,000 enenquëandóra
ðððððð÷ `N1Y2~N7D 7,000,000 otondóra ððððððð÷ `N1YzR`C2~N7D 70,000,000 otoquëandóra
ððððððø 1Ym~N7D 8,000,000 toldóra ðððððððø 1Yj^zR`C2~N7D 80,000,000 toloquëandóra
ððððððù 5$1Ru~N7D 9,000,000 neterdóra ðððððððù 5$1R6zF`C2~N7D 90,000,000 neterquëandóra
ðððððððñ zF`C2~N7D 10,000,000 quëandóra ððððððððñ 1Ua|D2~N7D 100,000,000 tuxandóra


100 Million & Beyond:[edit]

Tengwar Quenya
ððððððððñ 1Ua|D2~N7D 100,000,000 tuxandóra
ððððððððò hÍ~M1Ua|D2~N7D 200,000,000 yútuxandóra
ððððððððó 5$j1Ua|D2~N7D 300,000,000 neltuxandóra
ððððððððô aD5#1Ua|D2~N7D 400,000,000 canatuxandóra
ððððððððõ j$qR4&a|D2~N7D 500,000,000 lepentuxandóra
ððððððððö `V5$4&a|D2~N7D 600,000,000 enentuxandóra
ðððððððð÷ `N1Y1Ua|D2~N7D 700,000,000 ototuxandóra
ðððððððð÷ 1Yj^1Ua|D2~N7D 800,000,000 tolotuxandóra
ððððððððù 5$1R61Ua|D2~N7D 900,000,000 netertuxandóra
ðððððððððñ t$f$2~N7D 1,000,000,000 mencendóra [1]
  1. Based on the Long Scale counting:
    • 1,000,000,000 = 1 Milliard, 109
    • 1,000,000,000,000 = 1 Billion, 1012
    Compared to Short Scale:
    • 1,000,000,000 = 1 Billion, 109
    • 1,000,000,000,000 = 1 Trillion, 1012


Numbers are said to follow the noun, except for `V6 er "one, alone". Before `C1;E atta "two", the noun is in "singular" form.

  • `Vm# `C1;E Elda atta "Two Eldar" - lit. "Elves two"
  • `Vm#6 5$m$ Eldar neldë "Three Eldar"


  • `Vj$5 `C1;E Elen atta "Two stars"
  • `Vj$5% 5$m$ Eleni neldë "Three stars"


Ordinals[edit]

The first three ordinals are irregular, then from four onwards, we remove the last vowel of the cardinal number and add \`V`Cëa*

Tengwar Quenya Tengwar Quenya
t%5Ì# 1st minya t%v$`C 11th minquëa
1E1ÎE 2nd tatya hÍUv$`C 12th yunquëa
5$j´# 3rd nelya 5$j$zF`C 13th nelequëa
aD4$`C 4th cantëa aD5#zF`C 14th canaquëa
j$r$`C 5th lempëa j$qRv$`C 15th lepenquëa
`Vv$`C 6th enquëa `V5$v$`C 16th enenquëa
`N1iR`C 7th otsëa `N1YzR`C 17th otoquëa
1Ym$`C 8th toldëa 1Yj^zR`C 18th toloquëa
5$61R`C 9th nertëa 5$1R6zF`C 19th neterquëa
zlD5$`C 10th quainëa hÍ~MzlD5$`C 20th yúquainëa


Fractions[edit]

Fractions can be made by compounding the numeral with the word `C81E asta "month; division, part (esp. one of other equal parts)":

Tengwar Quenya Tengwar Quenya Alt. Quenya
`CzD aqua 1/1 t%v$81E minquesta 1/11
qR7R81E peresta 1/2 hÍUv$81E yunquesta 1/12
5$m$81E neldesta 1/3 5$j$zF81E nelequesta 1/13 5$jzF81E nelquesta
aD4#81E canasta 1/4 aD5#zF81E canaquesta 1/14 aDv$81E canquesta
j$qR81E lepesta 1/5 j$qFv$81E lepenquesta 1/15
`Vv$81E enquesta 1/6 `V5$v$81E enenquesta 1/16
`N1Y81E otosta 1/7 `N1YzR81E otoquesta 1/17
1Yj^81E tolosta 1/8 1Yj^zR81E toloquesta 1/18
5$7R81E neresta 1/9 5$1R6zR81E neterquesta 1/19
alD81E caista 1/10 hÍ~MalD81E yúcaista 1/20


Quotientials[edit]

There also exists quotientals that are used when something has happened a certain number of times. They are used as adverbs:

  • `V6 er "once"
  • hÍ~M twice
  • 5$j nel "thrice / three-times"
  • aD5 can "four-times"

The higher numbers are formed with the suffix \j°&t$llumë:

Tengwar Quenya English Tengwar Quenya English
j$r$j°&t$ lempellumë five-times t$f$j°&t$ mencellumë thousand-times
`Vv$j°&t$ enquellumë six-times zR`Ct"$f$j°&t$ quëammencellumë ten thousand-times
zR`Cj°&t$ quëallumë ten-times 1Ua|Dt$f$j°&t$ tuxamencellumë hundred thousand-times
1Ua|Dj°&t$ tuxallumë hundred-times t%2~N7Dj°&t$ mindórallumë million-times


Tengwar Numerals[edit]

Writing the numerals in Tengwar is quite different to write compared with Arabic numerals, but not too different from them to give any form of great difficulty in learning it.

As the elves originally used the duodecimal (base-12) number system, they had need for 12 single digits.
Note that the letters A and B are used for the values of 10 and 11 in duodecimal.

Duodecimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B 10
ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú û ðñ
Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ðñ ññ òñ

Tengwar numerals are written from right to left, with the lowest power written first, followed by the next higher power:


Reading Decimal[edit]

  • ðñ = 01 = 0 ones / 1 ten = 10
  • ððñ = 001 = 0 ones / 0 tens / 1 hundred = 100
  • óòñ = 321 = 3 ones / 2 tens / 1 hundred = 123
  • ðòôñ = 0241 = 0 ones / 2 tens / 4 hundreds / 1 thousand = 1420


Writing Decimal Notations

Decimal numbers can be given a single dot above the numeral to indicate a decimal number:

  • ðGñT

Larger numbers in decimal can be given a single bar above the numerals:

  • ðñìòîóìôîõîöì÷îøìùì


Example:

  • ö%ñGðGò% = 6102 = 2016 or öìñîðîòî = 6102 = 2016


Reading Duodecimal[edit]

Guide to Duodecimal powers (Duodecimal = Decimal):

0 = 0 - "one", 10 = 12 - "twelve/dozen", 100 = 144 - "gross", 1,000 = 1,728 - "great-gross"


  • ðñ = 01 = 0 ones / 1 twelves = 10 = 12 in Decimal
  • ððñ = 001 = 0 ones / 0 twelves / 1 gross = 100 = 144 in Decimal
  • óòñ = 321 = 3 ones / 2 twelves / 1 gross = 123 = 167 in Decimal
  • ôúù = 4A9 = 4 ones / A:10 twelves / 9 grosses = 9A4 = 1420 in Decimal
  • ûððñ = B001 = B:11 ones / 0 twelves / 0 grosses / 1 great-gross = 100B = 1739 in Decimal


Writing Duodecimal Notations

Duodecimal numbers are indicated by having single dot tehta placed below the numbers. The second digit however is given a circular tehta instead:

  • ðÊñ¨òÈóÈôÊõÈöÉ÷ÉøÉùÈúÊûÊ

Like large decimal numbers, the larger duodecimal numbers can also be given a bar, but is placed below instead:

  • ðñíòíóíôïõïöí÷ïøíùíúïûï


Example:

  • ðÊð¨òÈñÊ = 0021 = 1200 Duodecimal = 2016 Decimal
  • ððíòïñï = 0021 = 1200 Duodecimal = 2016 Decimal


Not much is known on the names of duodecimal numbers, but a theorised construction of these names can be found at the duodecimal numerals page here.



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