Neo-Quenya/Numerals

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The first 12 numerals are:

0    munta   t&4# [1]
1    min   t%5
2    atta   `C1;E
3    neldë   5$m$
4    canta   aD4#
5    lempë   j$r$
6    enquë   `Vv$
7    otso   `N1Y+
8    toldo   1Ym^
9    nertë   5$61R
10    quain   zlD5
11    minquë   t%v$
  1. not the word for zero, but can be used instead. From munta meaning "nothing"

Other names for the number 'ten' are as follows:

10   zR`C5   quëan
10   aR`C5   cëan
10   alD5$5    cainen

There are two words for the number 12:

12   hÍUv$   yunquë
12   7E81E   rasta

The word rasta means "dozen" and may have been used in duodecimal counting, and yunquë is used for counting in general.

The numbers 13 to 19 follow the pattern seen in 11 and 12 of the suffix –quë:

13   5$j$zR   nelequë
14   aD5#zR   canaquë
15   j$qRv$   lepenquë
16   `V5$v$   enenquë
17   `N1YzR   otoquë
18   1Yj^zR   toloquë
19   5$1R6zR   neterquë

The multiples of 10, thus 20 to 90, are constructed with the suffix –quain:

20    hÍUzlD5   yuquain
30    5$jzlD5   nelquain
40    aD5#zlD5   canaquain
50    j$qRvlD5   lepenquain
60    `V5$vlD5   enenquain
70    `N1YzlD5   otoquain
80    1Yj^zlD5   toloquain
90    5$1R6zlD5   neterquain
100   1Ua|D   tuxa

To make a number that is not a multiple of 10, we first write the units and then afterwards the multiple of 10 (to speakers of German or Dutch, this is very common):

54   aD4# j$qRvlD5   canta lepenquain

The numbers between 100 and 200 can be made in the same fashion:

140   aD5#zlD5 1Ua|D   canaquain tuxa
172   `C1;D `N1YzlD5 1Ua|D   atta otoquain tuxa

Just as for 12, the numbers 110 and 120 can be written in two different ways:

110   zlD5 1Ua|D = t%5%zlD5   quain tuxa / miniquain
120   hÍUzlD5 1Ua|D = hÍU5$vlD5   yuquain tuxa / yunenquain

To write the numbers 200 to 900 we use the same prefixes as the multiples of 10, but this time with the suffix –tuxa:

200   hÍU1Ua|D   yutuxa
300   5$j1Ua|D   neltuxa
400   aD4&a|D   cantuxa
500   j$qR4&a|D   lepentuxa
600   `V5$4&a|D   enentuxa
700   `N1Y1Ua|D   ototuxa
800   1Yj^1Ua|D   tolotuxa
900   5$1R61Ua|D   netertuxa

etc.

We also know the number words:

1,000          9~Mt$ = t$f$   húmë / mencë
1,000,000   t%2~N7E   mindóra

Numbers are said to follow the noun, except sometimes `V6 er. Before `C1;E atta "2", the noun is "singular" or uninflected.

`Vm#6 5$m$   Eldar nelde    "three Eldar"
`Vj$5 `C1;E   Elen atta   "two stars" (lit. "two star")

Ordinals[edit]

The first three ordinals are irregular:

first:   t%5Ì#   minya
second:   1E1ÎE   tatya
third:   5$j´#   nelya

From four until nine we remove the last vowel of the cardinal number and add \`V`Cëa:

four:   canta → fourth:   aD4$`C   cantëa
five:   lempë → fifth:   j$r$`C   lempëa
six:   enquë → sixth:   `Vv$`C   enquëa
seven:   otso → seventh:   `N1iR`C   otsëa
eight:   toldo → eighth:   1Ym$`C   toldëa
nine:   nertë → ninth:   5$61R`C   nertëa
ten:   quain → tenth:   zlD5$`C   quainëa
eleven:   minquë → eleventh:   t%v$`C   minquëa
twelve:   yunquë → twelfth:   hÍUv$`C   yunquëa

For "half" we have the word qR7ÎD perya.

Quotientials[edit]

There also exists quotientals that are used when something has happened a certain number of times. They are used as adverbs:

`V6   er   once
hÍ~M      twice
5$j   nel   thrice (or three times)
aD5   can   four times

The higher numbers are formed with the suffix \j°&t$llumë:

j$r$j°&t$   lempellumë   five times
`Vv$j°&t$   enquellumë   six times
zR`Cj°&t$   quëallumë   ten times
1Ua|Dj°&t$   tuxallumë   one hundred times

Tengwar Numerals[edit]

Writing the numerals in Tengwar is quite different to write compared with Arabic numerals, but not too difficult to learn.

As the elves originally used the duodecimal (base-12) number system, they had need for 12 different digits. Note that the letters A and B used in the table equal 10 and 11 in decimal respectively. Therefore 10 in duodecimal is equal to 12 in decimal

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 : A 11 : B 12 : 10
Decimal ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ðñ ññ òñ
Duodecimal ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú û ðñ


Tengwar numerals differ from Arabic numerals in that they are written from right to left:

Decimal
ðñ = 01 = 0 ones, 1 ten = 10
ððñ = 001 = 0 ones, 0 tens, 1 hundred = 100
óòñ = 321 = 3 ones, 2 tens, 1 hundred = 123
ðòôñ = 0241 = 0 ones, 2 tens, 4 hundreds, 1 thousand = 1420

Duodecimal
ðñ = 01 = 0 ones, 1 twelves = 10 = 12 in Decimal
ððñ = 001 = 0 ones, 0 twelves, 1 gross = 100 = 144 in Decimal
óòñ = 321 = 3 ones, 2 twelves, 1 gross = 123 = 167 in Decimal
ôúù = 4A9 = 4 ones, 10 twelves, 9 grosses = 9A4 = 1420 in Decimal


When writing Tengwar numerals, there are two main ways to distinguish which of the base counting system you're using from decimal and duodecimal.

Decimal
Decimal numbers can be given a single dot above the numeral to indicate a decimal number:

ðGñT

Larger numbers in decimal can be given a single bar above the numerals:

ðñìòîóìôîõîöì÷îøìùì

Duodecimal
Duodecimal numbers are indicated by having single dot tehta placed below the numbers. The second digit however is given a circular tehta instead:

ðÊñ¨òÈóÈôÊõÈöÉ÷ÉøÉùÈúÊûÊ

Like large decimal numbers, the larger duodecimal numbers are given a bar for the numerals, but instead put below:

ðñíòíóíôïõïöí÷ïøíùíúïûï

Examples:

Decimal: ö%ñGðGò% - öìñîðîòî = 6102 = 2016
Duodecimal: ðÊð¨òÈñÊ - ððíòïñï = 0021 = 1200 Duodecimal = 2016 Decimal

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