Neo-Quenya/Inflected adjectives

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Usage[edit]

Adjectives used as a noun[edit]

We translate this in English by using the word "one" with the adjective:

  • jlDaD laica "a keen one";    `B jlDaD i laica "the keen one"
  • aD65$ carnë "a red one";    `B aD65$ i carnë "the red one"
  • cE7T5 hwarin "a crooked one   `B cE7T5 i hwarin "the crooked one"


In this case the adjective is inflected with the noun endings:

  • jlDaD6 laicar "keen ones"
  • aD65% carni "red ones"
  • cE7T2% hwarindi "crooked ones"


Dual and partitive plural are also possible:

  • jlDaD1 laicat "a pair of keen ones"
  • jlDaDj% laicali "some keen ones"


  • aD65%1 carnit "a pair of red ones"
  • aD65%j% carnili "some red ones"


  • `B cE7T2& i hwarindu "both crooked ones, the crooked pair ones"
  • cE7T2$j% hwarindeli "some crooked ones"


These nouns can of course take all case endings, e.g.

  • jlDaD7Y5 laicaron (genitive plural);   aD65%j°^ carnillo (ablative singular);   `B cE7T2&5 i hwarindun (dative dual) ...


Adjectives following the noun[edit]

When the adjective is put behind its noun, the rule of the last declinable word applies.
This means that the adjective takes the case endings and the noun loses them:

  • aY`C aD65%5"# coa carninna "to a red house" (allative)
  • aY`C aD65%j°^ coa carnillo "from a red house" (ablative)


In the plural the adjective has the plural case-endings and the noun is in the nominative plural:

  • aY`C6 aD65%5"#6 coar carninnar "to red houses" (allative)


In the dual the adjective has the dual case-endings and the noun is in the nominative dual:

  • aU`C1 aD65%j1Y coat carnilto "from a pair of red houses" (ablative)

Note: adjectives only have t-duals even if they contain a d- or t-sound:

  • `B `Cm& 1.GaD1R+ i aldu tiucatsë "in both thick trees" (locative)


The other types of words that are inflected in this way are:

  • participles when they follow the noun (see Verbal forms)
  • demonstrative pronouns
  • titles also always follow the noun, so it is also the title and not the noun itself that is inflected:
  • `Vj$2%j yY7Y2# Elendil Voronda "Elendil the Faithful"
  • `Vj$2%j yY7Y2#5 Elendil Vorondan "to Elendil the Faithful" (dative)
  • `Vj$2%j yY7Y2#j°^ Elendil Vorondallo "from Elendil the Faithful" (ablative)


But there are two cases in which this rule isn't followed:

  • When the noun is in the partitive plural, the case ending remains with the noun and the adjective has its original (plural) form:
  • aU`Cj%,R aD65% coalissë carni "in some red houses" (locative)
  • The adjectives on \`V`Cëa only have a plural form and no other cases so the ending remains with the noun:
  • aY`C5"# j.D7R`C coanna laurëa "to a golden house" (allative)
  • aY`C5"#6 j.D7T`V coannar laurië "to golden houses" (allative)


Paradigms[edit]

A few remarks:

  • The forms of the plural can only be used when the adjective follows the noun, not when it is used as a noun. But in that case it follows the ordinary rules of Neo-Quenya/Declension Paradigms.
  • Adjectives on \`V`C -ëa cannot be inflected so they aren't included in these tables. They can be used as nouns but in that case they are inflected like the nouns `Cr# ampa "hook" or `Cm# alda "tree".
  • The partitive plural can only be used when the adjective is used as a noun so it isn't included in the table.


Adjectives on \`C -a (but not \`V`C -ëa) are inflected as follows (`C2# anda "long"):

Singular Plural Dual
Nominative `C2#
anda
`C2$
andë
`C2#1
andat
Genitive `C2^
ando
`C2$`N5
andëon
`C2#1Y
andato
Possessive `C2#yE
andava
`C2lDyE
andaiva
`C2#1nE
andatwa
Dative `C2#5
andan
`C2lD5
andain
`C2#4
andant
Ablative `C2#j°^
andallo
`C2#j°^5
andallon
`C2#j°^6
andallor
`C2#j1Y
andalto
Allative `C2#5"#
andanna
`C2#5"#6
andannar
`C2#4#
andanta
Locative `C2#,R
andassë
`C2#,R5
andassen
`C2#1R+
andatsë
Instrumental `C2#5$5
andanen
`C2lD5$5
andainen
`C2#4$5
andanten
Respective `C2#8
andas
`C2lD8
andais
`C2#1R8
andates


Adjectives on -ë are inflected as follows (ninquë "white"):

Singular Plural Dual
Nominative 5%v$
ninquë
5%v%
ninqui
5%v%1
ninquit
Genitive 5%v%`N
ninquio
5%v%`N5
ninquion
5%v%1Y
ninquito
Possessive 5%v%yE
ninquiva
5%v~ByE
ninquíva
5%v%1nE
ninquitwa
Dative 5%v%5
ninquin
5%v~B5
ninquín
5%v%4
ninquint
Ablative 5%v%j°^
ninquillo
5%v%j°^5
ninquillon
5%v%j°^6
ninquillor
5%v%j1Y
ninquilto
Allative 5%v%5"#
ninquinna
5%v%5"#6
ninquinnar
5%v%4#
ninquinta
Locative 5%v%,R
ninquissë
5%v%,R5
ninquissen
5%v%1R+
ninquitsë
Instrumental 5%v%5$5
ninquinen
5%v~B5$5
ninquínen
5%v%4$5
ninquinten
Respective 5%v%8
ninquis
5%v~B8
ninquís
5%v%1R8
ninquites


Adjectives on -n are inflected as follows (melin "dear"):

Singular Plural Dual
Nominative t$j%5
melin
t$j%5%
melini
t$j%2%
melindi
t$j%2$1
melindet
Genitive t$j%2^
melindo
t$j%2%`N5
melindion
t$j%2$1Y
melindeto
Possessive t$j%5nE
melinwa
t$j%2%yE
melindiva
t$j%2$1nE
melindetwa
Dative t$j%2$5
melinden
t$j%2%5
melindin
t$j%2$4
melindent
Ablative t$j%2$j°^
melindello
t$j%2%j°^5
melindillon
t$j%2%j°^6
melindillor
t$j%2$j1Y
melindelto
Allative t$j%2$5"#
melindenna
t$j%2%5"#6
melindinnar
t$j%2$4#
melindenta
Locative t$j%2$,R
melindessë
t$j%2$,R5
melindissen
t$j%2$1R+
melindetsë
Instrumental t$j%2$5$5
melindenen
t$j%2%5$5
melindinen
t$j%2$4$5
melindenten
Respective t$j%2$8
melindes
t$j%2%8
melindis
t$j%2$1R8
melindetes

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