Interesting social sciences/Social mobility, inequality and stratification
- 1 Social mobility
- 2 Inequality and stratification
- 3 Social stratification
The example of vertical mobility is a transfer of the person from a position of the ordinary school teacher to the position of director of school. The example of horizontal mobility is a transfer from the teacher's position at one school to the teacher's position at other school.
Pitirim Sorokin became the founder of the theory of social mobility and Pitirim Sorokin named the main lifts of vertical mobility:
• Family and marriage.
• The army.
• The Church. The value of this lift reached peak in the middle ages, when Rome Papa could depose by Kings and Emperors, for example, the Rome Pope Gregory 7 has deposed, humiliated and excommunicated by the German Emperor Henry 7 in 1077.
• School and scientific organizations. School was the main lift in society in ancient China.
• Political lift (governmental groups and parties).
• Show lift(Art).
• Business lift (Economic organizations)
• Mass media (Press, television, radio).
In my opinion, there is evolution of origin for lifts of social mobility, which have arisen in turn, value of previously arisen lifts declined after emergence of new lifts, and first old lifts were obsolete and new lifts became the most valuable. Family’s lift has arisen the first under primitive‐communal formation. That to make career with help of family's lift, it need to marry to a Chief of tribe. Such lifts as the army, political lift, church, economic organizations, art, school and science had arisen under slaveholding formation. Such lifts as mass media had arisen under capitalist formation. Thus, the family was most valuable lift in primeval society. Army and political lift were main lifts in period slaveholding formation. Army, political lift and church are main lifts in period feudalism. Business, army, political lift and mass media are main lifts in period of capitalism.
Man can make career alone or in group. There are individual mobility and group mobility. When caste’s, racial or estate’s privileges exist that is restrictions of individual mobility exist, then representatives of lowest races, caste, estate and classes can organize the riots, that to cancel these restrictions and all his group can to rise to stages of social pyramid. Vertical group mobility occurs through the victory in the conflict often.
Examples of group mobility:
• Conflict cliques occur within bureaucratic pyramid, for example, сlique of Lavrentiy Beria and Georgy Malenkov had won over clique of Andrei Zhdanov (“Leningrad affair”).
• Varna of Brahmins (priests) has won against varna of Kshatriyas (warriors) in ancient India. This is an example of collective ascension of Brahmins.
• Bolsheviks were criminals before October 1917 coup, Bolsheviks overcame enormous social distance during the coup, as a result, they have occupied the status which was occupied by tsar’s aristocracy early. This is an example of collective ascension for the Bolsheviks.
• Social status of Pontiff and bishops had fallen in the past three centuries. This is an example of the collective demotion.
• Status of African Americans was raised in America over the past 150 years as a result of the abolition of slavery and receiving by them of civil rights.
• Status of women was raised in the developed countries of world over the past 100 years as a result of receiving of civil rights by them.
• Status of representatives of the working class was raised over the past 100 years as a result of receiving by his representatives of civil rights, the right to strike and various benefit (unemployment benefits, sickness benefit, disability benefit, old-age benefit).
Mobile and immobile types of societies
Degree vertical mobility is very large in mobile type of society, and degree vertical mobility is very small in the immobile type of society. The example of immobile type of society is the caste system in Ancient India, although degree of vertical mobility is never equal nought, evenin Ancient India. Degree of vertical mobility should be limited. The"sieve" sifting individuals has to exist on each "floor", otherwise people can be, which is unsuitable for this role, and all society can die because of this unsuitable men during war or as a result of lack of reforms. Degree of vertical mobility can be measured, for example, on the share of "upstarts" among governors and the high-ranking officials calculated in a percentages. These "upstarts" have started own career from the circle of poor people and have finished by governors.
Pitirim Sorokin has shown difference between the countries on degree of vertical mobility:
Western Roman Empire-45,6%
Eastern Roman Empire-27,7%
Russia before the October coup of-5,5%
Presidents of France and Germany-23,1%.:
There are many persons interested of promotion upward in any society, but only little persons achieve these goal since "sieves" interfere with it on each floor of social hierarchy.
When the person comes to get a job, the person is estimated by several criterias. The professional organizations recheck compliance of abilities of the person with writing down in the diploma about education. The professional organizations test specific qualities of people: a voice for the singer, force for the fighter, etc. Every day and each hour become for the person examination on professional suitability at work. This test can be considered final.
What is a consequence of overproduction or underproduction for elite?
There is an optimum ratio of number of people in elite and all population. Overproduction of number of people in elite leads to civil war or revolution. For example, the Sultan in Turkey had a big harem and many sons who began to destroy each other ruthlessly after the death of the Sultan in fight for a throne. Overproduction of elite leads in modern society to the fact that losers from elite begin to organize the underground organizations for the purpose of the armed seizure of power.
Underproduction of elite because of low birth rate among the highest layers results in need to give a part of elite positions to the people who haven't undergone selection.: It causes social instability and deep contradictions in elite between "degenerates" and "upstarts". For example, contradictions between "upstarts" (Catherine I of Russia, Alexander Danilovich Menshikov, Gavriil Golovkin, Yaguzhinsky, Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy) and "degenerates" (princes Dolgorukov , princes Golitsyn, princes Repnin) have led to series of the armed palace coups after death of Peter the Great . Too strict control leads to a full stop of "lifts"under selection of elite often, to degeneration of ruling elite and to "blasting" activities of low standing governors for calling who can't make legal career and seek to destroy physically "degenerates" and to take their elite positions.
Pitirim Sorokin named eight lifts or the channels of the vertical mobility on which people move up or down to steps of a social hierarchy in the course of the personal career. The theory about the personality types allows to make recommendations about the choice of these lifts. The psychologist and the technician are the complete antitheses each other, the speaker and the theorist are antitheses each other too therefore it is strictly forbidden for technician to choose the lifts recommended for the psychologist, and it is strictly forbidden for the speaker to choose the lifts recommended for the theorist. As a last resort, the speaker can choose by the lifts recommended for the psychologist or the technician, but the speaker will concede a little to these personality types professionally always when using their lifts. Other types – respectively.
Thus, there are eight lifts of the vertikal mobility:
- Family and marriage. Family lift is intended for the psychologists. Family lift is intended for the speakers partly. To marry for rich person is the best method to make a career for the psychologists. Such psychologists, as tsar Boris Godunov, Catherine I of Russia and such speaker partly as Catherine the Great made a career with help of this lift. Boris Godunov married on Maria Skuratova who was Malyuta Skuratov's daughter. Malyuta Skuratov was the chief investigator and the executioner during the reign of the tsar Ivan the Terrible. Then Boris Godunov has married own sister Irina to Feodor I of Russia who was a son of the tsar Ivan the Terrible. Boris Godunov made own career in such a method. Catherine the Great married for imperor Peter III of Russia, and then Catherine the Great have organized a palace coup, arrest and murder of own husband and as result Catherine the Great had became by empress.
- Army. This lift is intended for speakers. Speakers are able to order by soldiers better than other personality types. Speakers have inclination to adventurism. Speakers are able to make the correct decision in a short time and in the conditions of lack of full information about a situation. All great commanders were speakers – Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Napoleon 1 Bonaparte, Alexander Nevsky, Alexander Suvorov, Mikhail Kutuzov, Oliver Cromwell, Georgy Zhukov. Emergence of a large number of a difficult technique (guns, tanks, rockets, submarines, surface ships, planes, automobiles) has opened opportunities for employment of technicians on secondary roles in modern army.
- Church. This lift is intended for psychologists. It is selected only men in the Catholic and Orthodox church for a role of priests therefore woman-psychologists are forced to realize own abilities in the monastery, sect, occupation by sorcery and black magic. Psychologists unlike other the personality types have inclination to spirituality and fanatical belief in supernatural forces. The speakers penetrate into the management of church sometimes, although the speakers are deprived of fanaticism completely. All founders of religion – Jesus Christ, Muhammad, Gautama Buddha– were psychologists.
- School and scientific organizations. This lift is intended for theorists and this lift isn't intended for speakers completely. Just student-theorists are capable to study with all the heart. Just student‐speakers are the leaders of anti‐school culture and just student‐speakers organize the disruptions of lessons. Although the speakers become directors of schools and scientific organizations subsequently. Teacher‐speakers has the lowest scientific level frequently, but teacher‐speakers has the best level of discipline in the school class. There is a division of labor in the science on the role of creators of theories and experimenters. Theorists approach better than others personality types to the role of the creators of theories, and technicians approach better than others personality types to the role of experimenters. Speakers approach better than others personality types to the role of the organizer of scientific conferences, and psychologists approach better than others personality types to the role of authors of utopian theories. All distinguished scientists (Euclid, Archimedes, Aristotle, Isaac Newton, Mikhail Lomonosov, Auguste Comte, Charles Darwin, Pitirim Sorokin) were theorists. All inventors in the field of technical sciences (Michael Faraday, Thomas Edison, Burrhus Frederic Skinner) were technicians. All authors of utopian theories (Platon, Karl Marx) were psychologists.
- Political lift. Speaker is the first grade in policy today. Just speakers can conquer in such forms of political conflict as national multi‐party elections, elections in the aristocratic senate, elections in the popular assembly, revolt and civil war. Just speakers possess the best oratorical abilities and the leader’s qualities. Just speakers know how to manipulate by crowd and to govern political party, to command by armed troop. The psychologist is the second grade of politicians today. The psychologist is forced to play a role of the religious prophet as Adolf Hitler during a public statement before crowd. But psychologist possesses the best level of mastery during the organization of plots, political murders, terrorist acts and struggle behind the scenes. Psychologist is the best candidature to the role of political tyrant in the Past during epoch before invention of representative democracy. The technician is the third grade in the policy today. The technician is capable to to receive the Supreme power in the country only by inheritance from the father or under the patronage. Technician approaches for the role of official or bureaucrat the best of all. The theorist is the fourth grade in the policy today. The theorist approaches only on the role of the adviser of ruler. The speakers are “lions” in the policy, psychologists are “by foxes” in the policy, technisians are conservatives, theorists are reformers and the advisers of ruler.
- Art or, in other words, show liftis intended for psychologists and partly for the speakers. The psychologist ‐ the singer is able to sing songs "with soul" on the scene . the psychologist-poet is able to write lyrical works which causes mutual sympathy of public. The speaker is deprived of this ability to creation of lyrical works; therefore the speaker is forced to perform and write optimistical, civil or patriotic works which cause not enough sympathy of public, thus the speaker looks for supports of the authorities and censorship, but not support of public. Therefore the psychologist is the first grade in role the lyrical hero or the hero lover, and the speaker is the second grade in this role. The speaker - the first grade in role of the clown or сonferencier, and the psychologist is the second grade in this role. The speaker just entertains by public and the speaker is never humiliated as the clown. The psychologist as the clown begins to be humiliated, the psychologist plays laughter through tears therefore the public looks at the psychologist-klown as on the fool and with a certain share of contempt. Speakers have such role as brave hero in theater often.
- Mass media (Press, television, radio). This mass media lift and the profession of journalist is intended for the speakers, which know popular style of statement perfectly. The speakers consist in close acquaintance with a large number of people. The speakers are aware of all rumors. The speakers have oratorical abilities. Technicians and psychologists are the second grade in journalism. It can entrust for the technician a role of the announcer who is capable to read someone else's text on a piece of paper with expression. It can entrust for the psychologist sympathetic statement of biographies of great persons, the description of their inner world, the review of the world of art. The mass media is very slippery and fast lift, it is possible to fly up in one day up or to roll down down with help of this lift. For example, many show business stars became popular after performance on television only of one smash hit, and some ministers lost the posts after display on television of the compromising materials about their adventures in a brothel or about their communication with mafia. Examples of speakers on the television in Russia are Vladimir Solovyov from the telecast “Evening with Vladimir Solovyov ”, Valdis Pelšs from the telecast "Name That Tune”, Alexander Maslyakov from the telecast “Club of the happy and inventive Club”. Example of technicians on the television is announcer Ekaterina Andreeva from program of news “Time”. Examples of psychologists on the television are Vitaly Vulf from the telecast “My silver sphere", Edvard Radzinsky as playwright, television personality, screenwriter, and the author of more than forty popular history books. An example of theorist on the television is Alexander Gordon.
- Business lift (Economic organizations). This lift is intended for speakers and partly - for technicians and psychologists. An example of the speaker-businessman is Vladimir Bryntsalov, which has bought a gold toilet bowl. It is possible to point to Boris Berezovsky, Mikhail Khodorkovsky and Roman Abramovich as an example of psychologists oligarchs. An impression is made that these psychologists have managed by frauds and a personal contact in the Kremlin to appropriate a considerable part of the former state ownership during privatization, and they don't sustain the honest market competition today
Speakers are the most perspective candidates when using four lifts (army, political lift, mass media, business lift) and partly perspective candidates when using else two lifts (show lift and family).
Psychologists are the most perspective candidates when using three lifts (church, a show lift, family) and partly perspective candidates when using else three lifts (political lift, business lift and mass media,), but the value of church and family has decreased since these lifts are outdated. Roles of the tyrant and secret methods of fight in policy, favourite for the psychologist, are outdated today too, Only one modern lift is the show lift at the disposal of psychologists. Crash in career waited by just psychologists often, therefore psychologists seek to conduc a parasitic life at the expense of other the personality types.. That to justify own inability to do professional career, the psychologist is engaged by pipe dreams and utopias about communism as psychologist Karl Marx dreamed, about the ideal state where born aristocrats rule as psychologist Platon dreamed, about world supremacy of the German nation as psychologist Adolf Hitler dreamed, about return to a "gold" century, that is. to primitive society as psychologist Jean-Jacques Rousseau dreamed.. But the psychologist is the most unsurpassed master of behind scenes fight which goes in any office, psychologist is capable to win even against speakers in this behind scenes fight, for example psychologists Joseph Stalin and Leonid Brezhnev have won against all the opponents in fight r for power
Technicians are the second grade when using four lifts (army, science, business, a show).
The theorist is first grade when using only of one scientific lift.
It is possible to draw a conclusion that only the speaker is capable to make meteoric career and to change from one lift to another. The speaker is capable to make several careers in different professions during life. The speaker shows the maximum enterprise in achievement of the goal even by means of criminal means, his meteoric career represents the sequence of unexpected take-off and catastrophic falling, Boris Yeltsin's career can be an example.
Theorists are capable to promote by means of only one scientific lift due to the small number of worthy competitors since the share of theorists in population – 3% - is insignificant. But theorists isn't capable to make any other career, except scientific career. To promote career alone without support of friends and colleagues is represented as difficult task.
Technicians hold stable average position on a social ladder because technicians are the second, but not the last grade when using many important lifts. Technicians do the career slowly and reliably ,technicians creep up steps of a social ladder diligently and technicians change never from one lift to another, technician prefer to inherit the power.
Inequality and stratification
Utopia by Karl Marx about communism
Karl Marx dreamed about communism where the full social equality between people – economic , political and legal will be established, where exploitation of the person by the person will disappear. Cancellation of exploitation means cancellation of social control and the social conflict. This idea of Karl Marx is a utopia since to construct social structure without the relations of the social conflict and social control it isn't possible in principle. For example, the attempt of anarchists to cancel the state inevitably conducts to seizure of power by bandits. It has occurred in Nestor Makhno's attempt to organize anarchist revolution in Ukraine in the years of civil war. Though Makhno's fight against the Bolshevist regime and protection of interests of the labor peasantry should be assessed positively. If people have identical income, then this people will cease to work absolutely and the economic ruin will come in society. The whole world studied on mistakes of Soviet Russia and the whole world drew conclusions how it isn't necessary to build social structure.
The causes of inequality
In opinion of Émile Durkheim, the cause of inequality is a necessity to encourage the best men. Some professions are considered as more important than other profession in all societies. Warriors and healers were the most respected in primitive societies. The most important profession is a profession of priest in Puritan communities. The most important profession is a profession and businessman, banker, engineer and a doctor in modern society. If the person performs the main function in society that he must have the maximum number of prestige and wealth.
Different level of talent at people is the second reason of inequality, and the most skillful need to be rewarded for their merits, they have to perform the most important functions. Roles of the priest, the manager, and the technician were the most important functions at all times. Modern society is constructed on equal opportunities and inequality of results of work. In other words, people enter the conflict and the market competition in modern society where all people have equal chances of success and nobody has privileges on a victory. But as a result of this conflict the most talented of them win and become economic controllers.
In my opinion, inequality is a inevitable consequence of conflict and the premise of control. Winner must be richer than be conquered man, otherwise there is no sense to enter to conflict. Controller must be richer and stronger of object control, controller must have the status of of the head and authority, controller must be able to apply economic, administrative, moral sanctions and corporal punishment to the object of control. Wealth, prestige and power are prizes for a winner and a means for applying of sanction. Modern society is built on equality of opportunities to earn and inequality of profits which is received as result own labour. In other words, people enter to conflict and in the market relations in modern society, where all people have equal chance on a victory and nobody has advantages and privileges on a victory. But most talented men of them win and become economic controllers, private owners of enterprises as a result of this conflict, while losers become by objects to control or employees. Private owners have more wealth, prestige and power on merits as compared with employees. Controllers have no privilege to guarantee the high status to own children under capitalism , Controllers can only help by own children to receive this status by means of paid education, a personal contact and the corresponding education.
John Masionis asks a question whether really salary reflects a contribution of the person to development of society, whether such high degree of social inequality is reasonable? When the host of telecasts Oprah Winfrey with income in 100 million dollars in a year earns in 2 days more, than the U.S. President George Walker Bush for the whole year on the president's post. Whether somebody will be able to claim that it is more important to conduct a talk show, than to direct the country? In the countries with market economy the size of the salary depends from a ratio on labor market of demand. and supply. Stars of cinema and show business, outstanding athletes, authors of popular songs, successful managers and other professionals have rare talents on which demand exceeds supply therefore these stars are earned very much. In my opinion, the market is the best criterion of professional suitability, nothing is created better than this criterion. The state. is other regulator of level of income. The state paid by own citizens not for social value of their work under socialism, but for the level of therefore governors lived as tsars, and other citizens were equal in poverty. The market is the best regulator in comparison with the state, but the state has to add and correct market distribution of the benefits by means of heavy taxes on the income of rich men.
Vilfredo Pareto considered that degree of economic inequality, a share of rich people as a part of the population is a thing constant.:
Karl Marx considered that there is a process of economic differentiation in the modern world – rich people grow rich more and more, and poor people grow poor more and more
Pitirim Sorokin has disproved these hypotheses with the facts in hands and Pitirim Sorokin has proved that the level of economic inequality fluctuates about one constant eventually. Too strong strengthening of degree of inequality or equality is equally fraught with national catastrophe and shocks. Too strong strengthening of inequality leads to the fact that it is easy to overthrow or destroy by narrow group of millionaires. As has shown experience of South America, the oligarchical regimes are very unstable. Experience of policy of military communism in Russia has shown that after the decree of 1918 when the difference in income was limited by a ratio 175:100, then the ruin and hunger have come. The big share of representatives of the middle class gives stability to political system.
Gerrard Lenski has compared stages of development of society from the point of view of inequality and Gerrard Lenski has found:
- Inequality takes place least in societies of hunters and collectors of plants, for example, at Bushmen of South West Africa or at Indigenous of the central Australia, .
- The political leader, the merchant and the priest have the greatest influence in gardening societies where only the mattock is used for cultivation of the earth. . Degree of social inequality low.
- Inequality is most brightly shown in agrarian societies where the plow is used for cultivation of the earth. a hereditary monarchy and slaveholding .have arisen in grarian societies.
- Inequality and concentration of the power are less in industrial societies, than in agrarian societies.
Max Weber identified three criterions inequality:
Benjamin Barber added else three less important criteria of inequality:
• Level of education.
• The degree of the religious or ritual cleanliness under caste system in India.
• Ranking on related and ethnic groups.
Figure width to horizontally means the number of people with this size of income. There is an elite at top of a figure. The western society has done evolution from pyramidal structure to rhombus structure for the last hundred year . There is enormous most of the poor population and a small small group of oligarchs in pyramidal structure. There is the large share of middle class in the rhombus structure. The rhombus structure is more preferable in comparison with pyramidal structure since the numerous middle class won't allow a small group of poor people to arrange civil war under rhombus structure. And the enormous majority consisting of poor people can overturn social system, arrange civil war and a senseless slaughter under pyramidal structure easily. The task of the Russian society consists in passing from a pyramidal figure of inequality which exists in Russia today, to .rhombus structure Speaking more simply, it is necessary to get rid of oligarchy.
W. Lloyd Warner has put forward the theory about prestige of various layers (strata), of society on the basis of the statements of people about each other. There are five layers (strata) of society in Russia today, the first layer (rich aristocrats) doesn't exist in Russia today since Bolsheviks have destroyed them or have sent from the country, Those aristocrats who have returned from abroad today have no big wealth.
In Warner’s opinion, the population of modern western society is divided into six layers (strata):
• Supreme stratum of the upper class class is a rich aristocrats, for example, Charles, Prince of Wales.
• The lowest stratum of the upper class are millionaires in the first generation, they parade own wealth, they have managed "sprout through asphalt", they are connected with criminal world sometimes, they have strong character, impudence and phenomenal enterprise. For example, the millionaire Vladimir Bryntsalov showed on television the expensive cottage and a gold toilet bowl, the oil oligarch Roman Abramovich has bought the English Chelsea Football Club.
• Supreme stratum of middle class is a highly educated intellectuals (doctors, lawyers) and businessmen (owners of capital). These intellectuals have managed to invent an outstanding invention and to get big profit on sale of this invention. For example, Bill Gates has invented the computer program Windows and Bill Gates has become the richest person in the world. Henry Ford used the the conveyor by production of cars, as result Henry Ford can to reduce the cost of cars in several times.
• The lowest stratum of the middle class are clerks, secretaries, cashiers, ordinary doctors, school teachers and others "white collars". They have low income in Russia.
• Supreme stratum of lower class is these are qualified workers ("blue collars"). The qualified electricians, mechanics on repair of instrumentations and automatic equipment, welders, turners, drivers of cars and so on.
• The lowest stratum of lower class is homeless tramps, beggars, criminals and the unemployed men.
In my opinion, this stratification is result not only the reached education level, talent and ability, but mainly, this stratification is result of the conflict between people for the place in higher stratum.
These historical forms of social stratification differ on degree of severity of "filters" on floors of social stratification.
- Castes are groups of people in social hierarchy where social lifts are switched off almost completely therefore people have no opportunity to do own career.
- Estates are groups of people in social hierarchy where strict "filters"imit strongly by social mobility and slow down the movement of "lifts".
- Strata are groups of people in social hierarchy where social "filters" don't create any artificial obstacles for persons interested to do own career, as the only condition for this purpose serves presence at the applicant of talent and financial means.
Financial means are the proof of presence at the applicant of talent and enterprise often. There is a dispute on in what the essence of a social class consists. In my opinion, the social class is a big group of people taking a certain place in the system of social control. The exploiter's class or highest class is a group of people who are controllers in society. The exploited class or lowest class is a group of people who are subject to control in society.
In my opinion, the notion "social class" is a little outdated Marxist notion. This notion has been entered by Karl Marx. This utopian man considered that the history of mankind is history of fight of opposite classes with each other: slaves fought against slaveholders, serfs fought against feudal lords, hired workers fights against capitalists, of antagonistic classes weren't yet at primitive society , and classes and class fight have to disappear under communism.
It is necessary to criticize these utopian views of Karl Marx:
- There are six social strata today, but not two opposite classes, thus, according to Max Weber, Karl Marx has simplified by social structure artificially, Karl Marx has distorted the reality, seeking to adjust the reality to the utopian axioms. The middle class is intermediate between the highest and lowest class and the middle class is an intermediary in the course of social control. The highest class controls the lowest class by means of the middle class. For example, the main representatives of the middle class are: The official, the manager, the overseer who on behalf of representatives of the highest class monitor for respect for norms and give the command for application of sanctions against violators of these norms from among representatives of the lowest class. The accountant, the police officer and the executioner who have powers directly to apply sanctions (corporal and administrative punishments, bonus and fine) against violators of norms.
- The relations between controllers and subjects to control, between the exploiter and operated class on Marx's terminology, it is impossible to reduce to one conflict between them. The controller and subject to control cooperate with each other fine and mutually advantageous the most part of time
On the other hand, Karl Marx was right that classes differ from each other in the place in the system of social control. Thus, if to reject utopian forecasts of Karl Marx about communism, then it is possible to leave the notion "social class" of an arsenal of the terms suitable for sociological researches. The class system of society becomes by a meritocracy in the course of history gradually that means "the power of honored people" which in turn occurs from Latin "praiseworthy".