- The environment
- What the client thinks during specific circumstances
- How the client acts in reaction to them
- The client’s reflection of the facts of his or her story may be
- As the story unfolds
- situations clarify
- share similar experiences
- client should do the majority of talking
- three feet of distance
Counsellor should use
- open questions
Encourage talking to
- go deeper
- to give meaning to relevant issues
so that the client feels
- verbal (fluent)
- body language
often in relation to
tell me more...
- open questions
- what is bothering you?
- why did you schedule a session?
utterances to urge the client to reveal more
- uh huh
- I see
- I am following you
- is on track
sums up understanding (preferably as a question) to encourage client’s confirmation of it:
- I hear from what you are saying that you think...
- It sounds like...
- From what I can tell, you think...
It reflects counsellor understanding of client’s
- relevant experiences
Reflection of feelings
are fully fluent responses to the client that
- identify specific emotions (in relation to events and experiences)
- verbalize feelings to point to them objectively to then approach meanings
- careful use of thoughts vs. feeling vocabulary
You feel <these feelings>
- confirms correct feelings from impressions
- is disclosure
Reflection of meaning
Worldview/values from experiences
When expressing feeling, client will often return to superficial facts as they “feel safer,” possibly cyclically
Summarizing statements focus
- highlight issues
- keep on track
- that material is absorbed
- move on with “story”
- places to return to
that are certain to provide "inroads" to deeper meaning
- invite expression
- encourage the client to offer rich details
- less coercive for clients who are inhibited
could you tell me about the <specific experiences>?
obtain specific information (increased granularity)
get to the
- underlying beliefs that
- create emotions as a
- fluent message that is probably
- hidden, or unconscious
Citable reference (APA format)
Young, M. (2009). Learning the art of helping: Building blocks and techniques. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Merrill/Pearson.