Hebrew Roots/The Law and the Covenants/Covenants:The Covenant of Israeli Sovereignty
THE COVENANT OF DAVIDIC KINGSHIP
The covenant of kingship for the nation of Israel was made with David the son of Jesse of the House of Judah and is popularly called the Davidic covenant. It is an everlasting covenant which established for the nation of Israel, a kingly line into which the Messiah would be born and a throne from which He would reign in the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom upon earth.
It also established a new order of priestly service and worship to replace the Mosaic order which had become corrupt, and was judged unworthy to continue in it's function. The glory which had departed from Israel with the capture of the Ark, was again restored to Israel in a foretaste of the future Messianic pattern in the Melchizedek order, that would be set in place in the kingdom age. (1 Samuel 3:11-14; 4:19-22)
It was a progression in Yahweh God's covenant relationship with Israel. Yahweh's laws which were given through Moses are eternal and so they were unchanged, but the form and order of worship in the priesthood of the Levitical order was superseded and rearranged to embrace the Melchizedek order through David.
THE FORMATION OF THE KINGDOM
In the days of Eli the priest, there was a spiritual decline in the nation as a result of the corruption in the priesthood of his sons (1 Samuel 2:27-36; 3:11-14). The ark was eventually taken captive in battle, the order of priesthood which was established through Moses was overturned, and Yahweh God established a new order for the priesthood through David in a new tabernacle when he eventually came to the throne.
Abraham had been promised that kings would come forth from him, and Jacob had prophesied that the scepter would come through Judah, and provision was made for laws to govern future kings through Moses, but no king was designated until the people in their rebellion cried out ahead of God's time for one, and they were given Saul (Deut. 17:16-17;1 Sam.l Chs.8-10). But Saul was self-willed and more concerned with the favour of the people and proved unfaithful to the charge he was given over God's inheritance, disobeying Yahweh's decrees, becoming jealous and resentful toward David and in his rage murdering Ahimelech and the priests of God. His apostasy finally led him to consort with a witch for spiritual guidance before the hand of God finally fell in judgment upon him and his lineage. (1 Sam.13: 5-14; 15: 1-26; 18: 5-15; 22: 9-19)
The people had desired to have a king like the nations around them and Saul was used as a corrective measure of their rebellion. Yahweh took the kingdom from Saul and his house and gave it to a man after His own heart, David, the Bethlehemite, of the line of Judah. 1 Samuel 15:10-27-19; 31: 1-6; 2 Samuel 5: 1-5
Just as Yahweh God prepared Moses on the backside of the desert, so he took young David, anointed him, drove him out into the wilderness to be tested and tried by his enemy, Saul, and to come forth out of the crucible a proven vessel, a faithful leader and commander of the nation. 1 Samuel 16:12; 19:18
The kingdom began out in the desert, out of the established order, through on the job training with a motley crew of the discontented, the distressed and the poor, the outcasts and the rejects of Saul's administration. There as a fugitive, without access to the established order of access to God through the Levitical priesthood, David developed a relationship with Yahweh which transcended the covenantal era of his day.
The Psalms are a reflection of his spiritual quest - “O God, You are my God; early will I seek You; my soul thirsts for You; my flesh longs for You in a dry and thirsty land where there is no water ..” "I meditate on You in the night watches .. My soul follows close behind You; Your right hand upholds me." (Psalm 63:1,6,8)
The intensity of his situation motivated a desperate heart search for a personal encounter in God to meet the need and sustain him, overcome the obstacles, surmount the adversities and find a place of victory.
God prepared him as a witness to the river of life in relationship with Himself, a leader to go before the people; a commander to set up the precepts of a new order and open up a door for His people and for the nations of the world to also enter into the glory of His Presence. Isaiah 55: 3-5; Amos 9:11-12; Acts 15:13-21
During this time, David began to operate in the prophetic anointing. He spent time with Samuel after his departure from Saul where even Saul coming into that atmosphere began to prophesy. 1 Samuel 19:18-24 He is the author of many Messianic prophecies and in the Psalms there are many prophetic revelations.
David had the heart of a shepherd, and during this time as he began to care for the flock of men which had gathered around him, he began to enter into the priestly anointing and function in it. 1 Samuel 23: 9-12
THE KINGDOM MANDATE
After the death of Saul, David is led by Yahweh to go up to Hebron and dwell there and the men of Judah came and anointed David to be king over them, i.e. over the southern House of Judah. 2 Samuel 2: 1-4
This commences the beginning of him functioning in the kingly anointing. Ishbosheth, Saul's son, was made king over the northern House of Israel in place of his father.
For the next seven and a half years David grew in strength and power in the exercise of his dominion over his enemies and in the anointing of kingly authority which had been given to him (2 Samuel 3: 1). It was David's faithfulness that promoted him to the throne, and in this arena he gained experience and wisdom in overcoming his enemies and establishing himself in the authority invested in him. Psalm 84: 5-7
Yahweh God saw David as a man after His own heart who would care for the sheep entrusted to him (as with the bear and the lion 1 Sam.17:34-37). Being a faithful shepherd/priest to the men in his charge in the wilderness, he was entrusted with the responsibility to progress on in functioning in the kingly anointing.
After the death of Ishobsheth, the men of the northern House of Israel came to David in Hebron and made a covenant with him to be king over them which made him king over all the tribes, both the southern House of Judah and the northern House of Israel. David was thirty years old when he began to reign (as was Y'shua when He began His ministry) and he reigned forty years over all Israel and Judah. 2 Samuel 5: 1-5
From the time that the Ark had been taken captive, the Tabernacle of Moses had not been able to function properly without His Presence in it's midst. David brought the Ark back, but he did not restore it to the Tabernacle of Moses in Gibeon, but set it instead in a tabernacle which he had made for it on Mt. Zion. For the intervening period of time until the Temple was built by Solomon, the sacrifices continued in the Tabernacle of Moses without the Ark, and the Shekinah glory rested in the Tabernacle of David. During this time of transition from the Mosaic, the two orders of service were functioning at the same time.
The new order which David established was by revelation from the Spirit, and he officiated in it as a king/priest according to the order of Melchizedek. 2 Samuel 6:12-15; 1 Chronicles 28: 9-13 David had no authority to officiate as a priest in the Mosaic order, not being of the tribe of Levi, but he was divinely ordained to re-instate the Melchizedek order in it's original place in Jerusalem. Genesis 14:18-20
THE PROMISES OF THE COVENANT
With all the glorious experience David had of being in His Presence, and that of knowing His glory, he desired to build Him "a house" - a permanent dwelling place, i.e. a temple. Instead Yahweh promised him "a house" - a ruling dynasty which would be established forever. 2 Samuel 7: 10-16
It secured in perpetuity a Davidic 'house' or line, a throne, and a kingdom. It was confirmed by divine oath in Psalm 89:30-37 and renewed to Mary in Luke 1:31-33; being fulfilled in Y'shua the Messiah as Israel's coming King and Redeemer. Psalm 132:11-14; Isaiah 9: 6-7; Acts 2:29-36
The promises of the covenant were - 1. He would appoint a place for His people wherein they would not be oppressed. 2 Samuel 7:10 2. He would appoint David a "house" - a dynasty 2 Samuel 7:11 3. He would establish his son on the throne and he would build the temple. 2 Sam. 7:12; 1 Kings 1:32-40 4. He would establish the throne of his son's kingdom forever. I Chronicles 17:11-15 5. He would chastise and correct his son/s if he/they committed iniquity. 2 Samuel 7:14-15; Psalm 89:30-34 6. David's house and kingdom would be established forever. 2 Sam.7:13; Psalm 89:3-4, 36; Jeremiah 33:21 7. It included victory over his enemies, both geographically and spiritually. 2 Sam 8:1-15; 2 Chronicles 9:26
David is promised the realisation of taking the land which was promised in the Abrahamic covenant, with a continuing dynasty through which Messiah would come to sit on the throne and reign forever. Genesis 15:18
THE TABERNACLE OF DAVID
David had desired to build Yahweh God a "house" - i.e. a permanent dwelling place. But He responded that He would build HIM (David), a permanent "house", one that would last forever.
The natural interpretation is that there would be a temporal hereditary perpetual kingship of his lineage. It is a similar promise to that made to Abraham, of a natural "seed" in perpetuity. But, instead of just a "seed", the promise to David is amplified and extended to be a "seed" (v.11) which He would "establish in My House and in My kingdom forever, and his throne shall be established forever." 1 Chronicles 17:11-14
The natural "seed" promised to Abraham was a type of the spiritual Seed of Messiah which was to come. The natural "seed" promised to David also looked forward to the spiritual Seed in Messiah. The Seed is to come as a King who sits on the throne of David and over the kingdom established through him.
What was promised, was looking far beyond Solomon and its natural application through him. The kingdom and the throne was taken from Solomon's lineage as a result of the culmination of sin in the monarchy which broke the covenant, and it was not restored to Israel after the time of judgment when the period of Babylonian captivity had come to an end and they were returned to the land. 2 Chronicles 36
It was David's Seed in Messiah who would build the "House" and who would reign over the kingdom forever. The genealogy of Y'shua the Messiah is given as "the Son of David, the Son of Abraham:" Matthew 1: 1
And the angel Gabriel declared to Mirium, "He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David; and he shall reign over the house of Jacob forever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end." Luke 1:32, 33
When Y'shua made His triumphal entry into Jerusalem the people cried out, saying, "Hosanna, Blessed is He that comes in the name of Yahweh! Blessed is the kingdom of our father David that comes in the name of Yahweh! Hosanna in the Highest!" Mark 11:9-10 from Psalm 118:26
And Peter, under the inspiration of the Spirit, identified Y'shua as the Son of David who inherited the throne of David in His resurrection (Acts 2:29-36), fulfilling the Davidic covenant. Paul also, speaking in Antioch, quoting Psalm 89, said, "I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after My heart, who will do all My will .. .. .. From this man's seed, according to the promise, God raised up for Israel a Saviour - Y'shua .."
"God has fulfilled this for us their children, in that He has raised up Y'shua." Acts 13:22b-23, 33; Psalm 2: 7 In Y'shua was the fulfillment of the promises made to David for his "seed" - the prophetic "Son of David".
It was the understanding of the original apostles that the Tabernacle of David which had fallen through spiritual neglect, was being raised up again through Y'shua, the Messiah (Acts 15:16; Amos 9:11).
He was building His Father's "House" according to the Tabernacle of David, according to the promise of a "house" being established in David's name. The House which would be established by David's "Son", his Seed, is the house of God. Y'shua identified His resurrected body to be the future temple (John 2:16-21), and those who are raised with Him are His corporate spiritual Body (Hebrews 3: 6; Colossians 2:12), who, as living stones are growing into a spiritual "house", a holy temple in the Lord. 1 Peter 2: 5; Ephesians 2:20-22
In His resurrection, He was 'seated' or enthroned at the right hand of God, on the throne of his father David to rule over the House of God, waiting until His enemies are subjected to Him (Acts 2:32-35). This is what was foreshadowed when David was exalted to the throne in Hebron with the house of Saul still in power. Y'shua is now ruling in the midst of His enemies until the whole kingdom is brought under His dominion. And we, His spiritual Body, have been raised with Him and enthroned with Him in the spiritual realms to share in the mandate of His kingdom authority upon earth. Ephesians 1:17-23; 2: 4-6
The eternal aspects of the promises in the Davidic covenant have their fulfillment in Y'shua the Messiah, who according to the promise, has been established by the Father in His House and in His kingdom, to rule over His inheritance forever according to the Melchizedek priesthood pattern which was brought into operation in the Tabernacle of David. 1 Chronicles 17:14 In Him, all the promises made both to Abraham and to David have their fulfillment. Luke 1:68-75
THE FUNCTION OF THE TABERNACLE OF DAVID
The Messianic order for the priests, with it's form of worship established in the Tabernacle of David, eventually completely replaced the Mosaic order when the temple was constructed by his son Solomon.
But for the period of David's reign, the two existed side by side, the Mosaic Tabernacle at Gibeon and the Tabernacle of David on Mount Zion. Abiathar (in Zion) and Zadok (at Gibeon) were High Priests for David during his lifetime but the priesthood was changed and given to Zadok by Solomon in the outworking of the prophetic judgment of Samuel upon Eli's lineage (Abiathar was a descendant of Eli). 1 Kings 2:27, 35
In the city of David, which was the hill of Zion, the king dwelt beside the House of God, so positioned that he continually faced the sanctuary as the divine King's earthly representative for the people. His face continually beheld the glory of His Presence where the priests ministered in their service in an unbroken flow of worship before the throne, offering sacrifices, praise and thanksgiving in music, song and dance; in psalms and hymns; by instruments and choirs and inspired prophetic soloists.
The priests were appointed to serve in twenty-four consecutive "courses" to sustain this extravaganza of passionate worship, adoration and praise before His Presence, the Ark, the only article in the Tabernacle. Israel was at the height of her power and glory while she exulted in her God. 1 Chronicles 15:16; Chs.23-24
This pattern of worship and priestly service which David established was continued in the temple built by Solomon (1 Chronicles 28:11-13; 20-21; 2 Chron.5:13; 7: 6) and thereafter, whenever there was a breach in the worship of Yahweh and a falling away from God, it was always to the Davidic order that they returned, not to the Mosaic order which had been overturned. 2 Chron.23:13; 29:20-30; 35:1-5; Nehemiah 12:36
SACRIFICE OF THE COVENANT
The animal sacrifices which were offered in the dedication of the Tabernacle which David pitched for the Ark of His Presence preceded the establishment of this covenant. But there are no specific sacrifices mentioned other than that Yahweh God gave His oath for the covenant which precluded any sacrifices being necessary, seeing it was an unconditional covenant, the fulfillment of which relied solely upon the promises of Yahweh God. However, as the offering of sacrifices was central to ratifying a covenant, David may have made specific sacrificial thanksgiving offerings for this covenant. 2 Samuel 6:17-18; 7: 1-3; Psalm 89:3-4
SIGN OF THE COVENANT
Being an unconditional covenant which was also an everlasting covenant, Yahweh God appointed the heavenly bodies of the sun and moon as a witness to His own faithfulness in the oaths He had made. "I have made a covenant with My chosen, I have sworn to my servant David:" "My covenant I will not break, Nor will I alter the word that has gone out of My lips. Once I have sworn by My holiness; I will not lie to David. His seed shall endure forever, and his throne as the sun before Me; It shall be established forever like the moon, even like the faithful witness in the sky." Psalm 89: 3-4, 34-37
As with the rainbow in the sky after the flood, the heavens show forth the immutability of His counsel and the unfailing dependability of His promises.
As a result of Solomon's sins of idolatry (1 Kings 11), the nation was rent into two houses again and Yahweh God purposed to take the kingdom out of the hands of the House of David and give it instead to Jeroboam, to be king over the ten tribes of the House of Israel, if he would walk in His ways, keep His commandments and His statutes and be obedient in what He instructed him to do (1 Kings 11:26-39). However, when he came into power over the House of Israel, he set up an idolatrous form of worship and instead of the honour and blessing which was purposed, he incurred God's wrath and his lineage was cursed (1 Kings Chs.12-13).
And so, because he set a course in motion for the House of Israel to walk in idolatry, the judgment was pronounced that they would be uprooted from the land, be taken captive and scattered beyond the Euphrates river among the nations, until the time of the end. (1 Kings 14:15-16)
The House of Judah, although restored to the land after their idolatry, also lost their right to wield the earthly scepter until Messiah came, in whom the promises would be fulfilled. (Jeremiah 22:28-30