Future Media/Printable version

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Future Media

The current, editable version of this book is available in Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection, at

Permission is granted to copy, distribute, and/or modify this document under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.

Future Media Topics

To receive credit for this assignment, student must LOG IN and then paste research information in this space. Use the code provided to generate large, bold topic text followede by readable content text.

The product I have chosen to write about is Google Docs, which is an online variation of Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint. The products, Documents and Spreadsheets, were originally created by Upstartly and name Writely and Spreadsheets, which Google bought out in 2005. Google combined both of these products on October 10, 2006. Then they acquired a online presentation software, along with the related technologies, from Tonic Systems, and rolled it into Google Docs on September 17, 2007. This product allows for the online creation and storage of text documents, spreadsheets, and presentations. By doing this, you can retrieve your information from any computer in the world, regardless of operating system. It also allows for you to share documents in real-time with people via the internet, and therefore make collaboration easier.

This product is important, because it is challenging the established leading computer software writer, Microsoft. Google Docs is basically an open-source software package available over the internet. Its competition, OpenOffice which is made by Sun Java Systems, is not as popular, but is just as widely available. The reasons for the popularity of Google Docs is because it is created and promoted by Google, Inc, the easy accessibility to all your documents because they are stored on Google's servers, and they are cross-platform compatible.

Google Docs use as project management is feasible, but only on a small scale because of the limitations built into the software itself. In reality, the only group of people who would find it useful as project management software would be: students, self-employed business owners, and small business owners. When it comes to large companies, or those who have the need for security with their projects, Google Docs is not feasible.

The are several reasons why Google Docs is not feasible to use as project management software. The first reason is security. The only time that any of the Google packages signs in securely, using HTTPS, is at the sign in page, after that the entire site uses normal HTTP for passing information. This would allow for someone, if they knew how to accomplish it, to use a cross-browser attack to compromise Google Docs. For this reason, any project that dealt with confidential information could not use Google Docs. Secondly, Google Docs is not written to handle all possible situations involving a large project. Small projects that only required the use of one or two spreadsheets and a couple of text documents are the most that are feasible by this package. Another reason for not using Google Docs as project management software is because there seems is way to check documents in an out, so in essence edits could be made on the same document at the same time and end up with two completely different documents.

For more information concerning Google Docs, please check out http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_docs.

The WikiBook

First off, let’s look at the history of Wiki’s and the technology behind such an apparent revolution in the cyber world and technological field – especially on the development side of these areas. The word "wiki" comes from a Hawaiian word for "quick". Wikis were invented about 10 years ago by Socialtext advisor and friend Ward Cunningham. However, the creation of the first wiki website only became possible with the development of the hypertext protocol of the WorldWideWeb (1991) and graphical web browsers such as the Netscape Navigator (1994). Wikis became the collaboration tool of choice because they are simple and flexible. Cunningham's first wiki met with immediate success, and quickly spawned "wiki clones," alternative versions of the wiki software. The use of wiki websites was rapidly adopted by communities of free software developers, but at first remained confined to these specialised groups.

The knowledge of Wikis was not widespread known except in the areas of programmers and software developers till up to approximately 2001. The breakthrough that really cast Wikis into the limelight was through the success of the free content encyclopaedia Wikipedia introduced wikis to the general public. After this monumental occurrence in the WorldWideWeb arena, the number of Wiki websites and the varieties of wiki engines (software implementations) increased exponentially. There now exist thousands of wiki websites and hundreds of wiki engines.

A Wiki is a collaboratively-edited website which many people also view as an anarchistic publishing tool. The distinguishing feature of wikis is that they typically allow all users to edit any page, with full freedom to edit, change and delete the work of previous authors. It is used in many different areas of life, and the demand for more and more Wikis has increased over the past few years. Some of the areas that use Wikis are banks, telecommunication companies, small businesses, hospitals, universities, software companies, and many more.

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages of Wikis may include:

    1.	No need to install HTML authoring tools; minimal training may be needed.
    2.	Can help develop a culture of sharing and working together (cf. open source).
    3.	Useful for joint working when there are agreed shared goals.
    4.	In addition to the text on the page, any type of digital file can be uploaded to and shared by linking to them from the wiki page. 
    5.	Can be open to the public for viewing and editing, or limited to specific individuals for viewing only or viewing and editing.

Disadvantages of Wikis may include:

    1.	There is not (yet) a standard lightweight Wiki markup language.
    2.	It may be difficult for Wikis to gain momentum.
    3.	The simple design of the wiki and the need to keep formatting simple (so as to enable those unskilled in html to edit pages) limits the complexity of the documents that can be created in a wiki.
    4.	Even though nothing can be destroyed in a wiki (as it can be retrieved from the wiki history), the original formatting is lost, meaning that it can be time consuming to recreate what was deleted.
    5.	It is not always obvious what has been altered (unless users each agree to use a different colour font, but this requires coordination of effort that can stifle the ease of use of the wiki.

Wikis require shift in thinking about the whole notion of ownership (of what is written). Thus wikis that are open to a wide audience should not be used if author(s) want to retain control and credit for what is created. There may be copyright and other legal issues regarding collaborative content. Important not to use wikis when the exact wording of original content needs to be retained (e.g. not appropriate to post transcript of podcast in a wiki).

Application in Class?

    1.	Very easy to create and edit with no understanding of html or web page design.
    2.	Efficient method of students sharing and organizing information. 
    3.	Students can collaborate on assignments without having to meet synchronously.
    4.	Avoids having one person assume responsibility for entering each student's contributions into the group paper/project.
    5.	Students can build on each other's ideas
    6.	Reduces the likelihood of having "free riders" who contribute little if anything to a group project, since the instructor (and other students) can refer to the wiki history, and see exactly what contributions were made by whom.
    7.	Also using the page history, instructors can identify which students may be struggling with different concepts as well as which students are assisting those who are struggling.
    8.	Students can use wikis for peer editing and peer feedback prior to submitting final assignments.
    9.	If a wiki is public it enables students to have their work seen by others and gives them an authentic audience.

Wikis can enable students to receive feedback on their work if users insert comments at relevant places within the document. However, since it is difficult to use the history feature of wikis to compare the revised version with earlier versions, it is best to have students share their work in Microsoft Word and use the "track changes" feature so that the suggestions and changes are embedded in the relevant portions of the document without changing the original content.

Type Your Topic Here[edit | edit source]

The final project in the Future Media class required the use of a variety of software including After Effects, Live Type, Photoshop, iWeb, and Final Cut Pro. Final Cut Pro being the most used of the bunch. The class had to film themselves reciting a script, which they than brought into Final Cut and added all the attributes that made the videos sparkle. Final Cut gave the class the ability to edit their movies with professional software, without the professional training. Which is the beauty and attraction to this product; it has all the tools needed to edit everything from Christmas at grandma’s house, to a full length feature film. Final Cut Pro came on the scene in the 2000s as Apple’s response to the PC editing software Avid. Avid has been the Hollywood standard for film editing in the past but that standard is now being threatened with the easy usability and cost effective Final Cut. Final Cut has always been preferred for independent film makers but has started grabbing the attention of film industry professionals. Movies such as 300, Jarhead, Letters to Iwo Jima, and Academy Award Nominees Cold Mountain and No Country for Old Men are among the feature films edited with this software. As with the Hollywood editors, some of the tools used by the Future Media class included the razor tool for cutting out unwanted material, the audio settings tool for bring down the music where voice over was prominent, and fading in and out between scenes. The class movies were of course, at a beginning stage compared to the amount of effects Final Cut is actually capable of. What makes this software so popular is that it puts in the hands of beginners what professionals are using to make multi-million dollar films. Not only is it packed full of all a novice film maker could hope for, but it also plays well with other software. Final Cut is compatible with QuickTime and accepts video formats such as DV and MPEG-4. It also is ideal when one is working with Adobe’s product After Effects or Apple’s Live Type, both of which were used in the final project for this class. In keeping up with the trends of media, Final Cut has also been HD compatible since the release of the third version and Apple is currently on Final Cut Pro 6. Apple has also been releasing Final Cut Studio, which includes helpful products such as Compressor, Color, DVD Studio Pro, Soundtrack Pro, and Motion. Each of these products aid in different areas of composing a deceit project; for example, Compressor is used in shrieking file sizes, whereas DVD Studio Pro is used for burning one’s project to a DVD. Soundtrack Pro serves as the audio editing software and Motion as the graphics part of the package. With all of these components being included in one lump sum it’s just another reason the industry should continue to take a more serious look at this product. Though there is still a debate as to whether Final Cut or Avid is better for full length films, one could absolutely say Final Cut is the better choice for beginning film makers. As with most Apple products, Final Cut is user friendly, without sacrificing quality. It provides easy access to powerful editing software that takes the idea from the film makers head and places it on screen. It transforms any class project into something a viewer might actually want to take time to watch, making Final Cut Pro a great solution for beginning film makers and editors.

GarageBand[edit | edit source]

Part of the iLife suite, you can not buy GarageBand by itself. It comes free on new Macs or for under a hundred dollars Mac users can purchase it outright. GarageBand is an application focused to help the average person create music at an easy level. You can plug in a keyboard or guitar to your computer and mix your own recordings or use one of the many synthesized instruments included with the package. There is no doubt that composing in GarageBand is fun. It allows you to record in real time and you are able to monitor special effects while recording is taking place.

GarageBand layers its structured interface with levels of tracks. It supports drag and drop importing of audio loops from anywhere on your Mac. You can bring in your own loops or choose one of the many pre-made ones that Garageband offers. There are three kinds of tracks offered in Garageband: real instruments, software instruments, or you can import MIDI tracks. Real Instruments are supported by plugging an instrument directly into the computer or using a microphone to record the instrument being played. The other type of track is Software instruments, which are instruments already in the software. The supplied instruments vary from good to excellent. While you get enough to get started, there’s not nearly enough for serious loop composition. However, you can import loops to get more from your mixing. And for those who want a larger collection of sounds GarageBand also offers JamPacks which include more than 2,000 additional Apple Loops, 100+ new Software Instruments, and 100+ additional effect presets.

After creating your music the next big thing is to turn it into a Podcast. Making Podcasts is simple, and can be inter-graded into other applications such as Final Cut Pro and Quick Time Pro. You can easily use all of GarageBand’s synthesizers and effects to spice up your composition and export a Podcast to iTunes to share with family and friends.

Whether your a newbie or a professional working on a short project GarageBand is a wonderful way to start. It makes the job of recording music in real time more fun and easy to use. Things in the music world can get complicated, but Garageband is a refreshing application that is simply built for music making on Macs.

Livetype[edit | edit source]

By: Carolann Merchant.

The greatest way to get quick, professional looking text graphics is through Apple's Livetype. It allows the user to choose the typeface they want, add a number of animations to the text, and create text entrances and exits to and from the screen. Livetype also offers background graphics, still or animated that compliment its library of text animations. It is an excellent tool that gives movie quality results in the time it would take to watch a movie. The class was introduced to Livetype during the time allotted to the final project. The project, a 30 second to one minute movie over the class, required students to create an introduction with Livetype as the suggested tool. Great results were accomplished in just a short class period supplemented with a brief demonstration by the professor. Most professional animators would choose to use After Effects, some might even use Motion for less sophisticated projects. A project done in After Effects may take several hours depending on its nature, however similar results can be achieved through the simplicity of Livetype. Livetype enables text to glow, fade, zoom, and much more. Effects can be timed and edited by the user who is nearly given full control of the effects due to the elegance of the program and the options available. Effects can even be layered and combined to create original and unique features in any animation. Livetype uses keyframes and a timeline for its editing layout. The functionality keeps the user organized and the eyes focused amidst the potential chaos that comes with editing and animating on a computer screen. It would be an ill advised decision to use Livetype on a professional project that would be running in mainstream culture. Most people in the profession would recognize a basic Livetype animation and this would be considered uncreative, amateur, and low-rate. Livetype is good for the average YouTube user, small projects for school, church, etc... or just for fun!

Type Your Topic Here[edit | edit source]

Paste your research information here.

Interactive MultiMedia

An inclusive definition for interactive media is illusive if not impossible to write. Interactivity in media can be described by degree, but not by a single, all-encompassing definition. Interactive media has been called a "hybrid media technology" because it can combine any format (print, web, disc, video, audio, virtual reality scene, PDF, web link, etc.) that allow users to respond to content.

Inteactive media is evolving at a faster rate than most other aspects of new technology and multisensory experimentation is bringing startling new considerations into the multimedia mix. Movies an audience can taste, touch, see, hear and feel are not science fiction. User created content on Youtube is a manifestation of people's thirst for interactivity, as that web site gives users ultimate control over content by allowing them to create it themselves.

It's not just access that makes multimedia powerful, but the control over content given to users. Interactive Media authoring programs enable the user to manipulate the materials through linking, sorting, searching and annotating activities.

Media Fads Versus Paradigm Shifts

P2P networking is a networking style that does not need the use of a centralized server to share files between computers. This style of networking means that an individual does not need to rent server space to share files with other people on the internet. Ethically and morally, this style of networking tends more towards pirating of anything that is on a person’s computer. It also allows for the passing of viruses. In the eyes of the law, the passing of files over P2P networks that were not bought by the person holding the file, is illegal, but it is very hard for the authorities to track downloads over such networks.

Another paradigm shift that one believes is the most devastating of all is the ability to deceive the general public with editing software. Since the invention of programs like Photoshop, Final Cut Pro, Adobe Audition, and Apple Logic Pro it’s a fairly simple process to take a breaking news story and edit out key parts of the broadcast to make it appear as though something didn’t happen the did or take what a person said out of context. It happens frequently in news stories and it used as a way to spice up a dull story or to try to start some controversy. Whatever the reason, this shift from explaining the news just as it happens to spicing up the news for the sake of ratings is a sad move for our culture and society. It not only doesn’t keep citizens accurately informed but also ruins reputations and could potentially destroy a person’s creditability.

On the more computer tech 'savvy' side of multimedia, a paradigm that affected the actual hardwre and computing capabilities which enable multitudes of projects to be done or even conceived, is that of virtualization.

Today’s powerful x86 computer hardware was originally designed to run only a single operating system and a single application, but virtualization breaks that bond, making it possible to run multiple operating systems and multiple applications on the same computer at the same time, increasing the utilization and flexibility of hardware.

Virtualization lets you transform hardware into software. Use software such as VMware ESX Server to transform or “virtualize” the hardware resources of an x86-based computer—including the CPU, RAM, hard disk and network controller—to create a fully functional virtual machine that can run its own operating system and applications just like a “real” computer. Multiple virtual machines share hardware resources without interfering with each other so that you can safely run several operating systems and applications at the same time on a single computer.

Possibilities of this technology are practically limitless and can be applied to all areas, not just multimedia. Many schools and universities are switching to this technology because it is cheaper and also much more hardware efficient.

Smart Drugs: Better Performance Through Biochemistry- In the future, people will take medicine designed not only to prevent, but also to enhance their bodies. According to futurist Dr. James Canton (founder of the think tank Institute for Global Futures), more than half of all Americans are currently using some kind of drug. Over 33% of these individuals take medication with the express purpose of altering their moods or alleviating such things as stress and depression. According to the Philips Health Index, an estimated 15-25% of people take these mentality-shifting drugs (such as Prozac) with the intent to create a heightened sense of alertness and increased performance on the job. Imagine a time when you may find yourself at a competitive disadvantage if you choose not to take enhancement mediation. The Extreme Future, James Canton, pg. 141-143

Social Networking - An On-Line Phenomenon

On-line social networking is a web phenomenon almost beyond compare. At least ten million people have dated on-line as of the beginning of 2008 and the average Myspace site is getting forty hits per day.

If a large part of success is "all about who you know", is on-line social networking the most effective way to build a sphere of friends? Are Facebook and Myspace trends that have reshaped the course of social interaction, or just a total waste of time?

Viral Media

When a video posted on Youtube gets twice the viewing audience as a nationally syndicated TV sitcom show you can be sure that the big networks are paying attention to viral media. It costs about $2.5 million dollars an episode to produce one thirty segment of a television series and it typically takes most of a year to build an audience. A back yard video shot on a $600 digital video camera should not be able to generate more viewers than the networks can get throughout an entire season - but they are.

What makes media go viral (a video, a new band, a photo, a web site, etc.)? Should people who want to communicate learn how to infect the public with a media virus or treat the whole idea like a plague?

Multi-sensory Media Is About To Explode

For several years, media researchers have demonstrated movies that you can taste, smell, and feel. Multimedia developement indicates that people crave any experience that more closely resembles their real-world (TV instead of radio, color TV instead of black and white, high def. TV over standard definition TV, etc.).

Is multisensory multimedia inevitable? Will it replace or supplement books and other conventional media? When will it become available for general consumption at an affordable price? If completely immersive multisensory multimedia becomes common place, what are the implications for you and the rest of society?

Virtual Experiences: Now More Like Our Real World

Video games might be the most commonly recognized virtual experience and they become more realistic with each new release. Second Life has become an on-line web phenomenon that attracts a million unique visitors every week. Avitars (a user's alter-ego digital stand-in on the web) populate and ever growing world of virtual environments. The military trains soldiers in a game-like device that turns people into track-balls in order to allow them to navigate an infinite landscape. http://www.virtusphere.com/

What are some potential applications for virtual experiences designed for entertainment, education, marketing, political messages, and other purposes?

All of us have experienced virtual reality to one extent or another. When we become engrossed in a movie or a video game, we enter into a virtual world. For a brief period of time, we lose awareness of the world outside and our consciousness becomes focused on the sounds and images presented on the screen. However, virtual reality and immersive media is not solely reserved for games or media of the such, but it can AND has also been applied in fields such as psychology.

Numerous research in the past 7 years has been dedicated to the use of virtual reality in therapy, especially in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders encountered in clinical practice, if not the most common. Standard treatment consists of psychotropic medication and psychotherapeutic interventions. A key psychotherapeutic intervention is exposure therapy. Exposure can be either imaginal, by having the patient imagine a particular scene (for instance, a traumatic war experience), or in vivo (for instance, having a patient who is afraid of flying go to an airport, watch planes take off, sit in an airplane seat, etc.).

A virtual exposure may have advantages over both imaginal and in vivo exposure. It may be superior to imaginal exposure in that it is much more life-like and therefore might be more effective. At the same time, it has many potential advantages over in vivo exposure. It is generally much less costly; it saves public embarrassment; it can be stopped if the symptoms get overwhelming. In addition, the key aspects can be repeated over and over; for instance, if someone has a fear of flying, and the therapist identifies that the take-off is the anxiety provoking aspect of flying, a virtual take-off can be replayed over and over again. Physiological monitoring of data such as heart or respiration rate is much easier to achieve during virtual than in vivo exposure. Finally, many situations that one would not replay, such as war trauma or sexual assault, can be addressed through the safety of virtual reality.

Emerging Technologies: Preparing For The Next Job Market

In his best seller "The World is Flat", Thomas Friedman states that "anything that can be defined by a set of procedures or formulas, and anything that can be accomplished in cheaper in another country will be outsourced - if it hasn't happened already". There are things we can do to prepare ourselves for this outsourcing of jobs is affecting every profession and the "flattening" of our world.

If we can learn to think like "designers", rather than piggy banks for information we safeguard our own futures. With the advent of the internet, portable devices and powerful search engines, piggy bank employees are being outsourced. There is no indication that artificial intelligence, or any other technology, will ever be able to compete with the creative intelligence of humans. For self preservation, how do we cultivate our own creative potential to a marketable level?

As a result of outsourcing and other disruptive trends in modern society, it will be important to realize what it takes to be successful in the future job market. In the past, talented individuals who were willing to work hard and be honest would end up on top. That will change. From now on, it will be the rule breakers and the innovators, the creative people who can figure out new ways to write the rules who will be successful.

User Generated Media

In the Bible, the book of Genesis says that God made man so he would have someone to fellowship and interact with. It also says that people are made in God's image. Perhaps this helps explain why people are so much more compulsive about interactive media than conventional, traiditional, less interactive media (for about five years now, blockbuster video games have made more money than all of the major films combined).

Perhaps the ultimate interactive media is that which an audience creates themselves. Will user generated content replace the media produced by "professionals"? Why does Youtube overwhelm network television shows in viewership? Isn't quality and professional experience important any more? Why do people watch grainy, stupid videos on Youtube? Will they continue to do so, or is this just a brief interlude of bad taste?

Media Convergence

In the early 21'st century, a new arena began emerging in technology. The integration of multiple functions that have in the past been confined to individual devices, into a single device. Simply put, one gadget that can perform the job of multiple devices. Until recently, the only machine capble of handling such tasks was the personal computer and computing technology. However, as more and more advances in the technological field were pioneered, items like CD/MP3/DVD players, PDA's and even camera phones began to emerge. Today, such devices are commonplace and not so much a marvel as before. Almost all cellular phones made today have some multi-tasking component integrated into their functionality, with more and more being added each year. Perfect examples of these advanced phones would be the p990, from (Sony Ericsson), which along with the Motorolas Blackberry Phone, was one of the very first PDA/Camera/MP3/Internet devices on the commercial market in the US. Of course, advancements such as these were already made in countries like Japan and Europe, thus are not so much of a surprise to their cultures. However, in the US, technology such as this is still relatively new and extremely costly as well, which is one of the few disadvantages to such devices.

Is the iPhone a music player, video viewer, web browser, GPS, telephone or PDA? The Apple company would answer "yes".

Where will the convergence of media and media management devices (and perhaps everything in society) end? What else can be "converged" after the iPhone? Why are things converging? What, in our society, has not converged and probably never should?

Other Topics

List and address your own topics on this page.

Field Trip Feedback

Use these pages to provide reflective feedback related to field trips that will take place this semester.