Chinese (Classical Mandarin)/Transliteration and pronunciation

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Traditional name Transliteration IPA Colloquial variation (IPA) English approximation
Onset consonants
p p spy
ph pat
phh pʰ⁽ʱ⁾ pat
b b p b
m m m
f f f
fv f f
v v v~w v
t t stay
th Thai
thh tʰ⁽ʱ⁾ Thai
d d t d
n n n
tz ts tz
ths tsʰ cats
thhs tsʰ⁽ʱ⁾ tsʰ cats
dz dz ts cards
s s s
sz s s
č (before e/u/we) ts
č (elsewhere) tj
穿 čh (before e/u/we) tʃʰ tsʰ
穿 čh (elsewhere) tʃʰ chat
čhh (before e/u/we) tʃʰ⁽ʱ⁾ tsʰ
čhh (elsewhere) tʃʰ⁽ʱ⁾ tʃʰ chat
dr (before e/u/we) ts
dr (elsewhere) j
sh (before e/u/we) ʃ s
sh (elsewhere) ʃ sh
shh (before e/u/we) ʃʱ s
shh (elsewhere) ʃʱ ʃ sh
k k sky
kh kite
khh kʰ⁽ʱ⁾ kite
g g k gum
ng (before w/u/i/y) ŋ
ng (elsewhere) ŋ ŋ hangar
’ (before w/u/i/y) ʔ
’ (elsewhere) ʔ ŋ
h h ~ ꭓ h
hh ɦ h ~ x h
l l l
zh ʒ ~ ɻ vision
Rhymes
ung oong
yung (after khh or ∅) yuŋ yoong
yung (elsewhere) yuŋ yoong
e ɨ sit
ï ɨ i
i (after f/v) i i/ei key
i (elsewhere) i key
r ɻ
i i key
yu y you
u u cool
ai side
wai waɪ wise
iai iaɪ yikes
ui uɪ ~ weɪ way
en ən pin
un (after labials) un ~ wən ən
un (elsewhere) un ~ wən win
in (after ch/chh/dr/dchh/sh/shh/zh) in ~ iən keen
in (elsewhere) in ~ iən keen
yun (after k/kh/khh/g/h/hh/ʾ/∅) y(u)n ~ yən yoon
yun (elsewhere) y(u)n ~ yən un ~ wən yoon
won wɔn won
an an Ann
wan wan
ian ian iɛn yen
ien iɛn yen
yuen y(u)ɛn
iew (after ch/chh/dr/dchh/sh/shh/zh) iɛʊ iɛʊ ~ iɑʊ
iew (elsewhere) iɛʊ iɛʊ ~ iɑʊ
aw ɑʊ cow
iaw iaʊ iɛʊ ~ iɑʊ
o ɔ awe
wo walk
a a bat
wa wa
ia ia yak
ie (after ch/chh/dr/dchh/sh/shh/zh) yes
ie (elsewhere) yes
yue (after ch/chh/dr/dchh/sh/shh/zh) y(u)ɛ
yue (elsewhere) y(u)ɛ
ang ɑŋ ong
wang wɑŋ Wong
iang (after ch/chh/dr/dchh/sh/shh/zh) iɑŋ yong
iang (elsewhere) iɑŋ yong
eng əŋ ung
weng wəŋ wung
ing iŋ ~ iəŋ
yueng y(u)əŋ
ow oʊ ~ əʊ
iow (after ch/chh/dr/dchh/sh/shh/zh) ioʊ ~ iəʊ
iow ioʊ ~ iəʊ
em əm ən limb
im (after ch/chh/dr/dchh/sh/shh/zh) im in limb
im im in deem
am am an lamb
iam iam iɛn yam
iem iɛm iɛn yam
uk ʊʔ look
yuk (after k/kh/khh/g/h/hh/ʾ/∅) yʊʔ
yuk (elsewhere) yʊʔ ʊʔ
et əʔ cut
ut ʊʔ put
it (after ch/chh/dr/dchh/sh/shh/zh) iɪʔ eat
it (elsewhere) iɪʔ eat
yut
ot ɔʔ caught
wot wɔʔ
at cat
wat waʔ
iat iaʔ
iet (after ch/chh/dr/dchh/sh/shh/zh) iɛʔ yet
iet (elsewhere) iɛʔ yet
yuet (after ch/chh/dr/dchh/sh/shh/zh) y(u)ɛʔ
yuet (elsewhere) y(u)ɛʔ
ok ɒʔ ɔʔ
wok wɒʔ wɔʔ
iok (after ch/chh/dr/dchh/sh/shh/zh) iɒʔ iɔʔ
iok (elsewhere) iɒʔ iɔʔ
ek əʔ
wek wəʔ
ik (after ch/chh/dr/dchh/sh/shh/zh) iɪʔ
ik (elsewhere) iɪʔ
yuek yuəʔ
ep əʔ
ip (after ch/chh/dr/dchh/sh/shh/zh) iɪʔ
ip (elsewhere) iɪʔ
ap
op ɔʔ
iap iaʔ
iep iɛʔ
Tones
a/ā ˧
ȃ ˨˩
à ˥˧
á' ˨˦
á ˨˦
a(-p/t/k)/ă