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Bibliography of Kuki-Chin Studies

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This book aims to provide an up-to-date and annotated bibliography of research on Kuki-Chin languages and literature. For the purposes of organization the Chin sub-grouping proposed by VanBik (2009) is used.

Reconstructions of Proto-Kuki-Chin[edit | edit source]

Ohno (1965) provides a reconstruction of initials on the basis of eight languages: Tedim, Ngawn, Hakha Lai, Falam Lai, Anal, Zotung, Khumi, Chinbok. Khoi (2001) offers a reconstruction of Proto-Kuki-Chin, initials, vowels, and codas, but excludes a consideration of tone. VanBik (2009) considers comparative segmental phonology as well as tones. VanBik's relies on eleven languages: Mizo, Hakha Lai, Falam Lai, Tedim, Thado Kuki, Sizang, Mara, Mindat Cho, Daai, Asho, Khumi. On occasion he also gives Paite forms, but does not include Paite in his tables of correspondences. Button (2011) specifically focuses on six Northern Chin languages (Mizo, Zahau, Thado, Zo, Tedim, Sizang).

Northern Chin Languages[edit | edit source]

Thado[edit | edit source]

Tedim[edit | edit source]

Despite its unpretentious title, Henderson (1965) appears to be the major source for Tedim. Other studies include Bhaskararao (1989) and Button (2011).

Sihzang[edit | edit source]

Naylor (1925) is a relatively early work, which VanBik (2009) appears to use as his source for Sizang. Button (2011) includes it as one of the six languages studied there.

Hartman writes (2009: 30–31):

Theodore Stern (1954) wrote “A Provisional Sketch of Sizang (Siyin) Chin”.

It is not clear to me yet whether or not this is different than T. Stern (1963).

The name of the sub-ethnic group should rather be spelled "Sihzang" according to the other sub-ethnic peoples who share the Cim Nuai chronicles.

Central Chin Languages[edit | edit source]

Mizo[edit | edit source]

Mizo is probably the best studied of the Kuki-Chin languages. Lewin (1874) provides an early textbook. James Herbert (1940) compiled a “Dictionary of the Lushai Language”. Lalnunthangi Chhangte has been working on Mizo and wrote ‘A preliminary grammar of the Mizo language’ *(1986) for her MA thesis and ‘Mizo Syntax’ *(1993) for her Ph.D. Other works on Mizo include Henderson (1948), Bright (1957a and 1957b), Burling (1957) and Weidert (1975) and Button (2011).

Thet[edit | edit source]

Lai[edit | edit source]

Hakha Lai[edit | edit source]

Newland (1897).

Falam Lai[edit | edit source]

Thuan (2008) describes Falam phonology.

Laizo and Zahau[edit | edit source]

Osburne (1975) treats tone in the Laizo verb, and identifies Laizo as a subtype of Zahau in her title. Button (2011) includes it as one of the six languages studied there.

Mara[edit | edit source]

R. A. Lorrain (1951) provides the locus classicus, but unfortunately omits tone marks. Löffler (2002) offers observations on Mara historical phonology.

Southern Plains Chin[edit | edit source]

The Khumi cluster[edit | edit source]

Peterson (forthcoming) lists the following as members of the Khumi cluster: Bangladesh Khumi, Khoi Lam Thang's Khumi, So-Hartmann's Khumi, Wakung/Mro/Khimi, and Rengmitca. This last, Rengmitca has been written about by Loeffler on two occasions. It now has only twenty or thirty speakers spread among Mru speaking villagers and is not being learned by children.

I am not sure whether Wakung/Mro is the same thing as Shafer's 'Khimi'.

Shafer (1944) provides a “Khimi Grammar and Vocabulary” based on the translation of St. Matthew into Khumi by E. W. Francis. In his article, Shafer notes the following previous work on Khumi/Khimi/Khami.

  • Phayre, Capt., " Account of Arakan," JASB., 10 (1841), 679 ff. Vocabulary of Koladan-Koomi (N. Khami) and Mee-Koomi (S. Khami), p. 712.
  • Latter, Lieut. T., "A Note on some Hill Tribes on the Kuladyne River, Arracan," JASB., 15 (1846), 60 ff. Grammatical Sketch and Vocabulary, p. 66 if. (S. Khami).
  • Hodgson, B. H., " On the Indo-Chinese Borderers and their Connection with the Himalayans and Tibetans," JASB., 22 (1853), 1 ff. Kami (S. Khami) and Kimi (N. Khami) vocabularies, pp. 8 if.
  • Stilson, Rev. Lyman, " Brief Notice of the Kemi Language. Spoken by a Tribe in Arakan, Farther India," JAOS., 8 (1866), 213 if. Grammatical sketch, short sentences, and Lord's prayer in Kemi (S. Khami).
  • Lewin, Capt. T. H.,The Hill Tracts of Chittagong and the Dwellers therein, with Comparative Vocabularies of the Hill Dialects, Calcutta, 1869. Vocabularies Kumi, etc., pp. 146 ff. Mainly after Phayre and Hodgson.
  • Campbell, Sir George, Specimens of the Languages of India including those of the Aboriginal Tribes of Bengal, the Central Provinces, and the Eastern Frontier, Calcutta, 1874. Khumi of Chittagong Hills (N. Khami), pp. 199 ff.
  • Lewin, Capt. Thomas Hubert, Progressive Colloquial Exercises in the Lushai Dialect of the Dzo' or Kiki Language, with Vocabularies and Popular Tales (notated), Calcutta, 1874. Short Kumi vocabulary (S. Khami), p. 2.
  • Hughes, Major W. Gwynne, The Hill Tracts of Arakan, Rangoon, 1881. Vocabulary of Kames (N. Khami) by Davis, appendix, pp. iii if.
  • Houghton, Bernard, " Kami Vocabularies" (S. Khami) by Zan and Bwin, annotated by Houghton, JRAS., n.s., 27 (1895), 111 ff. (Large vocabularies, but not accurately recorded.) Grierson, Sir George, and Konow, Sten, " Khami" (S. Khami), Linguistic Survey of India, 3 (1904), pt. 3, pp. 347–377.
  • Ohn Pe, "The Awa Khamis, Ahraing Khamis, and Mros in the Ponnagyun Chin Hills, Ponnagyun Township," Census of India, 9. Burma, pt. 1; Report, appendix D, pt. 2, 1933.
  • Ba Myaing, "The Northern Hills of Ponnagyun Township," JBRS., 24, pt. 3 (1935), 127–148. Vocabulary of Awa (S. Khami) and Ayaing (N. Khami).

Löffler (1960) offers a comparative vocabulary of Awa, Rengmitca, and Aren.

Cho[edit | edit source]

Hartman writes (2009: 30–31):

Jordan (1969) wrote a “Grammar of the Chin Language” as an appendix to his dictionary. He describes Cho, (also called Ngmüün or Ng’Men). This is the language most closely related to Daai Chin. Jordan’s grammar is traditional and in a classical Latin style and though he sometimes attempts comparisons with English, his work shows a deep insight and thorough knowledge of the language.

Hartman writes (2009: 30–31):

Kee Shein Mang (2006) wrote a ‘Syntactic and Pragmatic Description of the Verb Stem Alternation in K’Cho’ as his MA thesis for the PYU in Chiangmai

Daai[edit | edit source]

Helga Hartmann has written a number of papers on various aspects of Daai Chin phonology (Hartmann 2001b) and grammar (Hartmann 1987, 1989, 2001, 2002, Hartmann-So 1989). These studies culminated in 2009 with a full grammar of Daai Chin (Hartmann 2009).

Asho and Khyang[edit | edit source]

Houghton (1892) appears to be only source until the recent work of OTSUKA Kosei (2014, 2015). According to Wikipedia, i.e. not a reliable source, Asho and Khyang are a very similar languages. The Asho-Chin of Burma and the Khyang of Bangladesh have been separated for sometime. On the Khyang language there is Bernot & Bernot (1958).

Hyow[edit | edit source]

Peterson (2003) discusses the case and verbal agreement systems of Hyow as spoken in Bangladesh.

Other Dialects[edit | edit source]

Bawm[edit | edit source]

Based on its name only perhaps it is related to Ngawm. An available resource is Reichle (1981), which I have not yet consulted. Bawm is spoken in Bangladesh.

References[edit | edit source]

  • Bernot, Denise and Lucien Bernot (1958). Les Khyang des collines de Chittagong (Pakistan oriental). Matériaux pour l'étude linguistique des Chin, Paris : Plon, 1958.
  • Bhaskararao, Peri 1989. The Process of Chiming in Tiddim Chin.” Linguistics of the Tibeto- Burman Area 12.1: 110-32.
  • Bright, William 1957a. Singing in Lushai.” Indian Linguistics 17:24-8.
  • Bright, William 1957b. Alternations in Lushai.” Indian Linguistics 18:101-10.
  • Burling, Robbins 1957 “Lushai Phonemics.” Indian Linguistics 17:148-55.
  • Button, Christopher (2011). Proto Northern Chin: An Old Burmese and Old Chinese Perspective. STEDT Monograph #10. Berkeley: University of California. [1]
  • Hartmann, Helga (1987), "Time expressions in Daai Chin", in Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 10.: 147–151.
  • Hartmann, Helga (1988), "Notes on the Southern Chin languages". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 11.2: 98-119.
  • Hartmann, Helga (1989), "Morphophonemic changes in Daai Chin", Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 12.2: 51–65.
  • Hartmann, Helga (2001a), "Function of naak/na in Daai Chin with examples from other Chin languages". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 24.2: 143–156.
  • Hartmann, Helga (2001b), "Prenasalization and preglottalization in Daai Chin and with parallel examples from Mro and Mara". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 24.2: 123–142.
  • Hartmann, Helga (2002), "Verb stem alternation in Daai Chin", in Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 25.2: 81–97.
  • Hartmann-So, H. (1989), "Directional auxiliaries in daai Chin", in Papers in Southeast Asian Linguistics No.11, Southeast Asian Syntax, ed. D. Bradley, vol. 11, pp. 81–92. Pacific Linguistics, the Australian National University.
  • Henderson, Eugénie, J. A. 1948 “Notes on the Syllable Structure of Lushai.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 12.3/4:713-25.
  • Henderson, Eugénie, J. A. 1957 “Colloquial Chin as a Pronominalized Language.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 20.1/3:323-7.
  • Henderson, Eugénie, J. A. 1963 “Notes on Teizang, a Northern Chin Dialect.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 26.3:551-8.
  • Henderson, Eugénie, J. A. (1965). Tiddim Chin, A Descriptive Analysis of Two Texts. (London Oriental Series 15). London: Oxford University Press.
  • Houghton, Bernard. C. S. 1892. Essay on the Language of the Southern Chins (Asho) and Its Affinities. Rangoon: Suprintendent Government Printing.
  • Lehman, F.K. 1979, "Etymological speculations on some Chin words", in Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1–6.
  • Lewin, Thomas Herbert (1874). Progressive colloquial exercises in the Lushai dialect of the ʹDzoʹ or Kúki language, with vocabularies and popular tales (notated). Calcutta: Calcutta central press company, limited.
  • Löffler, Lorenz G. (1960). "Khami/Khumi-Vokabulare Vorstudie zu einer sprachwissenschaftlichen Untersuchung." Anthropos55.3-4: 505–557.
  • Löffler, Lorenz G. (2002) “Some Notes on Maraa.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 25.1: 123–136.
  • Lorrain, Reginald Arthur (1951). Grammar and Dictionary of the Lakher or Mara Language. Gauhati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Government of Assam.
  • Naylor, Leonard Brown (1925). A Practical Handbook of the Chin Language (Siyin dialect). Rangoon: Superintendent Government Printing and Stationery.
  • Newland, Arthur George Edward. (1897) A practical hand-book of the language of the Lais: as spoken by the Hakas and other allied tribes of the Chin Hills (commonly the Baungshè dialect). Rangoon: Superintendent, Government Printing.
  • Ohno Toru 大野徹 (1965). "共通クキ・チン語の構成(1)--語頭子音 Kyotsu-kuchi-chin-go no saikosei I: Goto shi in [The Reconstruction of Proto-Kuki-Chin 1: initials]" 言語研究 Gengo Kenkyū (Journal of the Linguistic Society of Japan) 47.3: 8-20.
  • OTSUKA Kosei 大塚行誠 (2014). "アショー・チン語におけるinverse marker mă-." [An inverse marker mă- in Asho Chin] 東京大学言語学論集 35, 263–276.
  • OTSUKA Kosei 大塚行誠 (2015). "アショー・チン語の音韻と文字" [Asho Chin Phonology and Orthography] 九州大学言語学論集 35: 239–253.
  • OTSUKA Kosei 大塚行誠 (2015). ラルテー語における音韻体系 : ミゾ語及びティディム・チン語との対照的考察 The Phonologicl System of the Ralte Language: A Comparative Study of Ralte, Mizo, and Tiddim Chin. 東京大学言語学論集. 第36号, pp. 49–59.
  • Osburne, Andrea G. 1975 A Transformational Analysis of Tone in the Verb System of Zahao (Laizo) Chin. Ph.D dissertation, Cornell.
  • Peterson, D.A. (2003). “Agreement and grammatical relations in Hyow.” Language variation: papers on variation and change in the Sinosphere and in the Indosphere in honour of James A. Matisoff. David Bradley, et al. eds. Canberra: Australian National University. 173–183.
  • Reichle, Verena (1981). Bawm language and lore. Bern: P. Lang.
  • Shafer, Robert (1944). "Khimi Grammar and Vocabulary." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 11.2: 386–434.
  • Stern, Theodore (1963). “A provisional sketch of Sizang (Siyin) Chin”. Asia Major (New Series) 10: 222–278.
  • Thuan, Khar (2008). A Phonological Description of Falam. Payap University MA thesis.
  • VanBik, Kenneth (2009). Proto-Kuki-Chin: a reconstructed ancestor of the Kuki-Chin languages. Berkeley: Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus Project, Dept. of Linguistics research unit in University of California, Berkeley.
  • Weidert, Alfons (1975) Componential Analysis of Lushai Phonology. (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 2.) Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Roger Blench's bibliography[edit | edit source]

Hillard, Edward J. 1974 “Some Aspects of Chin Verb Morphology.” Linguistics of the Tibeto- Burman Area 1:178-85.

Lehman, F. K. (Chit Hlaing) 1963 The Structure of Chin Society. Illinois Studies in Anthropology #3. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Melnik, Nurit 1997a. "The sound System of Lai.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 20.2:9-19.

Melnik, Nurit 1997b “Verbal Alternations in Lai.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 20.2:163-72.

Osburne, Andrea G. 1979 “Segmental, Suprasegmental, Autosegmental: Contour Tones.” Linguistic Analysis 5.2:183-93.

Ostapirat, Weerat 1998 “Tiddim Chin Tones in Historical Perspective.Linguistics of the Tibeto- Burman Area 21.1: 235- 47.

Stern, Theodore 1962 “Language Contact between Related Languages: Burmese Influence Upon Plains Chin.” Anthropological Linguistics 4.4:1-28.

Vul Za Thang & J. Gin Za Twang 1975 Chin-English Dictionary (Tiddim Chin). Tedim: np.

F. K. Lehman's bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • Rungpat Roengpitya 1997 Glottal Stop and Glottalization in Lai (connected speech). Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 20, 2: 9-20. T-B Kuki-Naga Lai phonology
  • Patent, Jason D. 1997 Lai Verb Lists. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 20, 2: 57-112. T-B Kuki-Naga Lai phonology
  • Melnik, Nurit 1997 Verbal Alternations in Lai. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 20, 2: 163–172. T-B Kuki-Naga Lai syntax
  • Kavitskaya, Darya 1997 Tense and Asect in Lai. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 20, 2: 173-214 T-B Kuki-Naga Lai syntax
  • Anon. 1997 Spectrograms. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 20, 2: 113–162. T-B Kuki-Naga Lai phonetics
  • Smith, Tomoko Yamashita 1998 The Mddle Voice in Lai. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 21, 1: 1-52. T-B Kuki-Naga KLai syntax
  • Barnes, Jonathan 1998 Tsuu kaa tii hla?: Deixis, Demonstratioves, and Discourse Particles in Lai Chin. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 21, 1: 53–86. T-B Kuki-Naga Lai syntax
  • Peterson, David A. 1998 The Morphosyntax of TRansitivization in Lai (Haka Chin). LTBA 21, 1: 87-154. T-B Kuki-Naga Lai syntax
  • Patent, Jason D. 1998 A willy-nilly look at Lai Ideophones. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 21, 1: 155–200. T-B Kuki-Naga Lai ideophones
  • Kenneth Van Bik 1998 Lai Psycho-Collocations. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 21, 1: 201–234. T-B Kuki-Naga Lai syntax
  • Weera Ostapirat 1998 Tiddim Chin Tones in Historical Persective. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 21, 1: 235–248. T-B Kuki-Naga Tedim tone

1. CHIN--Miscellaneous / and Mru[edit | edit source]

    • a. Bernot, Denise et Lucien. Les Khyang des collines de Chittagong (Pakistan Oriental). Matériaux pour l'étude linguistique des Chin (l’Homme, Cahiers d'Ethnologie, de Geographie et de Linguistique, n.s., N.3), Paris, 1958. pp. 151- (For reviews of this, aee under Arakanese).
    • b. Luce, Gordon Hannington. "Chin Hills linguistic tour Dec. 1954---University project, "JBRS 42 (1959), 19-31. (Tonal equations for Karenic).

2. KHAMI--KHIMI -- KHUMI[edit | edit source]

a. Loffler, Lorenz G. "Khaml/Khumi-Vokabulare, Vorstudie zu einer sprachwisserschaftlichen Untersuchung," Anthropos 55 (1960), 505–557. b. Shafer, Robert. "Khimi grammar and vocabulary," BSOAS 11 (1944) 386-434-

3. LAKHER (MARA)[edit | edit source]

Lorrain, Reginald Arthur. Grammar and dictionary of the Lakher or Mara Language (Dept. of Hist. and Antiquarian St., Gov't of Assam), Gauhati, 1951. pp. 372.

3. LUSHEI[edit | edit source]

    • . Bright, William. "Alternations m Lushai," Bagchi Mem. Vol., Indian Linguistics l8 (1957), pts. 1 and 2, pp. 101–110. (On alternative verb forms)
  • . Burling, Robbins. "Lushai phonemncs~" ibid. 17 (1957), 1~-155.
    • . Henderson, Eugénie l.A. "Notes on the syllable structure of Lushai,". BSOAS 12 (1948), 713–725.
  • Lorrain, J. Herbert, and Fred W Savidge. A grammar and dictionary of the Lushai language (Dulien dialect), Shillong 1898~. Pp. 346.
  • . Lorrain, James Herbert 1940. Dictionary of the Lushai Language. Calcutta: The Asiatic Society. [There is now a tone-markied version, hand marked, by the late Siamkima Khawlhring]Society.

4. MRU (Mro)[edit | edit source]

Shafer, Robert. "The linguistic relationship of Mru," JBRS 31 (1941) 58–79. (Meanings in Burmese added by G. H. Luce).

5. SIYIN (Sizang)[edit | edit source]

Stern, Theodore, A provisional sketch of Sizang (Siyin) Chin, Asia Major, n.s. X, 2: 222-278 (1961).

TIDDIM[edit | edit source]

Henderson, Eugénie J . A . "Colloquial Chin as a pronominalized language, BSOAS 20 ( 1957), 323-327 .

Henderson, E. J. A. (1965) Tiddim Chin: A Descriptive Analysis. London: OUP

Henderson, E. J. A. (1963) Notes on teizang, a Northern Chin Dialect. BSOAS 26: 551–558.

Hilliard, E. (1974) Soem Aspecvts of Chin Verbal Morphology. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 1: 178–185.

Loeffler, L. G. (1970) The Bawm (Laizo) Tonal System. Paper for the 3rd� ICSTLL

Loeffler, L. G. (1973) Bawem Verbal Forms and the Tonal System of Central Chin. 6th ICSTLL Osborne, Andrea Gail (1975) A Transformational Analysis of Tone in the Verb System of Zahau (Laizo) Chin. Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University.

Lehman, F. K. 1990 The verbal agreement system of Lakher and related languages. XXIII ICSSTL. T-B Kuki-Chin Lakher/Mara syntax Bagchi, Tishta 1988 Reflexives, Reciprocals and Intensifiers in Mizo. M.A. Dissertation, Linguistics, Delhi University. T-B Kuki-Chin Mizo Syntax/anaphora Dhirawit Lagsanaging 1991 The Morphophonemics of Tone in Mizo. MA thesis, University of Delhi T-B Kuki-Chin Mizo tone

Dhirawit Lagsanaging 1991 Some aspects of tone in Mizo. 24th ICSTLL, Bangkok. S-T Kuki-Chin Mizo Tone

Dhirawit Lagsanagin 1991 Morphophonemics of tone in Mizo. MA Thesis, University of Delhi. T-B Kuki-Chin Mizo tone

Dhirawit Lagsanagin 1991 Some aspects of tone in Mizo. 24th ICSTLL, Bangkok. T-B Kuki-Chin Mizo tone

Subbarao, K. V., and M. Lalitha MS Aspects of Mizo syntax. Delhi University, Department of Linguistics. T-B Kuki-Chin Mizo/Lushai synax

Kosha, Donald 1993 Case-marking in Moyon. 26 ICSTLL T-B Kuki- Chin Moyon syntax Hillard, Edward J. 1992 Whistle and Fontanel : two Mizo (Lushai) texts, with commentary. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 15,2: 127–150. T-B Kuki-Chin Mizo/Lushai Francis, Canon E. 1990 MS Khumi-English Word List. 42 pages, typescript (xeroxed). [Paletwa] T-B Kuki-Chin Khumi Lehman, F. K. 1995 A consideration of rak and other directional auxiliaries in Lai Chin: Verb- string, agreement and ergativity in Minimalist syntax. 28th ICSTLL. T-B Kuki-Chin Lai Syntax

Lehman, F. K. (F. K. L. Chit Hlaing) 1999 Minimalist Inquiries on Object Agreement and Ergativity, with Remarks on Unergative Object Incorporation: Lai Data. SEALS IX paper.

Van Bik, Kenneth 1999 Causatives in lai. SEALS IX paper

Bedell, George 1999 Word Combination in Lai. SEALS IX paper

Bedell, George 2002 'Scope in k'Cho Questions', presented to the 35rd ICSTLL, Tempe

Bedell, George 2003 'Negation in Lai", to appear in Papers from the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society

Bedell, George 2003 'Causatives in Mizo', presented to the 36th ICSTLL, Melbourne. (paper not written, but detailed handout)

Bedell, George 2004 'Agreement in Mara', presented to 37th ICSTLL, Lund.

Bedell, George 2005 'Imperative Clauses in Lai and Mizo', ICU Asian Cultural Studies 31: 1-11.

Bedell, George (2005) Tense and Aspect in LaI ICSTLL 38, Xiamen, PR China

A. Ceu Hlun, 'Laiholh i Abu Langhterning (Plural Marking in Lai)', 1999. Chin

Ni Kio, Stephen (Feb., 2005) Dictionary (Laiholh) / A voi khatnak / A trialtu:           Communication Hakha / February 2005