Wings 3D/User Manual/The Vertex Operations Menu

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The Vertex Operations Menu[edit]

Commands[edit]

This section lists commands as they appear with advanced menus enabled. With advanced menus disabled, some options and commands are unavailable.

  • .Move.
    • Normal
    • Free
    • X
    • Y
    • Z
    • Last Axis
    • Default Axis
  • .Rotate.
    • .Free.
    • .X.
    • .Y.
    • .Z.
    • .Last Axis.
    • .Default Axis.
  • .Scale Uniform.
  • .Scale Axis.
    • X
    • Y
    • Z
    • Last Axis
    • Default Axis
  • .Scale Radial.
    • .Radial X.
    • .Radial Y.
    • .Radial Z.
    • .Radial Last Axis.
    • .Radial Default Axis.
  • .Extrude.
    • Normal
    • Free
    • X
    • Y
    • Z
    • Last Axis
    • Default Axis
  • .Flatten.
    • .X.
    • .Y.
    • .Z.
    • .Last Axis.
    • .Default Axis.
  • .Intersect.
  • Connect
  • Tighten
  • Bevel
  • Dissolve
  • Collapse
  • Deform
    • Crumple
      • Random
      • Normal
      • X
      • Y
      • Z
    • Inflate
    • Taper
      • X
      • Y
      • Z
    • Twist
      • X
      • Y
      • Z
    • Torque
      • X
      • Y
      • Z
  • Vertex Color
  • .Bend.
  • .Bend Clamped.
  • .Shift.

Reference[edit]

To use the commands in the menu, select one or more vertices and press RMB.

Axes[edit]

Many commands require that you select an axis from the menu. This axis defines the direction or orientation for the command.

In addition to the three world axes—X, Y and Z—many commands work with vertex normals, custom axes, default axes and most recently used axes.

If you specify vertex normals as the axis (by selecting Normal), each selected vertex uses its individual normal. Otherwise, the specified direction/orientation is used by all selected vertices.

Custom axes can be specified only when advanced menus are enabled. For details about this feature, see Advanced Menus.

A default axis is an axis that you define in advance to use later. To define the default axis, use the Tools | Set Default Axis in the main menu. This is done in two stages: first you specify the actual axis, and then the point of origin for that axis. A default axis is stored until you redefine it. To recall the default axis for a vertex operation, such as Move, select Default Axis from the vertex operations menu.

The Last Axis menu item recalls the axis you used during your most recent operation.

Move, Rotate and Scale[edit]

Moving, rotating or scaling are straightforward operations.

To move the selection, specify the axis you want to move it along. For details about axes, see above.

To rotate the selection, specify the pivot axis. If you use custom axes, the pivot point (center of rotation) is set automatically as well.

Scale Uniform scales the selection in all directions at once. If you use custom axes, specify the pivot point (scaling center). This can be used to quickly snap a vertex somewhere.

Scale Axis scales the selection along the axis you specify. If you use custom axes, the pivot point (scaling center) is set automatically as well.

Scale Radial scales sideways around the axis you specify, but not along it. Each vertex stays on the plane perpendicular to the specified axis. If you use custom axes, the pivot point (scaling center) is set automatically as well.

Extrude[edit]

Creates an edge loop that splits the edges connected to each selected vertex, and moves the vertex along the axis you specify, creating a "spike".

Flatten[edit]

Puts the selected vertex or vertices on a plane perpendicular to the axis you specify. Can be used to make areas of the model planar or as a snapping tool. Has three modes depending on which mouse button you click the command with:

  • LMB—Use one of the world axes, the default axis or the last axis. With advanced menus enabled, right-clicking an axis label lets you choose the point that the target plane must pass through.
  • MMB—Specify two things: a custom axis (for the plane normal) and a custom point that the target plane must pass through.
  • RMB—Specify a custom axis for the plane normal. The target plane passes through the center of the selection, so it doesn't make sense to use this option with one vertex selected.

Intersect[edit]

Advanced aligning, projection and snapping tool. Requires advanced menus. Has three modes depending on which mouse button you click the command with:

  • LMB—Projects the selected vertex or vertices along an axis onto a plane. Specify the axis first and the plane next.
  • MMB—Arranges the selected vertices along the specified line. The positions and spacing between the vertices are determined as follows: Wings puts parallel planes through each vertex and positions the vertices where their planes intersect the specified line. Specify two things: the normal of the resulting planes and the line that runs through them (and "marks" vertex positions).
  • RMB—Collects all selected vertices at the point where a custom line intersects a custom plane. Specify four things:
    1. The direction of the line
    2. The point that the line must pass through
    3. The normal of the plane
    4. The point that the plane must pass through

Connect[edit]

Spiral.PNG

Creates edges that connect the selected vertices as long as the vertices share a face. Tends to create quads when given a choice. For example, in the image on the right, a guiding edge loop has been created manually. Here, Connect will create spiraling threads to try and conform to that loop. Without that first loop, Connect will make closed loops that go all the way round the cylinder.

Tighten[edit]

Averages the positions of the selected vertices, taking into account the vertices that surround the selection.

As you drag the mouse, Wings uses percentages to show the strength of Tighten. At 100%, you get the most tension-free surface that the current iteration of Tighten can produce. If you still want less tension, do another Tighten. You can use it to gently smooth out regions where you've made changes in the surface too harsh, by tightening specific areas slightly.

Bevel[edit]

Creates a face in place of each selected vertex, putting the vertices of the new face on the edges that shared the original vertex. Drag the mouse to slide the face along those edges. Bevel has no effect on vertices where only two edges meet (a single edge cut in two). Such vertices should be eliminated, by the way, using Dissolve or Collapse (or Cleanup in body mode).

Dissolve[edit]

Removes the vertex or vertices, adjusting the faces and edges associated with it accordingly and leaves you in face selection mode.

Collapse[edit]

Removes the vertex. Unlike Dissolve, Collapse leaves you in vertex selection mode so that you can continue to select and eliminate vertices without having to switch modes.

Crumple[edit]

Moves the selected vertices at random speed along the specified axis. With the Random option, direction is also random. Good for adding "noise".

Inflate[edit]

Pushes/pulls selected vertices away from/towards a center using a falloff radius to decrease strength with distance. Vertices outside the radius reverse their direction. Left-clicking the command uses the center of the selection and the distance from it to the furthest selected vertex as the radius. Right-clicking the command (with advanced menus enabled) lets you specify the center and the radius.

Taper[edit]

Scales up sideways whatever is selected up the specified axis and scales down sideways whatever is selected down the axis. Scale strength increases linearly from the selection center.

Twist[edit]

Twists the selected vertices proportionally along the specified axis around the selection center.

Torque[edit]

Twists the selected vertices proportionally along the specified axis. Unlike Twist, this operation always uses world axes that intersect at the origin (X=Y=Z=0).

Vertex Color[edit]

Opens a dialog box where you can specify a color for the selected vertices. The specified color is strongest at the target vertices and fades out towards surrounding vertices.

Note: A vertex cannot have a color and a UV coordinate at the same time.

Bend[edit]

Bend is a family of tools that deform the selected vertices along a curve. Bend is available only if advanced menus are enabled.

There are 3 types of bend deformation depending on which mouse button you click the Bend command with: Plastic Bend, Pivot Bend and TopRad Bend.

Plastic Bend[edit]

Click Bend with LMB to go into Plastic Bend mode. In this mode, you put an imaginary rod through your selection and bend the rod. The selection follows the curvature of the rod. To visualize what Plastic Bend does, find a ballpoint pen and take out the ink reservoir and the spring. Put the spring in the middle of the reservoir and wrap the reservoir round the side of a cup. The spring follows suit.

In this real-life example, the ink reservoir represents the rod that you use with Plastic Bend, and the spring represents your vertex selection. Note that the length of the rod stays the same, only the curvature changes.

The bend amount is specified in degrees. At 0 degrees, the rod is straight. At 180 degrees, the center and both ends are located on the line you specify. If you extend the curvature of the rod, you will get a circle or a flat spiral.

Specify three things for Plastic Bend:

  1. Rod center—This is the point that marks the middle of the rod.
  2. Rod top—This is the point where the positive extreme end of the rod is located. The other end is located opposite it at the same distance from the center. The rod top does not mean that bending ends there. The curvature remains constant even past this point. The rod top and bottom are simply the points that will find themselves on a straight line passing through them and the rod center at a 180-degree bend.
  3. Bend normal—This is the direction of a line that passes through the center. At a 180-degree bend, the rod center, the rod top and the rod bottom are all located along this line.
Pivot Bend[edit]

Click Bend with MMB to go into Pivot Bend mode. In this mode, you also have a rod, but you use it differently. First you specify where the rod is located and how it is curved, and then you stretch the vertex selection proportionally along it.

To continue our ink reservoir and spring analogy, you first wrap the reservoir with the spring on it round the side of a cup and hold it there, and then start stretching the spring. The stretching spring follows the curvature of the ink reservoir.

The bend amount is specified in degrees. At 0 degrees, the vertex selection is flattened about the rod center. At other values, it is stretched along the rod curve. If you extend the curvature of the rod, you will get a circle, a helix (spring shape) or a 3D spiral.

Specify four things for Pivot Bend:

  1. Rod center—This is the point that marks the middle of the rod.
  2. Rod top—This is the point where the positive extreme end of the rod is located. The other end is located opposite it at the same distance from the center. The rod top does not mean that bending ends there. The curvature remains constant even past this point.
  3. Pivot axis—This axis defines how the final bent rod will be oriented. As we have pointed out, the resulting curvature can be a circle, a helix or a 3D spiral. If it’s a circle, then the pivot axis is perpendicular to the circle’s plane. If it’s a helix or 3D spiral, then the pivot axis is a line that this helix or spiral coils around.
  4. Pivot location—This is the point through which the pivot axis runs.
TopRad Bend[edit]

Click Bend with RMB to go into TopRad Bend mode. In this mode, you first define the curvature of the rod and then stretch the flattened selection along the rod, as in Pivot Bend. However, you define the curvature in the same way as for Plastic Bend—you specify a line that runs through the center, and both ends of the curved rod. The bend amount is specified in degrees. At 0 degrees, the vertex selection is flattened about the rod center. At other values, it is stretched along the rod curve. If you extend the curvature of the rod, you will get a circle or a 2D spiral.

Specify three things for TopRad Bend:

  1. Rod center—This is the point that marks the middle of the rod.
  2. Rod top—This is the point where the positive extreme end of the rod is located. The other end is located opposite it at the same distance from the center. The rod top does not mean that bending ends there. The curvature remains constant even past this point.
  3. Bend normal— This is the direction of a line that passes through the center. The rod is bent in such a way that the rod center, the rod top and the rod bottom are all located along this line.

Bend Clamped[edit]

Bend Clamped has the same functionality as Bend and the same three modes:

  • Bend Clamped Plastic
  • Bend Clamped Pivot
  • Bend Clamped TopRad

See above for details. The difference is that Bend Clamped lets you set limits for rod curvature. In addition to the Bend options, Bend Clamped requires that you specify two more:

  • Top Clamp Point—This is a point up the rod (or up the rod extension) at which the rod stops curving and continues as a straight line.
  • Bottom Clamp Point—This is a point down the rod (or down the rod extension) at which the rod stops curving and continues as a straight line.

Shift[edit]