Wampanoag/Money and trade

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THe {Indians} are ignorant of {Europes} Coyne; yet they have given a name to ours, and call it |Mone~ash| from the {English} Money.

Their owne is of two sorts; one white, which they make of the stem or stocke of the {Periwincle}, which they call |Meteaúhock|, when all the shell is broken off: and of this sort six of their small Beads (which they make with holes to string the bracelets) are currant with the {English} for a peny.

The second is black, incling to blew, which is made of the shell of a fish, which some {English} call {Hens}, |Poquaúhock|, and of this sort three make an {English} peny.

They that live upon the Sea sidc, generally make of it, and as many make as will.

The {Indians} bring downe all their sorts of Furs, which they take in the Countrey, both to the {Indians} and to the {English} for this {Indian} Money: this Money the {English}, {French} and {Dutch}, trade to the {Indians}, six hundred miles in severall parts (North and South from New-England)

England <145/r.153> <Of {their} Coyne.>

for their Furres, and whatsoever they stand in need of from them: as Corne, Venison, &c.

|Nquittómpscat.| `1 peny.' |Neesaúmscat.| `2 pence.' |Shwaúmscat.| `3 pence.' |Yowómscat.| `4 pence.' |Napannetashaúmscat.| `5 pence.' |Quttatashaúmscat|, {or}, |quttauatu.| `6 pence.' |Enadatashaúmscat.| `7 pence.' |Shwoasuck tashaúmscat.|- `8 pence.' |Paskugittashaúmscat.| `9 pence.' |Piuckquaúmscat.| `10 pence.' |Piuckquaúmscat nab naqùit.| `11 pence.' |Piuckquaúmscat nab nèes|, &c. `12 pence.'

{Obs.} This they call |Neèn|, which is two of their |Quttáuatues|, or six pence.

|Piukquaúmscat nab nashoàsuck|, which they call |Shwín|. `18d.' 3 |quttáuatues|. |Neesneecheckaúmscat nab yòh|, {or}, |yowin|. `2s.' 4 |quttáuatues|. |Shwinchékaúmscat|, {or} |napannetashin.| `2s. 6d.' 5 |quttáuatues|.

Shwin- <146/r.154> <Of {their} Coyne.>

|Shwinchekaúmscat| `2s. 6d.' |6 quttáuatues|. |Yowinnchekaúmscat nab neese.| `3s 6d.' |7 quttáuatues.| |Yowinncheckaúmscat nabnashòasuck.|- `4s.' |8 quttáuatues.| |Napannetashwincheckáumscat nab yòh.|- `4s. 6d.' |9 quttáuatues| |Quttatashincheckaumscat|0, {or, more commonly used} |Piúckquat.|- `5s.' |10 quttaúatues|, {or}, `10 six pences.'

{Obs.} This |Piúckquat| being sixtie pence, they call |Nquittómpeg|, or |nquitnishca~usu|, that is, one fathom, 5 shillings.

This one fathom of this their stringed money, now worth of the English but five shillings (sometimes more) some few yeeres since was worth nine, and sometimes ten shillings {per} Fathome: the fall is occasioned by the fall of Beaver in {England}: the Natives are very impatient; when for English commodities they pay so much more of their money, and not understanding the cause of it; and many say the English cheat and deceive them, though I have laboured to make them understand the reason of it.

Neesaump- <147/r.155> <Of {their} Coyne.>

|Neesaumpaúgatuck,| `10 shil. 2 Fathom.' |Shwaumpáugatuck.| `15 shil. 3 Fathom.' |Yowompáugatuck|, &c. `20 shil. 4 Fathom.' |Piuckquampáugatuck| {or}, |Nquit pâusck.| `50 shil. 10 Fathome.' |Neespausuckquompáugatuck.|- `5 lib' 20 Fathome.' |Shwepaúsuck.| `30 Fathome.' |Yowe paúsuck|, &c. |Nquittemittannauganompáugatuck.|- `40 Fathome, {or}, 10. pounds.' |Neesemittannug|, &c. |Tashincheckompáugatuck?|- `How many Fathom?'

{Obs.} Their white they call |Wompam| (which signifies white): their black |Suckáuhock| (|Súcki| signifying blacke.)

Both amongst themselves; as also the English and Dutch, the blacke peny is two pence white; the blacke fathom double, or, two fathom of white.

|Wepe kuttassawompatìmmin.|- `Change my money.' |Suckaúhock, nausakésachick.|- `The blacke money.'

Wawômpegs, <148/r.156> <Of {their} Coyne.>

|Wauômpeg|, {or} |Wauompésichick-mêsim|- `Give me white.' |Assawompatìttea.| `Come, let us change.' |Anâwsuck.| `Shells.' |Meteaúhock.| `The Periwinckle.' |Suckauanaúsuck.| `The blacke shells.' |Suckauaskéesaquash.| `The blacke eyes', or that part of the shel-fish called |Poquau~hock| (or Hens) broken out neere the eyes, of vvhich they make the blacke.

|Puckwhéganash| {&} |Múcksuck.| `Awle blades.' |Papuckakìuash.| `Britle, or breaking,'

Which they desire to be hardened to a britle temper.

{Obs.} Before ever they had {Awle blades} from Europe they made shift to bore this their shell money with stone and so fell their trees with stone set in a wooden staff, and usedwoden {howes}: which some old & poore women (fearfull to leave the old tradition) use to this day.

|Natouwómpitea.| `A Coyner or Minter.' |Nnanatouwómpiteem.|- `I cannot coyne.' |Natouwómpitees.| `Make money or Coyne.' |Puckhùmmin.| `To bore through.' |Puckwhegonnaútick.| `The Awle blade sticks.'

Tutte <149/r.157> <Of {their} Coyne.>

|Tutteputch anâwsin.| `To smooth them', which they doe on stones. |Qussùck-anash.| `Stone, Stones.' |Cauómpsk.| `A Whetstone.' |Nickáutick.| `A kinde of wooden Pincers or Vice.' |Enomphómmin.| `To thread or string.' |Aconaqunnaúog.| `Thread the Beads.' |Enomphómmin.| `Thread, or string these.' |Enomphósachick.| `Strung ones.' |Sawhóog| {&} |Sawhósachick.|- `Loose Beads.' |Naumpacoúin.| `To hang about the necke.'

{Obs.} They hang these strings of money about their necks and wrists; as also upon upon the necks and wrists of their wives and children.

|Máchequoce.| `A Girdle': Which they make curiously of one two, three, foure, and five inches thicknesse and more, of this money which (sometimes to the value of ten pounds and more) they weare about their middle and as a scarfe about their shoulders and breasts.

Yea the Princes make rich Caps and Aprons (or small breeches) of these Beads thus curiously strung into many formes and figures: their blacke and white finely mixt to gether.

Observa- <150/r.158> <Of {their} Coyne.>

Observations {generall of their} Coyne.

The Sonnes of men having lost their Maker, the true and onely Treasure, dig downe to the bowels of the earth for gold and silver; yea, to the botome of the Sea, for shells of fishes, to make up a Treasure, which can never truly inrich nor satisfie.

More particular:

1 {The} Indians {prize not} English {gold, Nor} English Indians {shell: Each in his place will passe for ought, What ere men buy or sell.}

English {and} Indians {all passe hence, To an eternall place, VVhere shels nor finest gold's worth ought, VVhere nought's worth ought but Grace.}

{This Coyne the} Indians {know not of, VVho knowes how soone they may? The} English {knowing, prize it not, But fling't like drosse away.

CHAP. <151/r.159> <Of {Buying and selling}.>


{Of buying and selling.}

|ANaqushau~og|, {or} |Anaqushánchick| `Traders.' |Anaqushénto.| `Let us trade.' |Cúttasha?| `Have you this or that?' |Cowachau~num?| |Nìtasha.| `I have.' |Nowachau~num.| |Nquénowhick.| `I want this, &c.' |Nowèkineam.| `I like this.' |Nummachinámmin.| `I doe not like.' |Máunetash nquénowhick.|- `I want many things.' |Cuttattaúamish.| `I will buy this of you.' |Nummouanaquish.| I come to buy. |Mouanaqushaúog, Mouanaqushánchick.| `Chapmen.'

{Obs.} Amongst themselves they trade their Corne, skins, Coates, Venison, Fish, &c. and sometimes come ten or twenty in a Company to trade amongst the {English}.

They have some who follow onely making of Bowes, some Arrowes, some Dishes, and

(the <152/r.160> <Of {their Trading}.>

(the Women make all their earthen Vessells) some follow fishing, some hunting: most on the Sea-side make Money, and store up shells in Summer against Winter whereof to make their money.

|Nummautanaqúsh.| `I have bought.' |Cummanóhamin?| `Have you bought?' |Cummanohamoùsh.| `I will buy of you.' |Nummautanóhamin.| `I have bought.' |Kunnauntatauamish.| `I come to buy this.' |Comaunekunnúo?| `Hove you any Cloth?' |Koppócki.| `Thick cloth.' |Wassáppi.| `Thin.' |Súckinuit.| `Black, or blackish.' |Mìshquinuit.| `Red Cloth.' |Wómpinuit.| `White Cloath.'

{Obs.} They all generally prize a Mantle of {English} or {Dutch} Cloth before their owne wearing of Skins and Furres, because they are warme enough and Lighter.

|Wompequ~ayi.| `Cloth inclining to white', Which they like not, but desire to have a sad coulour without any whitish haires, suiting with their owne naturall Temper, which inclines to sadnesse.

|Etouwawâyi.| `Wollie on both sides.' |Mucku~cki.| `Bare without Wool.'

Cheche- <153/r.161> <M> <Of {their Trading}.>

|Chechéke maútsha.| `Long-lasting.' |Qúnnascat.| `Of a great breadth.' |Tióckquscat.| `Oflittle breadth.' |Wùss.| `The Edge or list.' |Aumpácunnish.| `Open it.' |Tuttepácunnish.| `Fold it up.' |Mat Weshegganúnno.|- `There is no Wool on it.' |Tanógganish.| `Shake it.' |Wúskinuit.| `New Cloth.' |Tanócki, tanócksha.| `It is torne or rent.' |Eatawús.| `It is Old.' |Quttaúnch| `Feele it.' |Audtà| `A paire of small breeches or Apron.' |Cuppáimish| `I will pay you', which is a word newly made from the {English} word pay.

|Tahenaúatu?| `What price?' |Tummòck cumméinsh.|- `I will pay you Beaver.' |Teaúguock Cumméinsh.|- `I will give you Money.' |Wauwunnégachick.| `Very good.'

{Obs.} They have great difference of their Coyne, as the {English} have: some that will not passe without Allowance, and some again made of a Counterfeit shell, and their very

blacke <154/r.162> <Of their Trading.>

black counterfeited by a Stone and other Materialls: yet I never knew any of them much deceived, for their danger of being deceived (in these things of Earth) makes them cautelous.

|Cosaúmawem.| `You aske too much.' |Kuttìackqussaúwaw.| `You are very hard.' |Aquie iackqussau~me.| `Be not so hard.' |Aquie Wussaúmowash.|- `Doe not aske so much.' |Tashin Commêsim?|- `How much shall I give you?' |Kutteaúg Comméinsh.|- `I will give you your Money.' |Nkèke Comméinsh.| `I will give you an Otter.' |Coanombúqusse| `You have deceived me.' |Kuttassokakómme.|

{Obs.} Who ever deale or trade with them, had need of Wisedome, Patience, and Faithfulnesse in dealing: for they frequently say |Cuppànnawem|, you lye, |Cuttassokakómme|, you deceive me.

|Misquésu Kunúkkeke| `Your Otter is reddish.' |Yò aúwusse Wunnêgin|- `This is better.' |Yo chippaúatu.| `This is of another price.' |Augausaúatu.| `It is Cheap.' |Muchickaúatu.| `It is deare.'

Wuttun <155/r.163> <M 2> <{Of their Trading}.>

|Wuttunnaúatu.| `It is worth it.' |Wunishau~nto.| `Let us agree.' |Aquie neesquttónckqussish.|0 `Doe not make adoe.' |Wuchè nquìttompscat.|- `About a penny.'

They are are marvailous subtle in their Bargaines to save a penny: And very suspicious that {English} men labour to deceive them: Therefore they will beate all markets and try all places, and runne twenty thirty, yea, forty mile, and more, and lodge in the Woods, to save six pence.

|Cummámmenash nitteaúguash?| `Will you have my Money?' |Nonânum.| `I cannot.' |Nòonshem.| |Tawhitch nonanumêan?|0 `Why can you not?' |macháge nkòckie.| `I get nothing.' |Tashaumskussayi commêsim?| `How many spans will you give me?' |Neesaumsqussáyi.| `Two spans.' |Shwaumscussáyi.| `Thrce spans.' |Yowompscussáyi.| `Foure Spans.' |Napannetashaumscussâyi.|- `Five spans.' |QuttatashaumskusSáyi.|0 `Six spans.'

Enada <156/r.164> <Of {their Trading}.>

|Endatashaumscussâyí.| `Seven spans.' |Enadatashaumskuttonâyi.|- `Seven spans.' |Cowénaweke.| `You are a rich man.'

{Obs.} They will often confesse for their own ends that the English are richer and wiser, and valianter then themselves; yet it is for their owne ends, and therefore they adde |Nano~ue|, give me this or that, a disease which they are generally infected with: some more ingenuous, scorne it; but I have often seene an {Indian} with great quanties of money about him, beg a Knife of an English man, who happily hath had never a peny of money.

|Akêtash-tamòke.| `Tell my money.' |Now ánnakese.| `I have mis-told.' |Cosaúmakese.| `You have told too much.' |Cunnoónakese.| `You have told too little.' |Shoo kekìneass.| `Lo ke here.' |Wunêtu nitteaúg.| `My money is very good.' |Mamattissuôg kutteaùquock.|- `Your Beads are naught.' |Tashin mesh commaúg?|- `How much have you given?' |Chichêgin.| `A Hatchet.' |Anáskunck.| `A Howe.' |Maumichémanege.| `A Needle.' |Cuttatuppaúnamum.| `Take a measure.'

Tatup <157/r.165> <M 3> <Of {their Trading}.>

|Tatuppauntúhommin.|- `To weigh with scales.' |Tatuppauntúock.| `They are aweighing.' |Netâtup.| `It is allone.' |Kaukakìneamuck.| } |Pebenochichauquânick.| } `A Looking Glasse.'

{Obs.} It may be wondred what they do with Glasses, having no beautie but a swarfish colour, and no dressing but nakednesse; but pride appeares in any colour, and the meanest dresse: and besides generally the women paint their faces with all sorts of colours.

|Cuminanohamógunna.|- `They will buy it of you.' |Cuppittakúnnemous.| `Take your cloth againe.' |Cuppittakunnamí.| `Will you serve me so?' |Cosaumpeekúnnemun.|- `You have tore me off too little cloth.' |Cummachetannakúnnamous.|0 `I have torn it off for you.' |Tawhítch cuppìttakunamiêan?|- `Why doe you turne it upon my hand?' |Kutchichêginash, kaukinne pokéshaas.| `Your Hatchets will be soone broken.' |Teâno wáskishaas.| `Soone gapt.' |Natouashóckquittea.| `A Smith.' |Kuttattaú amish aúke| `I would buy land of you.'

Tou <158/r.166> <Of {their Trading}.>

|Tou núckquaque?| `How much?' |Wuchè wuttotânick| `For a Towne, or, Plantation.' |Nissékineam.| `I have no mind to seeke.' |Indiansuck sekineámwock.|- `The Indians are not willing.' |Noonapúock naúgum| `They want roome themselves.' |Cowetompátimmin.| `We are friends.' |Cummaugakéamish.| `I will give you land.' |Aquíe chenawaúsish.| `Be not churlish.'