Wampanoag/Beasts and Fowl

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|NPesháwog| } |Pussekesesuck.| } `Fowle.' |Ntauchâumen.| `I goe afowling or hunting.' |Auchaúi.| `Hee is gone to hunt or fowle.' |Pepemôi.| `He is gone to fowle.' |Wómpissacuk.| `An Eagle.' |Wompsacuckquâuog.| `Eagle.'

Néhom, <89> <Of {Fowle}.>

|Néyhom, mâuog.| `Turkies.' |Paupock, súog.| `Partridges.' |Aunckuck, quâuog.| `Heath-cocks.' |Chógan. é~uck.| `Black-bird, Black-birds.'

{Obs.} Of this sort there be millions, which are great devourers of the {Indian} corne as soon as it appears out of the ground; Unto this sort of Birds, especially, may the mysticall Fowles, the Divells be well resembled (and so it pleaseth the Lord Jesus himselfe to observe, {Matth.} 13. which mysticall Fowle follow the sowing of the Word, and picke it up from loose and carelesse hearers, as these Black-birds follow the materiall seed.

Against the Birds the {Indians} are very carefull, both to set their corne deep enough that it may have a strong root, not so apt to be pluckt up, (yet not too deep, lest they bury it, and it never come up:) as also they put up little watch-houses in the middle of their fields, in which they, or their biggest children lodge, and earely in the morning prevent the Birds: &c.

|Kokókehom, Ohómous.| `An Owle.' |Kaukont tuock.| `Crow, Crowes.'

{Obs.} These Birds, although they doe the corne also some hurt, yet scarce will one {Native}

tive <90> <Of {Fowle}.>

amongst an hundred wil kil them because they have a tradition, that the Crow brought them at first an {Indian} Graine of Corne in one Eare, and an {Indian} or {French} Beane in another, from the Great God |Kautántouwits| field in the Southwest from whence they hold came all their Corne and Beanes.

|Hònck, -hónckock,| `Goose, Geese.' |Wómpatuck-quâuog.| |Wéquash-shâuog.| `Swans, Swans.' |Munnùcks-munnùcksuck.|0 `Brants, or Brant geese.' |Queque~cum-mâuog.| `Ducks.'

{Obs.} The {Indians} having abundance of these sorts of Foule upon their waters, take great pains to kill any of them with their Bow and Arrowes; and are marvellous desirous of our {English} Guns, powder and shot (though they are wisely and generally denied by the {English}) yet with those which they get from the {French}, and some others ({Dutch} and {English}) they kill abundance of Fowle, being naturally excellent marks-men; and also more hardned to endure the weather, and wading, lying, and creeping on the ground, &c.

I once saw an exercise of training of the {English}, when all the {English} had mist the mark

set <91> <Of {Fowle}.>

set up to shoot at, an {Indian} with his owne Peece (desiring leave to shoot) onely hit it.

|Kìtsuog.| `Cormorants.'

{Obs.} These they take in the night time, where they are asleepe on rocks, off at Sea, and bring in at break of day great store of them:

|Yo aquéchinock.| `There they swim.' |Nipponamouôog| `I lay nets for them.'

{Ob.} This they doe on shore, and catch many fowle upon the plaines, and feeding under {Okes} upon {Akrons}, as Geese, Turkies, Cranes, and others, &c.

|Ptowe~i.| `It is fled.' |Ptowewunshánnick| `They are fled:' |Wunnùp,-pash| `Wing, Wings:' |Wunnúppanìck ánawhone| `Wing-shot:' |Wuhóckgock ânwhone| `Body-shot:' |Wuskówhàn| `A Pigeon:' |Wuskowha~nannúaog| `Pigeons:' |Wuskowhannanaúkit| `Pigeon Countrie:'

{Obs.} In that place these Fowle breed abundantly, and by reason of their delicate Food (especially in Strawberrie time when they pick up whole large Fields of the old grounds of the {Natives}, they are a delicate fowle, and because of their abundance, and the facility

of <94/r.92> <Of {Fowle}.>

of killing of them, they are and may be plentifully fed on.

{Sachim}: a little Bird about the bignesse of a swallow, or lesse, to which the {Indians} give that name, because of its {Sachim} or Princelike courage and Command over greater Birds, that a man shall often see this small Bird pursue and vanquish and put to flight the Crow, and other Birds farre bigger then it selfe.

|Sowwánakitauwaw| - `They go to the Southward.'

That is the saying of the {Natives}, when the Geese and other Fowle at the approach of Winter betake themselves, in admirable Order and discerning their Course even all the night long.

|Chepewâukitaúog| - `They fly Northward.'

That is when they returne in the Spring. There are abundance of singing Birds whose names I have little as yet inquired after, &c.

The {Indians} of {Martins} vineyard, at my late being amongst them, report generally, and confidently of some Ilands, which lie off from them to Sea, from whence every morning early, certaine Fowles come and light amongst them, and returne at Night to lodging, which Iland or Ilands are not yet discovered, though probably, by other Reasons they give, there is Land, &c.

Taúnek <95/r.93> <{O}f F{owle}.>

|Taúnek-kaúog.| `Crane, Cranes.' |Wushówunan.| `The Hawke.'

Whch the Indians keep tame about their houses to keepe the little Birds from their Corne.


|PEnashìmwock.| `Beasts.' |Netasúog.| `Cattell.'

{Obs.} This name the {Indians} give to tame Beasts, yea, and Birds also which they keepe tame about their houses:

Muck- <105/r.103> <H 4> <Of Beasts, &c.>

|Muckquashim-wock.| `Wolves.' |Moattôqus.| `A blacke Wolfe.' |Tummòckquaúog|0} |Nóosup| } paúog. `Beaver, Beavers.' |Súmhup.| }

{Obs.} This is a Beast of wonder; for cutting and drawing of great pieces of trees with his teeth, with which, and sticks and earth I have often seen, faire streames and rivers damm'd and stopt up by them: upon these streames thus damm'd up, he builds his house with stories, wherein he sits drie in his chambers, or goes into the water at his pleasure.

|Mishquáshim.| `A red Fox.' |Péquawus.| `A gray Fox.'

{Obs.} The {Indians} say they have black Foxes, which they have often seene, but never could take any of them: they say they are |Manittóoes|, that ís, Gods Spirits or Divine powers, as they say of every thing which they cannot comprehend.

|Aúsup-pánnog.| `Racoone, Racoones' |Nkèke, nkéquock.| `Otter, Otters.' |Pussoúgh.| `The wildcat.'

|Ockqutchaun_nug.| A wild beast of a reddish haire about the bignesse of a {Pig}, and rooting like a {Pig}; from whence they give this name to all our {Swine}.

Mishan- <106/r.104> <Of {Beasts, &c}.>

|Mishánneke-quock.| `Squirrill, quirrils.' |Anéqus anéquussuck.| `A litle coloured Squirril.' |Waútuckques.| `The Conie.'

{Obs.} They have a reverend esteeme of this Creature, and conceive there is some Deitie in it.

|Attuck, quock.| } |Nóonatch noónatchaug.|-} `Deere.' |Moósquin.| `A Fawn.' |Wawwúnnes.| `A young Bucke.' |Kuttiomp| {&} |Paucottâuwaw.|- `A great Bucke.' |Aunàn quunèke.| `A Doe.' |Qunnequáwese.| `A little young Doe.' |Naynayoúmewot.| `A Horse.' |Côwsnuck.| `Cowes.' |Gôatesuck.| `Goats.' |Hógsuck.| `Swine.' |Pìgsuck.|

{Obs.} This Termination |suck|, is common in their language; and therefore they adde it to our {English} Cattell, not else knowing what names to give them;

|Anùm.| `A Dog.'

Yet the varietie of their Dialects and proper speech within thirtie or fortie miles each of

other, <107/r.105> <Of {Beasts, &c}.>

other, is very great, as appeares ín that word,

|Anùm,| The {Cowweset} } |Ayìm| The {Narriganset}} |Arúm.| The {Qunnippiuck}} Dialect. |Alùm.| The {Neepmuck} }

So that although some pronounce not {L}, nor {R}. yet it is the most proper Dialect of other places, contrary to many reports.

|Enewáshim.| `A Male.' |Squáshim.| `A Female.' |Moòs sóog.| `The great Oxe, or rather a red Deere.' |Askùg.| `A Snake.' |Móaskug.| `Black Snake.' |Sések.| `Rattle Snake.' |Natúppwock.| `They feed.' |Téaqua natuphéttit?| `What shall they eat?' |Natuphéttitch yo sanáukamick.| `Let them feed on this ground.'

Hunting[edit]

The Natives hunt two wayes: First, when they pursue their game (especially Deere, which is the generall and wonderfull plenteous hunting in the Countrey:) I say, they pursue in twentie, fortie, fiftie, yea, two or three hundred in a company, (as I have seene) when they drive the woods before them.

Secondly, They hunt by Traps of severall sorts, to which purpose, after they have obserued in Spring-time and Summer the haunt of the Deere, then about Harvest, they goe ten or twentie together,and sometimes more, and withall (if it be not too farre) wives and children also, where they build up little hunting houses of Barks and Rushes (not comparable to their dwelling houses) and so each man takes his bounds of two, three, or foure miles, where hee sets thirty, forty, or fiftie

Traps <164/r.172> <Of {their Hunting}.>

Traps, and baits his Traps with that food the Deere loves, and once in two dayes he walks his round to view his Traps.

|Ntauchaúmen.| `I goe to hunt.' |Ncáttiteam weeyoùs.| `I long for Venison.' |Auchaútuck.| `Let us hunt.' |Nowetauchaúmen.| `I will hunt with you.' |Anúmwock.| `Dogs.' |Kemehétteas.| `Creepe.' |Pítch nkemehétteem| `I will creepe.' |Pumm púmmoke.| `Shoote.' |Uppetetoúa.| `A man shot accidentally.' |Ntaumpauchaúmen.| `I come from hunting.' |Cutchashineánna?| `How many have you kild' |Nneesnneánna.| `I have kild two.' |Shwinneánna.| `Three.' |Nyowinneánna.| `Foure.' |Npiuckwinneánna.| `Ten, &c.' |Nneesneechecttashìnneanna.|- `Twentie.' |Nummouashâwmen.| `I goe to set Traps.' |Apè hana.| `Trap, Traps.' |Asháppock.| `Hempe.' |Masaúnock.| `Flaxe.' |Wuskapéhana.| `New Traps.' |Eataúbana.| `Old Traps.'

{Obs.} They are very tender of their Traps where they lie, and what comes at them; for

they <165/r.173> <Of {their Hunting}.>

they say, the Deere (whom they conceive have a Divine power in them) will soone smell and be gone.

|Npunnowwaumen.| `I must goe to my Traps.' |Nummìshkommin.| `I have found a Deere;'

Which sometimes they doe, taking a Wolfe in the very act of his greedy prey, when sometimes (the Wolfe being greedy of his prey) they kill him: sometimes the Wolfe having glutted himselfe with the one halfe, leaves the other for his next bait; but the glad {Indian} finding of it, prevents him.

And that wee may see how true it is, that all wild creatures, and many tame prey upon the poore Deere (which are there in a right Embleme of Gods persecuted, that is, hunted people, as I observed in the Chapter of Beasts according to the old and true saying:

{Imbelles DamС quid nisi prСda sumus?}

To harmlesse {Roes} and {Does}, Both wilde and tame are foes.)

I remember how a poore Deere was long hunted and chased by a Wolfe, at last (as their manner is) after the chase of ten, it may be more miles running, the stout Wolfe tired out the nimble Deere, and seasing upon it,

kill'd <166/r.174> <Of {their Hunting}>

kill'd: In the act of devouring his prey, two {English} Swine, big with Pig, past by, assaulted the Wolfe, drove him from his prey, and devoured so much of that poore Deere, as they both surfeted and dyed that night.

The Wolfe is an Embleme of a fierce blood-sucking persecutor.

The Swine of a covetous rooting worldling, both make a prey of the Lord Jesus in his poore servants.

|Ncummóotamúckqun natóqus.| `The Wolfe hath rob'd me.'

{Obs.} When a Deere, is caught by the leg in the Trap, sometimes there it lies a day together before the Indian come, and so lies a pray to the ranging Wolfe, and other wild Beasts (most commonly the Wolfe) who seaseth upon the Deere and robs the Indian (at his first devouring) of neere halfe his prey, and if the Indian come not the sooner, hee makes a second greedie Meale, and leaves him nothing but the bones, and the torne Deere-skins, especially if he call some of his greedy Companions to his bloody banquet.

Upon this the {Indian} makes a falling trap called |Sunnúckhig|, (with a great weight of stones) and so sometimes knocks the Wolfe

on <167/r.175> <Of {their Hunting}>

on the head, with a gainefull Revenge, especially if it bee a blacke Wolfe, whose Skins they greatly prize.

|Nanówwussu.| `It is leane.' |Wauwunnockôo.| `It is fat.' |Weékan.| `It is sweet.' |Machemóqut.| `It smells ill.' |Anít.| `It is putrified.' |Poquêsu.| `Halfe a Deere.' |Poskáttuck| {&} |Missêsu.| `A whole Deere.' |Kuttìomp.| |Paucottaúwat.| `A Buck.' |Wawúnnes.| `A young Buck.' |Qunnèke.| `A Doe.' |Aunàn.| `A Fawne.' |Moósqin.| |Yo asipau~gon| `Thus thick of fat.' |Noónatch|, {or}, |attuck ntìyu.| `I hunt Venison.' |Mishánneke ntìyu| `I hunt a Squirrill.' |Paukunnawaw ntìo.| `I hunt a Beare, &c.' |Wusséke.| `The hinder part of the Deere.' |Apome-ichàsh.| `Thigh: Thighes.' |Uppèke-quòck.| `Shoulder, shoulders:' |Wuskàn,| `A bone.' |Wussúckqun| `A taile.'

Awem- <168/r.176> <Of {their Hunting}.>

|Awemaníttin.| `Their Rutting time.' |Paushinùmmin.| `To divide.' |Paushinummauatìttea.|- `Let us divide.'

This they doe when a Controversie falls out, whose the Deere should bee.

|Caúskashunck,| `The Deere skin.'

{Obs.} |Púmpom|: a tribute Skin when a Deere (hunted by the Indians, or Wolves) is kild in the water. This skin is carried to the |Sachim| or Prince, within whose territory the Deere was slaine.

|Ntaumpowwushaúmen.|- `I come from hunting.'