US History/Roaring Twenties and Prohibition
Although there were innumerable technical innovations, the vast changes in American life about this time had two major technical bases, the assembly line and mass testing.
In the vast steel factories and in cloth mills individuals had to move together with the machines. Any mistake could lead to an accident, perhaps a fatal one. Henry Ford's assembly line worked on the same principle, but went much further. A car went from station to station, from worker to worker. Each worker had one function -- tightening nuts, adding a component -- and only that function, as if he were himself a machine. His main interest was in doing those motions which would do his job and do it most efficiently. (In this respect the system drew upon work efficiency experts such as Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Gilbreths.)
The advantages to this extreme systemization were fundamental. As with the cloth factories, the product was produced extremely quickly at all hours of the day or night. Very little training was needed for those jobs. The results of this system were extremely long-lasting. The Model T was seen as a durable car, and "the tin lizzie" retained public affection even when it was superseded by cars with self-starters. The cars were also affordable, with results as seen below. Henry Ford raised his wages regularly, urging that the men who made the cars also buy them.
A small demerit was that these new cars were extremely ugly. The Stanley Steamer had been sleek, with lines like what would later be called "streamlining." Dusenbergs and Pierce-Arrows had a variety of hues and such extras as bud vases. Ford famously said that his purchasers could have any color they wanted, "so long as it is black." As people became more prosperous, they could shop for colored paint jobs and detailing for their luxury cars. However, creating affordable and beautiful goods was a movement away from Ford's version of the market.
More importantly, it wore on the workers. Standing in one place and squinting, working with a few muscles for hours a day (or night) could be very fatiguing. Human beings weren't made to live like that. When there were a limited set of priorities for working, workers could be easily replaced, just like machines. Not every boss of the assembly line paid as well as Ford.
Mass testing was a requirement for the assembly line -- a bad part made a bad product. But it had actually begun as a human policy, in the requirements for the late 19th Century census. It was accelerated in the desire to find sound men for the First World War. Psychologists were employed to create intelligence tests to weed out unfit soldiers. Their weapons had to be carefully inspected, for when shoddy goods reached the front lines, the result could be a disaster.
In the post-war world, Big Business began developing research and development departments. Before a change was implemented, there had to be a prototype, and the effects on the public had to be carefully measured. Economics became a matter, not merely of becoming prosperous, but of selling to the largest number possible. (The term mass market originated in the 1920s.)
In the 1920s, the United States automobile industry began an extraordinary period of growth by means of the assembly line in manufacturing. Cars began to alter the American lifestyle. In 1929, one out of every five Americans had a car. They began using their own automobiles instead of the street cars. Cars also replaced horses. This made the streets cleaner, because there wasn't as much horse manure. (However, this was replaced by other, more subtle forms of pollution. In the 1920s gasoline companies started adding lead to their fuel to increase engine efficiency.)
The idea of "homes on wheels" was also created around this time. Americans were packing up food and camping equipment in order to get away from home.  By the 1920s most automobiles gained cloth or steel roofs, offering a private space for courtship and sex. Women gained from the automobile revolution. Women who learned to drive achieved new-found independence, taking touring trips with female friends, conquering muddy roads, and making repairs when their vehicles broke down. Prosperous African-Americans for the first time obtained a limited freedom from local discrimination. A family could drive around and past "closed" White communities, and to beaches, camps, and other holiday destinations. However, the family car would have to carry its own food, drink and gas, and not stop before it reached its destination. (The largest-scale pamphlet for "safe" businesses to use, the Negro Motorist Green Book, was only published beginning in 1936.) The car was the ultimate social equalizer. One writer said in 1924, "It is hard to convince Steve Popovich, or Antonio Branca, or plain John Smith that he is being ground into the dust by capital when at will he may drive the same highways, view the same scenery, and get as much enjoyment from his trip as the modern Midas."
There were 108 automobile manufacturers in 1923 and colors allowed owners to express personal tastes. Due to all the driving, there was extensive road construction and an abundance of fuel. In 1920, the United States produced sixty-five percent of the World's oil. The first timed stop-and-go traffic light was in 1924.
Industries related to the manufacturing and use of automobiles also grew; petroleum, steel, and glass were in high demand, leading to growth and profitability in related sectors. State governments began to build roads and highways in rural areas. Gasoline stations were installed across the country, evidence of the sudden and continued growth of the petroleum industry. Automobile dealers introduced the installment plan, a financing concept that was adopted in many other parts of business. Thus, the automobile industry's growth had repercussions throughout the nation. With a perfected design of Henry Fords assembly line automobiles began to be more affordable for the common US citizens all over the country. This brought work to many because they amount of work needed to build an automobile on the assembly line was high, and so was the demand for car factory laborers.
Health and Life Expectancy
The relation between food and health was long known. For example, since the 18th century it has been known how to fight scurvy, and mariners have taken fruit on long voyages. Yet the fact that scurvy is caused by lack of vitamin c was only discovered in 1932.
From 1915 to the end of the "Roaring Twenties", most vitamins were discovered. Food regulation began to ensure a safer food supply. People began to have access to and the possibility of choosing more and better food, due to faster transport and refrigeration. Technical information was also more easily transmitted, and by 1930 nutritionists began to emphasize to the public the need for consumption of certain foods, and their constituent vitamins and minerals, on a daily basis. Food companies began marketing their products, on how their products contain certain amounts of your daily vitamins and therefore healthy. However, the advertisements sometimes contained unusual ideas about nutrition. For example, some candy bars were advertised by their "food value." And Welch's Grape Juice marketed their product as containing nutrients and vitamins, but failed to inform the reader of the large amount of sugar also included.
But the emphasis on nutrition and good hygiene made many Americans healthier. This was the decade when penicillin and insulin were discovered. During this time the life expectancy at birth in the United States also increased from fifty-four to sixty percent, and infant mortality rate decreased by one-third. However this was not the case for nonwhites: the mortality rate for nonwhite children was about fifty to one hundred times that of whites during this era. (Rickets among the poor and among rural African Americans was seen as the result of poor genetics, "bad blood." The American fad for Eugenics and the sterilization movement also grew in this era.) Accident fatalities also increased by roughly 150 percent, for the car was becoming faster and more common.
Elderly Americans and Retirement
With the increase of the elderly, the interest in pensions and other forms of old age assistance began to be put into effect. Although European countries had established state-supported pension systems, in 1923 the Chamber of Commerce in Pennsylvania. Stated that old-age assistance was “un-American & socialistic”. During the "Roaring Twenties" one third of Americans sixty-five and older depended financially on someone else. Resistance to pension plans broke at the state level during the 1920’s. Isaac Max Rubinow and Abraham Epstein were the first to try and persuade associations such as labor unions, and legislators to endorse old-age assistance. It wasn’t until 1933 that almost every state minimal support to needy elderly.
During this time period, new social values emerged. It became difficult to determine what was socially acceptable, as youth frequently took up smoking, drinking, and a new openness about sex. They were being influenced less by their parents and more by their peers and schoolmates. Schools in the cities geared up for mass education, segregating children with others of their same age. The rite of passage, dating without adult supervision, became more commonplace among these youth.
The Flapper was the female symbol of this change, as the raccoon-coated "Sheik" was the symbol among young men. The dresses then in fashion de-emphasized the bodice, with a flat abdomen, the so-called "boyish figure." Flappers did not have the long hair of their mothers and grandmothers, but short, "bobbed" styles. They drank and smoked like men, knew all the latest dances and songs, and openly swore and talked of sex. It is unknown how frequent the Flapper really was. Bobbed hair was fashionable among women and girls, but there was never a standard measurement of this or any related trend. Movie actresses such as Louise Brooks and Clara Bow were shown drinking on the big screen.
During the War, servicemen became used to lectures on preventing venereal disease, and thus became more comfortable with the idea of contraception. Condoms started to be made with latex instead of animal tissues, and became a product which could be mass-produced on an assembly line. Birth control became more available, and more respectable. With a greater chance for babies to survive infancy, and with the ability to time when they came into the world, the number of children in a middle-class family began to go from four or five to two or three. Unfortunately, this overlapped with the eugenics movement.
As the middle class became more mobile, it was much less able to rely on the advice of grandparents and family, and "expert" child care advice became popular. This advice was different from that commonly used nowadays. John B. Watson, who published his book in 1928, advised against picking up infants, holding them when they cried, or cossetting them or showing them too much affection.
Radio had been used for ship-to-shore communication since the Titanic sent out a Morse code S-O-S. It was used in both sides during the First World War. Wilson considered nationalizing the medium, as Great Britain was later to nationalize the British Broadcasting Corporation, but corporate outcry overruled him. By 1920, thousands of curious machines produced screeches for the hobbyist, with an occasional, distant snatch of voices or music. In 1920 the assembly line did its work, producing an RCA "Cat's Whisker" receiver for under four dollars. In October of that year Westinghouse created the first radio station, KDKA. In November it provided running coverage of the Presidential elections. By the mid-'20s programming ran from morning till night. In 1924, the first radio network, the National Broadcasting Company, began operations between New York and Boston. In 1927, the Columbia Broadcasting System began. The Federal Radio Commission was set up in 1926; the Radio Act of 1927 organized the Federal Radio Commission. Advertisers sponsored programs: One popular music program was The A & P Gypsies, giving coast-to-coast coverage to the A & P grocery stores. The news and entertainment provided was vetted by the sponsor, and anything which would offend sponsors was forbidden. But within those lines much was permitted. One could occasionally find high culture (though the Metropolitan Opera broadcasts only began at the end of 1931), but the aim was to air songs in the middle range of culture; "The Lost Chord," or "Drink to Me Only With Thine Eyes." They played popular music, but not much jazz: Paul Whiteman, the so-called "King of Jazz," was not. (There were exceptions to this rule; some high-powered radio stations in Mexico poured out jazz, "Black music," and ads for toxic patent medicines.) Much of the country's culture was not covered, though the Grand Ole Opry began its broadcasts in 1925. But as electrification expanded, the market for radio grew, and some stations experimented. A pair of white comedians, Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll, created a comic, sentimental serial drama, Amos 'n' Andy. At a time when lynchings of African Americans occurred as far North as Ohio, this was a comedy about two stupid African Americans who mispronounced their words. But it also created sympathy for them. "One episode ended with Amos and Andy in desperate need of a typewriter; nearly two thousand typewriters were immediately sent in by listeners." Yet " Amos 'n' Andy 's popularity was no doubt due to excitement over this new national experience. For the first time Americans could all enjoy the same event at the same moment."
The U.S. movie industry began to locate in the Hollywood neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, in the 1920s, and movies also grew into a popular recreation. Almost every community now had a cinema in town. In 1922, about 40 million people were going to the movies each week and that number jumped to about 100 million people by the end of the decade. This number was larger than the number of people that attended church weekly.Movie stars such as Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, and Charlie Chaplin became iconic images around the world. New technology increased movies' appeal. Between 1922 and 1927, the technicolor corporation developed a means of producing movies in color. This process along with sound, made movies even more more realistic and exciting.
The development of the automobile, radio, and the movies changed the popular culture of the United States. Programs such as Amos 'n' Andy affected the nation's habits; people stopped what they were doing twice a week to listen to the program. In the case of movies such as The Birth of a Nation, a fictionalized account of the founding of the Ku Klux Klan, Klan membership grew as a result.
There were eight major (and minor) studios that dominated the industry. They were the ones that had most successfully consolidated and integrated all aspects of a film's development. By 1929, the film-making firms that were to rule and monopolize Hollywood for the next half-century were the giants or the majors, sometimes dubbed The Big Five. The Big Five studios were Warner Bros., RKO, Paramount, Mtro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and Fox Film Corporation. They produced more than 90 percent of the fiction films in America and distributed their films both nationally and internationally. Each studio somewhat differentiated its products from other studios.
Originally, the concept of Prohibition (the banning of the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors) was based on religious ideology. During the Second Great Awakening in the 1840s, crusades against drinking were common among evangelical Protestants. In 1851, the state of Maine passed a law banning the production and sale of intoxicating liquors. Twelve more states followed by 1855. During the Civil War, however, the movement to prohibit alcohol was stalled. Saloons, which focused on the sale of alcohol, sprang up across the country. However, many viewed saloons as immoral. Several groups in opposition to the consumption or sale of alcoholic beverages grew prominent in political discourse, such as the Prohibition Party (founded in 1869, making it the oldest existing third party in the United States) and lobbying organizations such as the Anti-Saloon League (formed in 1893) and the Women's Christian Temperance Union (formed in 1874). These groups were instrumental in shifting the argument for Prohibition away from the immorality of drunkenness and towards the alleged link between drinking and poor productivity, domestic violence, and poverty. By 1916, almost half the states had banned saloons. The election of that year focused on Prohibition.
The Congress that assembled in 1917 overwhelmingly passed the Eighteenth Amendment, which enacted Prohibition. By 1919, the requisite number of states had ratified the Amendment. The Amendment actually came into effect, under its own terms, one year after ratification. On January 16, 1920, the National Prohibition Act, also known as the Volstead Act, came into effect which banned drinks with alcohol content above 3.2%.
Although total alcohol consumption halved, many people blatantly disregarded Prohibition. Bootleggers illegally manufactured and sold liquors at unlawful saloons called speakeasies. Gangs prospered due to profits from illegal alcohol. Some felt that Prohibition was too harsh and that it made a criminal out of the average American. Nonetheless, Prohibition remained law until 1933, when the Twenty-first Amendment repealed the Eighteenth Amendment. The most famous of the bootleggers was Al Capone, he smuggled alcohol all over the Midwest. He was the leader of one of the largest crime ring in the Chicago land area. Capone committed the many crimes of booze and drug smuggling, murder but was eventually arrested for tax evasion.
Prohibition was a time that offered many rewarding types of jobs, but with the jobs came a great risk. Many people began to be alcohol smugglers and would make large sums of money smuggling booze to hidden taverns and speakeasies where liquor was highly valued because of its scarcity at the time.
Gangs and Violence
The 18th Amendment had banned the sale, transportation and manufacture of alcohol in America. But it was clear to some, that millions neither wanted this law nor would respect it. There was obviously a huge market for what in the 1920's was an illegal commodity. It was the gangsters who dominated various cities who provided this commodity. Each major city had its gangster element but the most famous was Chicago with Al Capone.
Capone was "Public Enemy Number 1". He had moved to Chicago in 1920 where he worked for Johnny Torrio the city's leading figure in the underworld. Capone was given the task of intimidating Torrio's rivals within the city so that they would give up and hand over to Torrio their territory. Capone also had to convince speakeasy operators to buy illegal alcohol from Torrio.
Capone was very good at what he did. in 1925, Torrio was nearly killed by a rival gang and he decided to get out of the criminal world while he was still alive. Torrio handed over to Capone his 'business'.
Within 2 years, Capone was earning $60 million a year from alcohol sales alone. Other rackets earned him an extra $45 million a year.
Capone managed to bribe both the police and the important politicians of Chicago. He spent $75 million on such ventures but considered it a good investment of his huge fortune. His armed thugs patrolled election booths to ensure that Capone's politicians were returned to office. The city's mayor after 1927 was Big Bill Thompson - one of Capone's men. Thompson said "We'll not only reopen places these people have closed, but we'll open 10,000 new ones (speakeasies).
For all his power, Capone still had enemies from other surviving gangs in the city. He drove everywhere in an armor plated limousine and wherever he went, so did his armed bodyguards. Violence was a daily occurrence in Chicago. 227 gangsters were killed in the space of 4 years and on St Valentine's Day, 1929, 7 members of the O'Banion gang were shot dead by gangsters dressed as police officers.
In 1931, the law finally caught up with Capone and he was charged with tax evasion. He got 11 years in jail. In prison, his health went and when he was released, he retired to his Florida mansion no longer the feared man he was from 1925 to 1931.
Bonnie and Clyde
Bonnie and Clyde were also a famous pair of murderers and thieves in the 1920's during the prohibition era with their gang. Clyde Champion Barrow and his companion, Bonnie Parker, were shot to death by officers in an ambush near Sailes, Bienville Parish, Louisiana on May 23, 1934, after one of the most colorful and spectacular manhunts the nation had seen up to that time. Barrow was suspected of numerous killings and was wanted for murder, robbery, and state charges of kidnapping.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), then called the Bureau of Investigation, became interested in Barrow and his paramour late in December 1932 through a singular bit of evidence. A Ford automobile, which had been stolen in Pawhuska, Oklahoma, was found abandoned near Jackson, Michigan in September of that year. At Pawhuska, it was learned another Ford car had been abandoned there which had been stolen in Illinois. A search of this car revealed it had been occupied by a man and a woman, indicated by abandoned articles therein. In this car was found a prescription bottle, which led special agents to a drug store in Nacogdoches, Texas, where investigation disclosed the woman for whom the prescription had been filled was Clyde Barrow's aunt.
Further investigation revealed that the woman who obtained the prescription had been visited recently by Clyde Barrow, Bonnie Parker, and Clyde's brother, L. C. Barrow. It also was learned that these three were driving a Ford car, identified as the one stolen in Illinois. It was further shown that L. C. Barrow had secured the empty prescription bottle from a son of the woman who had originally obtained it.
On May 20, 1933, the United States Commissioner at Dallas, Texas, issued a warrant against Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker, charging them with the interstate transportation, from Dallas, to Oklahoma, of the automobile stolen in Illinois. The FBI then started its hunt for this elusive pair.
Politics and Government
A symbol of governments goodwill towards business was Warren G. Harding elected in 1920. His administration helped streamline federal spending with the Budgeting and Accounting Act of 1921, supported anti lynching legislation (rejected by Congress), and approved bills assisting farm cooperatives and liberalizing farm credit. There were some scandals in the Harding administration though; one being that he had an affair with an Ohio merchant's wife. He had a daughter from this affair and never acknowledged his illegitimate offspring. He had also appointed some cronies who saw office as an invitation to personal gain. One of those men was Charles Forbes; head of the Veterans Bureau. He went to prison and was convicted of fraud and bribery in connection with government contracts. Another crony was Attorney General Harry Daugherty. He was involved with an illegal liquor scheme. The only way he escaped prosecution was by refusing to testify against himself. Lastly, the Secretary of the Inferior, Albert Fall, accepted bribes to lease government property to private oil companies. This was known as the infamous Teapot Dome Scandal. Origins of the scandal date back to the popular conservation legislation of presidents Teddy Roosevelt, William Taft and Woodrow Wilson, specifically as to the creation of naval petroleum reserves in Wyoming and California. Three naval oil fields, Elk Hills and Buena Vista Hills in California and Teapot Dome in Wyoming, were tracts of public land that were reserved by previous presidents to be emergency underground supplies to be used by the navy only when the regular oil supplies diminished. The Teapot Dome oil field received its name because of a rock resembling a teapot that was located above the oil-bearing land. Many politicians and private oil interests had opposed the restrictions placed on the oil fields claiming that the reserves were unnecessary and that the American oil companies could provide for the U.S. Navy. 
Consequences on the Involved: Lasting throughout the 1920's were a series of civil and criminal suits related to the scandal. Finally in 1927 the Supreme Court ruled that the oil leases had been corruptly obtained and invalidated the Elk Hills lease in February of that year and the Teapot lease in October of the same year. The navy did regain control of the Teapot Dome and Elk Hills reserves in regards to the courts decision. Albert Fall was found guilty of bribery in 1929, fined $100,000 and sentenced to one year in prison. Harry Sinclair who refused to cooperate with the government investigators was charged with contempt and received a short sentence for tampering with the jury. Edward Doheny was acquitted in 1930 of attempted to bribe Fall. Results of the Scandal: The Teapot Dome scandal was a victory for neither political party in the 1920's, it did become a malor issue in the presidential election of 1924 but neither party could claim full credit for divulging the wrongdoing. The concentrated attention on the scandal made it the first true symbol of government corruption in America. The scandal did reveal the problem of natural resource scarcity and the need to protect for the future against the depletion of resources in a time of emergency. Calvin Coolidge, who assumed the presidency after Harding's death, handled the problem very systematically and his administration avoided any damage to their reputation. Overall the Teapot Dome scandal came to represent the corruption of American politics which has become more prevalent over the decades since the scandal.
In 1925 a teacher by the name of John Thomas Scopes was tried and convicted for teaching evolution in his public school classroom as an explanation to where man originated from, rather than Adam and Eve that is what the law at the time stated. This was a major dispute and caught the attention of many popular government officials such as William Jennings Bryan, who spoke on behalf of the prosecution. Although the modernists defending Scopes lost, they still were proud to have been able to put into question the illogical thinking behind the law enforcing the belief that no one can teach alternative methods for the origin of man, they were also proud hat this trial and conviction didn’t affect the expansion of fundamentalist ideals. The Southern Baptist Convention a protestant group was even one of the fastest growing denominations after the trial showing that it may have even gave popularity to the religious denomination. The beliefs of these groups resulted in the creation of an independent subculture within the U.S. and with their own schools, radio programs, and missionary societies.
With economic insecurity religion, faith became more popular through out the United States. The new revivalism condemned the new socially acceptable movies, dress styles, and dancing. Many religious organizations supported the prohibition movement, thinking drinking was a sinful unclean act.
Jazz is an American musical art form which originated around the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States from a confluence of African and European music traditions. It was originated from African Americans. The “hometown” of jazz is considered to be in New Orleans. Early jazz musicians would called New Orleans their home even if they have never been there. Jazz music started the whole jazz revolution from poetry, fashion, and industry. Jazz spread through America very quickly. The style's West African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes, call-and-response, improvisation, polyrhythms, syncopation, and the swung note of ragtime. Beginning in 1922, Gennett Records began recording jazz groups performing in Chicago. The first group they recorded was the New Orleans Rhythm Kings, followed in 1923 by King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band with Louis Armstrong. Another indie company in Chicago, Paramount Records, was competing with Gennett and Okeh for jazz talent.
Young, rebellious, middle-class women, began wearing clothing that showed their arms and legs off. These women became known as "flappers". "Flappers" were care free women who smoked, drank, and treated sex in a casual manner. The hairstyle of the decade was a chin-length bob, of which there were several popular variations. Cosmetics, which until the 1920s was not typically accepted in American society because of its association with prostitution became, for the first time, extremely popular. Hats wear also a big trend in the 1920s and popular styles included the Newsboy cap and Cloche hat. Directly after the Great War America was in economic control because Germany was put in charge for repairing all of the war damages. With the United States not in a recession many people had extra money to spend on fashionable clothes. This spending opened up job opportunities for store owners and for fashion designers as well.
After the war, many manufacturing companies faced hard times as they attempted to convert from wartime production of weapons and planes to what they had traditionally produced before the war. However, the pro-business policies put in place first by Harding, then Coolidge, allowed business to flourish. While business did well at home- the raising of tariff rates from 27% (under the Underwood-Simmons Tariff) to 41% certainly helped in this regard- many major companies did quite well overseas. Just as these companies had started to do before the war, they set up shop in a variety of countries based around the resources located there. Meat packers, like Gustavus Swift, went to Argentina, fruit growers went to Costa Rica, Honduras, and Guatemala, sugar plantation owners went to Cuba, rubber plantation owners to the Philippines, Sumatra, and Malaya, copper corporations to Chile, and oil companies to Mexico and Venezuela (which remains today a great source for oil).
The Organized labor force during the 1920's suffered a great deal. During this time the country was fearful of the spread of communism in America, because of this widespread fear public opinion was against any worker who attempted to disrupt the order of the working class. The public was so anti-labor union that in 1922 the Harding administration was able to get a court injunction to destroy a railroad workers strike that was about 400,000 strong. Also in 1922 the government took part in putting to an end a nationwide miners strike that consisted of about 650,000 miners. The federal and state level of government had no toleration for strikes, and allowed for businesses to sue the unions for any damages done during a strike.
Major Cases and Laws
Several laws came into play during the 1920's because of things such as prohibition, voting rights, and women's rights. Our country has progressed a great deal since the 1920's, and of the laws that come into play dealt with what our country was going through at the time. On January 16, 1920 it was illegal to sell, make, or transport any type of alcoholic beverage with more than one and a half percent of alcohol. Also, the 19th Amendment was another monumental law passed during the 1920's.
Sacco-Vanzetti Trial, Leopold and Loeb, Scopes "Monkey" Trial, and Black Sox Trail were all significant court cases during the 1920's. Each of these courts cases were unique and monumental in their own right, and set a precedent for the years to come especially in court looking back on these cases. The 1920's was a very monumental time for the law and courts of the United States.
During the 1920's there were almost double the amount of nonwhite women than white in the workforce. Women, especially minorities, who held factory jobs held the least desirable and lowest paying jobs in factories. African American women mostly held domestic jobs such as cooking, cleaning, and laundry. There were many openings for educated African women in the social work, teaching, and nursing fields during this time, however they faced much discrimination. The Economic needs of the family brought thousands of minority women into having to work. Mexican women, mainly in the Southwest worked as domestic servants, operatives in garment factories, and as agricultural laborers. This was looked down upon because the Mexican culture traditionally was against women labor. Next to African women, Japanese women were the most likely to hold low paying jobs in the work force, they worked in the lowest paying jobs; they faced very strong racial biases and discrimination on a regular basis as well.
African-Americans and the Ku Klux Klan
Southern states segregated public facilities (like buses). In half the South fewer than 10% of the blacks were allowed to vote.
Another factor that ignited more hatred towards blacks was the Great Migration. During the 1920s blacks began to move from rural areas in the South to large cities. More than 1.5 million African Americans migrated to cities such as New York, Chicago, Detroit and the black population even grew in Western cities such as Los Angeles and San Diego. Although most of the migrants were poor and lived in cheap urban housing, some were able to afford better housing in white neighborhoods. This migration of African Americans created unrest within the white community as blacks began to buy and rent property in white neighborhoods. The Great Migration ended in even more discrimination and violence against blacks.
To fight the increasing discrimination many black movement groups began to form. The Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) was formed Marcus Garvey, an immigrant from Jamaica living in Harlem. Garvey preached a message of equality that many, including other black leaders, considered radical. Garvey helped start companies and news papers directed towards the African American community. Along the way he gained a substantial amount of followers around the US, especially in urban cities. Some estimate that Garvey and the UNIA had over half a million followers. Although Garvey created more racial unity and inspired the black community to stand up, many disagreed with his radical approach. W.E.B. Du Bois, a prominent black figure, considered Garvey’s approach extreme and believed that it would only backfire in the movement for equal rights. With the help up of other black leaders, Du Bois petitioned the attorney general and had Garvey deported back to Jamaica. Garvey is still considered by many as a successful figure in the fight for civil rights. His message to fight back for equality lived on long after he was deported and he was one of the early inspirations of 1960’s civil rights leader Malcolm X.
The Ku Klux Klan flourished 1921-26 with a membership of millions of Protestants. Not only was the Ku Klux Klan big in the south, but it now fanned out to places such as Oregon and Indiana. Indiana's governor and an Oregon mayor were both members of the KKK. Along with the men in this group, there were now women too. The women consisted of about a half-million members.Klansmen argued for a purified nation and denounced African-Americans, Catholics, and Jews, as well as bootleggers and adulterers. They gained new support from nativists who had detested the mass immigration to the Northeast in the early 1900s.
The return of the Klan caused a split in the Democratic Party which allowed Calvin Coolidge, a conservative Republican, to take office in 1924.
In most cities, the only way blacks could relieve the pressure of crowding that resulted from increasing migration was to expand residential borders into surrounding previously white neighborhoods, a process that often resulted in harassment and attacked by white residents whose intolerant attitudes were intensified by fears that black neighbors would cause property values to decline. Moreover the increased presence of African Americans in cities, North and South, as well as their competition with whites for housing, jobs, and political influence sparked a series of race riots. In 1898 white citizens of Wilmington, North Carolina, resenting African Americans’ involvement in local government and incensed by an editorial in an African American newspaper accusing white women of loose sexual behavior, rioted and killed dozens of blacks. In the fury’s wake, white supremacists overthrew the city government, expelling black and white office holders, and instituted restrictions to prevent blacks from voting. In Atlanta in 1906, newspaper accounts alleging attacks by black men on white women provoked an outburst of shooting and killing that left twelve blacks dead and seventy injured. An influx of unskilled black strikebreakers into East St Louis, Illinois, heightened racial tensions in 1917. Rumors that blacks were arming themselves for an attack on whites resulted in numerous attacks by white mobs on black neighborhoods. On July 1, blacks fired back at a car whose occupants they believed had shot into their homes and mistakenly killed two policemen riding in a car. The next day, a full scaled riot erupted which ended only after nine whites and thirty-nine blacks had been killed and over three hundred buildings were destroyed.
Although African Americans were widely persecuted by the Ku Klux Klan they were not the only group of people that the KKK targeted because they believed in “Native, white, Protestant supremacy.” They also targeted groups like Mexicans, Catholics and Jews. The Ku Klux Klan would also try and bring justice into their own hands when it came to dealing with bootleggers, wife beaters and adulterers. 
Stock Market Crash of 1929
On October 24, 1929, today known as Black Thursday, the stock market began its downhill drop. After the first hour, the prices had gone down at an amazing speed. Some people thought that after that day, the prices would rise again just as it had done before. But it didn’t. Prices kept dropping, and on October 29, 1929, Black Tuesday, more than 16 million shares were sold, but by the end of the day, most stocks ended below their previous value, and some stocks became totally worthless. Because of that, some people became homeless and penniless, all because of the Stock Market Crash. By November 13, the prices had hit rock bottom. The stock AT&T had gone from 304 dollars to 197. America had celebrated for eight years, but now, everything was wasted in just a few weeks, by the Stock Market. It was a sad ending to this glorious decade.
- "A People and A Nation" the eighth edition
- Mary Beth Norton et al., “A People and A Nation: A History of the United States; The New Era; 1920-1929,” ed. Mary Beth Norton et al. (Boston: Cenage Learning 2009).
- Jones, Gerard. Honey, I'm Home! Sitcoms: Selling the American Dream. First edition. New York: Grove Weidenfeld (Grove Press), 1992. p. 7
- Jones, Gerard. p. 8
- Jones, Gerard, p. 19
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- Mary Beth Norton et al., “A People and A Nation: A History of the United States; The New Era:1920-1929,” ed. Mary Beth Norton et al. (Boston: Cenage Learning 2009).
- Some very famous jazz musicians include King Oliver, Louis Armstrong, Kid Ory, and Duke Ellington.
- A People and A Nation Eighth Edition