Trigonometry/For Enthusiasts/Triangles on a Sphere
A spherical triangle is a part of the surface of a sphere bounded by arcs of three great circles. (For a discussion of great circles, see The Distance from New York to Tokyo.) Because the surface of a sphere is curved, the formulae for triangles do not work for spherical triangles. In particular, the sum of the three angles always exceeds 180º or π radians.
The amount in radians that the sum of the angles exceeds π is known as the spherical excess of the triangle, and is proportional to the triangle's area. Thus, for a very small triangle, the excess is small and the sum of the angles is close to π radians, reflecting the fact that a very small part of a sphere is not appreciably curved. This is why ordinary trigonometry, which assumes that you are working on a flat surface, is accurate enough for short distances on the Earth's surface.
The length of a side is usually expressed as the angle that the side subtends at the centre of the sphere, so sides as well as angles are expressed in degrees or radians and we can talk about the sine or cosine of a side as well as of an angle.
The Sine Theorem 
This is similar to the sine theorem for ordinary triangles. If the sides are a, b, and c and the angles are and then
or, taking reciprocals,
The Cosine Theorem 
Despite its name, this does not look much like the cosine theorem for ordinary triangles. With the above notation,
In particular, if α is a right angle so cos α is zero, this formula becomes
This can be regarded as analogous to Pythagoras' theorem.
We therefore approach Pythagoras' Theorem for triangles on a plane as the triangles get very small.
There are of course similar formulae involving β or γ instead of α. Thus, if two sides of a spherical triangle and the angle between them are known, we can find the third side from this formula. If all three sides are known, we can find all three angles from this and the similar formulae.
Half angle formulae 
Let s = 1⁄2(a+b+c). Then
with similar formulae for β and γ.
The Polar Triangle 
If the corners of a spherical triangle are ABC, the great circle of which side BC is part divides the sphere into two hemispheres, each with a pole at its centre, in the same way that the equator divides the Earth into the northern and southern hemispheres, each with a pole. Let A' be the pole in the hemisphere containing A. Similarly, we can define B' and C'. A'B'C' is the polar triangle of ABC, and has sides a', b' and c'. Then
- A' = 180º - a; B' = 180º - b; C' = 180º - c
- a' = 180º - A; b' = 180º - B; c' = 180º - C
Note: We will need proofs of all these theorems.
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