This table was generated for TS12 and so contains a few keys applicable only in newer Trainz releases. Most of the table has been common across all Trainz Versions after Trainz UTC (V-1.5), and as with keys added in TS10 and TS12, keys added after that date such as the Camera Free Roaming External mode ('') just did nothing. Excepting the Keypad keys, neither did most of these in Trainz 1.3—which made for an interesting drive in CAB mode when one was used to the left hand cross: A+S+D X W+S+X (with a long, long history in computer games) and the surrounding keys by rows: upper: Q+W+E+R and lower: Z+X+C+V+B.
Trainz keys with related functional actions generally are vertical columns.
The main Brake/Axillary Brake controls Q+A+Z & E+D+C,
the throttle & direction adjusts W+S+X & R+F+V.
Note the absence of T, Y and U in the top-row center.
whilst the horizontally located keys of the middle and bottom rows G+H+J and B+N+M all have some common general control function
(though some only have function if one of the shift keys is also pressed)
or are more minor train controls (B for bell is not a terribly exciting key,
unless of course, if the noise is driving you or a loved one nuts! Which may lend enough urgency to finding it again that things get a wee bit exciting for a while!).
The least minor of these are N and ⇧ Shift+N blower controls which you need for Steam Engine's—at least for long runs...
and the very importantJ and Ctrl+J which 'toggle junctions' ahead and behind respectively (but are you far enough away? And Does the loco also think 'that-away' is also forwards or reverse?).
Historically, the Keypad keys were the controls used in Trainz 1.x, but that was unpopular given the need for the right hand on the mouse, which is perhaps busy even more often. With UTC a file "\Settings\keyboard.txt" was introduced allowing user customization of the keys which have remained very stable until the introduction of new functional needs, which affected the old set only by adding to them. The file keyboard.txt also allows the user to customize his Surveyorhotkeys as well as those useful in Driver.
Note except for Steam Loco Driving, the so called keyboard leftside cross (W, S, X, A and E) comprise the most often used Driver keys, those used for throttle control and the brakes. The Steam locomotive also heavily use F and R just to the right of the cross, as are somewhat less often used D, C, V and B keys. But all are used pretty often in CAB mode!
There are 32 steps of acceleration and applied power in an electric locomotive,
but only eight in a diesel locomotive, Tip: but both like the Steam Locomotives, need not make too sudden a speed change or things break!
and hundreds of usable combinations of S + W (flow rate throttle) and R + F (cutoff angle key controls, a second throttle that is directional controlling the timing and position of the slide valves) for Steam Loco driving modes. The Steam controls are effectively continuous functions using the mouse to drag or push the inside the cab levers, which positions the keys values too, such that thereafter the keys increment or decrement values from those settings—until pegged at either the maximum or minimum stops.
CAB mode has independent brakes for the locomotive (toggles with E--don't need with a DCC dial) and some loco's also have dynamic brakes (See the Manual, D & C are main controls, but... it's complicated... read the manual)
Also, CAB mode has 'LAP brake modes'—he ability to partially apply brakes up and down the train so to better control speed on steep descents. Lapping brakes, like easing to a stop in an intersection also aids a lot in many coupling, switching, and/or loading operations; especially when combined with use of the independent brakes (which act quickly and are toggled by E) to stop the train with a timely bit of extra braking.
Alas, Trainz scripts kernel software governing loading and unloading have either set or released these general train brake settings in industry operations, so you have to reset the lap brakes each time you reposition the train—generally every NN traincars when the industries' track fills or empties NN cars at a time.
Lastly, there are other CAB electronics simulated in the game and there is the capability to marry a control console to the game similar to the way many racing games and flight simulators allow true aficionados to add consoles.
We defer covering Driving/Operations keys for the common mode keys and Driver general game controls, placing the more complicated CAB mode down the bottom, whilst giving you the Table of Contents at right to get to it quick if you want.
By and large these Dkeys work in both DCC and CAB mode.