Template:Citation

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The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

If invoked with the right parameters, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{cite book}} and {{cite web}}. The default behavior sometimes differs from that of the Cite templates; for example, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates do not, and this template by default uses commas to separate some fields that the Cite templates separate with periods.

All parameter names are lowercase.

Anchored citations

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template. If an empty |ref= is given, no anchor is generated; this is the default for the Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}}. You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents 

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "(Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix)", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R.H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372 }}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R.H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372 

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "CITEREFWrightEvans1851".

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=The Ego and the Id |year=1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki #time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats but has known problems, so when in doubt it is safer to use |year=.

IDs must be unique

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g., "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service.

Citing books

Parameters (all are optional)

{{Citation
|last=
|first=
|author=
|firstn=,lastn=,authorn=
|author-link=
|authorn-link=
|coauthors=
|author-separator=
|author-name-separator=
|display-authors=
|editor=
|editorn=
|editorn-last=
|editorn-first=
|editor-link=
|editorn-link=
|others=
|title=
|url=
|archiveurl=
|archivedate=
|format=
|accessdate=
|edition=
|series=
|volume=
|date=
|year=
|month=
|origyear=
|publisher=
|location=
|publication-date=
|publication-place=
|place=
|language=
|isbn=
|oclc=
|doi=
|doi_brokendate=
|bibcode=
|id=
|page=
|pages=
|nopp=
|at=
|chapter=
|chapterurl=
|quote=
|laysummary=
|laydate=
|separator=
|postscript=
|lastauthoramp=
|ref=
}}
  • last (or last1): The author's surname or last name.
  • first (or first1): The author's first or given name(s).
  • author (or author1): The author's name, if not in the last/first format.
  • last2, last3, last4: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • first2, first3, first4: The second, third, and fourth authors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • author2, author3, author4: The second, third, and fourth authors' names, if applicable.
  • author-link (or author1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first author.
  • author2-link, author3-link, author4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth author, if applicable.
  • author-separator: override the default semi-colon that separates authors' names.
  • author-name-separator: override the default comma that separates authors' names.
  • display-authors: Truncate the list of authors at an arbitrary point with "et al". Still include the first 9 authors to allow metadata to be generated.
  • editor (or editor1): The editor's name, if not in the last/first format.
  • editor-last (or editor1-last): The first editor's surname or last name.
  • editor-first (or editor1-first): The first editor's first or given name(s).
  • editor-link (or editor1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first editor.
  • editor2-last, editor3-last, editor4-last: The second, third, and fourth editor' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • editor2-first, editor3-first, editor4-first: The second, third, and fourth editors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • editor2-link, editor3-link, editor4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth editor, if applicable.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, such as "illustrated by Smith" or "trans. Smith".
  • title: Title of the book. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "[" for "[" and "]" for "]"
  • url: An url of an online location where the book can be found.
  • archive parameters (if used, must be used both of them together)
    • archiveurl: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if (or in case) the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite and Archive.org.
    • archivedate: Date when the item was archived. Should not be wikilinked.
  • format: Format, e.g. PDF. HTML implied if not specified.
  • accessdate: Date[n 1] when the url was accessed.
  • edition: Number or name of the edition, if not the first; for example: edition=2nd.
  • series: The book series of which this book is a part.
  • volume: The volume number of a multi-volume book.
  • date: Date[n 1] of authorship, if different from date of publication. If only date is used, it will be treated as the date of publication.
  • OR: year: Year[n 1] of authorship or publication. (Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation. In some situations, the template may be able to derive a year from the full date.)
    • month: Month[n 1] of authorship or publication. If you also have the day, use date instead.
    • origyear: Year[n 1] of first publication, if different.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press.
    • location: Place of publication for journal or periodical.
  • publication-date (or date): Date[n 1] of publication.
  • publication-place (or place): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. If the city is not well-known, you may add a county, region, or state. States in the U.S. are denoted by a two-letter code; for example: place=Paris, TX (no period at the end). Where the publisher is a university and the place or location is included in the name of the university, do not use this parameter.
  • place: City in which the work was made, if different from the city of publication. If only place is used, it will be treated as the city of publication.
  • language: Language, e.g. Finnish. (English is assumed and should not be specified.)
  • isbn: Use this parameter if the book has an ISBN.
  • oclc: Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581 (superfluous when ISBN is given).
  • doi: A digital object identifier such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001.
    • doi_brokendate: Date[n 1] on which the DOI was observed to be not functioning.
  • bibcode: A nineteen character Bibcode identifier. The field must not be wikilinked as the template automatically creates a link.
  • id: Identifier such as ISBN 1–111–22222–9
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • pages: For use when multiple pages are cited. Adds "pp." before the page numbers. Do not use with page.
  • nopp: if set to any value, page=/pages= do not generate 'p.' or 'pp.'. E.g. nopp=true. Using at= has the same effect.
  • at: Position within the resource when page=/pages= is inappropriate, e.g. at=para. 14 (when citing a source without page numbers) or at=02:56 (a film or audio timestamp), or at=no. 456 (something in a numbered list). This parameter is ignored if page=/pages= is specified.
  • chapter (= contribution): The chapter of the book, written in full. Punctuation other than quotes should be included in the value passed to the parameter, e.g. |chapter=Chapter 12: Meet Dick and Jane. produces "Chapter 12: Meet Dick and Jane." ahead of title.
    • chapterurl: URL of an individual chapter of online book. Should be at the same site as url, if any.
  • quote: Relevant excerpt from the journal.
  • laysummary: URL of a lay summary, which could be in a popular science magazine or newspaper.
  • laydate: The date[n 1] of publication or, where this is not available, date of retrieval of the lay summary.
  • separator: specifies the punctuation mark used to separate certain fields. This defaults to a comma; the 'Cite xxx' family of templates uses a period.
  • postscript: Set terminal punctuation. Leave blank to remove the trailing full stop. Punctuation specified by this parameter will appear within the cite span, and consequently before any icons added by metadata-using software (e.g. library browser plugins). Hence this parameter should be used instead of manually appending data to the citation.
  • lastauthoramp: If supplied, whether or not assigned a value, places an ampersand (&) before the last name of final author, if more than one author is supplied. Recommended usage is lastauthoramp=yes.
  • ref: ID for Harvard references.

Examples

One author
{{ Citation
 | last=Turner
 | first=O.
 | title=History of the Pioneer
Settlement of Phelps and Gorham's
Purchase, and Morris' Reserve
 | publisher=William Alling
 | place=Rochester, New York
 | year=1851
 | url = http://olivercowdery.com/texts/1851Trn1.htm#turn1851
 }}
Turner, O. (1851), History of the Pioneer Settlement of Phelps and Gorham's Purchase, and Morris' Reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, http://olivercowdery.com/texts/1851Trn1.htm#turn1851 
Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{ Citation
 | last1=Lincoln
 | first1=A.
 | last2=Washington
 | first2=G.
 | last3=Adams
 | first3=J.
 | lastauthoramp=yes
 | title=All the Presidents' Names
 | publisher=The Pentagon
 | place=Home Base, New York
 | volume=XII
 | edition=2nd
 | year=2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names, XII (2nd ed.), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon 

Citing journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals

Parameters

{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | publication-date =
 | date =
 | year =
 | title =
 | periodical =
 | series =
 | publication-place =
 | place =
 | publisher =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | page =
 | at =
 | url =
 | archiveurl =
 | archivedate =
 | issn =
 | pmid =
 | pmc =
 | doi =
 | oclc =
 | accessdate =
 | ref =
}}
  • author: Author. Use to specify a single author of the paper, or alternately, to specify all the authors of the paper in whatever format desired. If you use author to specify all the authors, do not specify the following author-related parameters.
    • last works with first to produce last, first;. These parameters produce the maximum metadata and should be used if possible.
    • author2, last2, first2 and subsequent should be used for co-authors (up to 9 will be displayed before truncation with "et al".
    • authorlink works either with author or with last & first to link to the appropriate article
    • coauthors: Full name of additional author or authors. Please use 'author2', 'author3', etc instead.
    • author-separator: over-ride the default semi-colon that separates authors' names.
    • authormask – This parameter is primarily intended for use in bibliographies where multiple works by a single author are listed. It replaces the name of the first author (which must still be provided to garner metadata) with a strike-thru dash (—) authormask em in length. So if |authormask=1 then the dash will be one em in length, if |authormask=2 it will be two em long and so on. Set authormask to a text value to display a word instead – for example, 'with'. You must still include |last= and |first= for metadata purposes.
    • author-name-separator: over-ride the default comma that separates authors' names.
    • display-authors: Truncate the list of authors at an arbitrary point with "et al". Still include the first 9 authors to allow metadata to be generated.
  • date: January 1, 2006. Full date of publication.
    • year: 2006. Year of publication (ignored if the date field is used).
      • month: January. Month of publication (ignored if the date field is used, or if the year field is not used).
        • day: 31. Day of month of publication (ignored if the date field is used, or if the month field is not used).
  • title: Title of article.
  • journal: Name of the journal or periodical.
  • volume: Volume number of the journal in which the article is found
  • series or version: At most one of these may be entered. In either case the value will be displayed in plaintext after the title.
    • series: According to the 14th edition of Chicago Manual of Style p. 576, "As in the case of book series, some journals have attained such longevity that they have begun a new series of volumes or issues. Identification of the series (n.s., 2d ser., 3d ser., ser. b) must be made in citations to these journals."
    • version: Use when citing a paper. It may be used, for example, for standards documents, which retain the same title and document number (e.g. ISO nnnnn) but may have many revisions (e.g. ISO nnnnn-xxxx).
  • issue: Journal's issue number, or issue name.
  • page or pages: 45–47: first page, and optional last page (separated by an en dash –). If you need to refer to a specific page within a cited source, use Template:Rp or shortened footnotes.
  • at: Position within the resource when page=/pages= is inappropriate, e.g. at=para. 14 (when citing a source without page numbers) or at=02:56 (a film or audio timestamp), or at=no. 456 (something in a numbered list). This parameter is ignored if page=/pages= is specified.
  • publisher: Publisher of journal or periodical; should not include corporate designation such as "Ltd" or "Inc". Only include if ISSN and DOI are unavailable.
    • location: Place of publication for journal or periodical.
  • issn: The publication's International Standard Serial Number such as 1111-2220. The eight-figure ISSN may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen; but neither an N-dash or a space are valid for use as separator between the groups.
  • pmid: The document's PubMed Unique Identifier, such as 15128012
  • pmc: The document's PubMed Central article number (PMCID) for full-text free repository of an article, such as 246835
    • pmc-embargo-date: The date that an article will be freely accessible at PubMed central. After this date, the title will automatically link to the free full text at PubMed Central.
  • oclc: The periodical's Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581
  • doi: A digital object identifier for the document, such as 10.1130/0091-7613(1990)018<1153:TAFSIA>2.3.CO;2.
  • doi_brokendate: Sometimes the doi target link might not function (e.g. the journal is transferred to a new publisher which does not provide doi access). A blanked out doi parameter could lead to a later editor or bot re-adding the doi. Instead, use this parameter, which takes a date argument. Must not be wikilinked.
    The doi value is still shown, but without a link.
  • bibcode: The document's bibcode in the Astrophysics Data System, e.g., 1924MNRAS..84..308E
  • id: A unique identifier, used if none of the above are applicable. In this case, you need to specify the kind of identifier you are using, preferably with a template like {{arXiv}} or {{JSTOR}}. (Use one of the more specialized parameters if possible; they are linked automatically. In other words, don't use id = PMID 15128012 anymore. Use pmid = 15128012.)
  • language: Language, e.g. Finnish. (English is assumed and should not be specified.)
  • url: This should point to, in descending order of preference:
  1. A free online version of the full text
  2. An online version of the full text, for which subscription is required
  3. An abstract or information page, if no DOI or PMID record is available
If a DOI or PMID is available, the URL should only be specified if it would point to a different page to that which a DOI or PMID would redirect to.
Note: the URL must be properly encoded, especially replacing any double quote (") with %22. See Percent-encoding for more information.
  • accessdate: Full date when URL was last checked. Should use the same format as the other full dates in the references. Must not be wikilinked.
  • format: Format of document at that URL, e.g. PDF. Don't specify for HTML (implied as default). This parameter is sometimes used for completely different purposes, with values such as "fee required" and "reprint", but its original intent was to warn readers of file formats that their browsers might have trouble with.
  • laysummary: URL of a lay summary, which could be in a popular science magazine or newspaper.
    • laysource: Name of the source, e.g. The Guardian (UK newspaper) or New Scientist.
    • laydate: Date of publication or, where this is not available, date of retrieval of the lay summary.
An alternate method of adding one or more references to common media (preferably in Layman's terms) from the related journal citation can be specified within a single <ref>...</ref> tag using other citation templates; for example:
Text in the article.<ref>{{cite journal | ... }}<br/>
'''Related news articles:'''
*{{cite news | ... }}
*{{cite web | ... }}</ref>
  • quote: Relevant excerpt from the journal.
  • ref: ID for anchor. By default, no anchor is generated. The ordinary nonempty value |ref=ID generates an anchor with the given ID; such a linkable reference can be made the target of wikilinks to full references, especially useful in short citations like shortened notes and parenthetical referencing. The special value |ref=harv generates an anchor suitable for the {{harv}} template; see anchors for Harvard referencing templates.
  • postscript: if specified, over-rides the default behaviour of terminating the citation with a full stop. Leave blank to suppress the full stop. This may be useful when using a quote which ends in punctuation, or when generating an output consistent with other templates. It is preferred to manually adding ending punctuation, as the punctuation occurs within the <cite> tag, so will appear before any icons added by browser plugins.

Examples

Journal article
{{Citation
 | last=Hill
 | first=Marvin S.
 | title=Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
 | journal=BYU Studies
 | volume=12
 | issue=2
 | year=1976
 | pages=1–8
 | url=https://byustudies.byu.edu/
shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
 }}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), "Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties", BYU Studies 12 (2): 1–8, https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf 
Newspaper article
{{Citation
 | last=Smith
 | first=Joseph III
 | author-link=Joseph Smith III
 | title=Last Testimony of Sister Emma
 | newspaper=The Saints' Herald
 | publication-place=Plano, IL
 | volume=26
 | issue=19
 | date=October 1, 1879
 | year=1879
 | month=October
 | page=289
 | url=http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/
dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179
 }}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), "Last Testimony of Sister Emma", The Saints' Herald (Plano, IL) 26 (19): 289, http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179 

Citing edited books, or parts of edited books, including encyclopedias and encyclopedia articles

Parameters

{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | year =
 | date =
 | publication-date =
 | contribution =
 | contribution-url =
 | editor-last =
 | editor-first =
 | editor-link =
 | editor2-last =
 | editor2-first =
 | editor2-link =
 | title =
 | edition =
 | series =
 | place =
 | publication-place =
 | publisher =
 | volume =
 | pages =
 | id =
 | isbn =
 | doi =
 | oclc =
 | url =
 | ref =
}}
  • last (or last1): The first author's surname or last name.
  • first (or first1): The first author's first or given name(s).
  • author (or author1): The author's name, if not in the last/first format.
  • author-link (or author1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first author.
  • last2, last3, last4: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • first2, first3, first4: The second, third, and fourth authors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • author2, author3, author4: The second, third, and fourth authors' names, if applicable.
  • author2-link, author3-link, author4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth author, if applicable.
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. (Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation. In some situations, the template may be able to derive a year from the full date.)
  • date: Date[n 1] of authorship or publication.
  • publication-date: Date[n 1] of publication (if different from date).
  • contribution (or chapter): Title of the contribution or chapter.
  • contribution-url (or chapter-url): URL of the contribution or chapter.
  • editor-last (or editor1-last): The first editor's surname or last name.
  • editor-first (or editor1-first): The first editor's first or given name(s).
  • editor-link (or editor1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first editor.
  • editor2-last, editor3-last, editor4-last: The second, third, and fourth editor' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • editor2-first, editor3-first, editor4-first: The second, third, and fourth editors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • editor2-link, editor3-link, editor4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth editor, if applicable.
  • title: Title of the book or compilation. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "&#91;" for "[" and "&#93;" for "]"
  • edition: Number or name of the edition, if not the first; for example: edition=2nd.
  • series: Series of which this periodical is a part.
  • volume: The volume number of a multi-volume book or compilation.
  • place (or location): The place where the article, encyclopedia entry, or other included item was created. Usually, this is collective work's city of publication; if not, then use the separate publication-place parameter. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. If the city is not well-known, you may add a county, region, or state. States in the U.S. are denoted by a two-letter code; for example: place=Paris, TX (no period at the end). Where the publisher is a university and the place or location is included in the name of the university, do not use this parameter.
  • publication-place. The place where the collective work was published (if different from place or location).
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press.
  • id: Identifier such as ISBN 1–111–22222–9
  • isbn: Use this parameter if the book or compilation has an ISBN.
  • doi: A digital object identifier such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001.
  • oclc: Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581 (superfluous when ISBN is given).
  • url: An url of an online location where the source being cited can be found.
  • accessdate: Date[n 1] when the url was accessed. The access date is only shown if "|url=" is used. The "|accessdate=" has no effect if "|contribution-url=" is used.
  • ref: ID for Harvard references.

Examples

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
 | last=Bidamon
 | first=Emma Smith
 | author-link=Emma Hale Smith
 | chapter=Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
 | date=March 27, 1876
 | year=1876
 | editor-last=Vogel
 | editor-first=Dan
 | title=Early Mormon Documents
 | volume=1
 | publisher=Signature Books
 | publication-date=1996
 | isbn=1–56085–072–8
 }}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", in Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, 1996, ISBN 1–56085–072–8 
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
 | editor-last=Vogel
 | editor-first=Dan
 | title=Early Mormon Documents
 | volume=1
 | publisher=Signature Books
 | publication-date=1996
 | isbn=1–56085–072–8
 }}
Vogel, Dan, ed. (1996), Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1–56085–072–8 
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
  | last = Kramer
  | first = Martin
  | author-link = Martin Kramer
  | contribution = Bernard Lewis
  | editor-last = Boyd
  | editor-first = Kelley
  | title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
  | volume = 1
  | pages = 719–720
  | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
  | place = London
  | publication-date = 1999
  | contribution-url = http://
www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/
BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720, http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm 
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
  | contribution = Bernard Lewis
  | editor-last = Boyd
  | editor-first = Kelley
  | title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
  | volume = 1
  | pages = 719–720
  | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
  | place = London
  | year = 1999
  | contribution-url = http://
www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/
BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, ed. (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720, http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm 

Citing contributions, republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article

Parameters

{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | year =
 | date =
 | publication-date =
 | contribution =
 | contribution-url =
 | editor-last =
 | editor-first =
 | editor-link =
 | editor2-last =
 | editor2-first =
 | editor2-link =
 | title =
 | periodical =
 | series =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | place =
 | publication-place =
 | publisher =
 | id =
 | issn =
 | doi =
 | oclc =
 | url =
 | accessdate =
 | ref =
}}
  • last (or last1): The first author's surname or last name.
  • first (or first1): The first author's first or given name(s).
  • author (or author1): The author's name, if not in the last/first format.
  • author-link (or author1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first author.
  • last2, last3, last4: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • first2, first3, first4: The second, third, and fourth authors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • author2, author3, author4: The second, third, and fourth authors' names, if applicable.
  • author2-link, author3-link, author4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth author, if applicable.
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. (Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation. In some situations, the template may be able to derive a year from the full date.)
  • date: Date of authorship or publication.
  • publication-date: Date of publication (if different from date).
  • contribution (or chapter): Title of the contribution or chapter.
  • contribution-url (or chapter-url): URL of the contribution or chapter.
  • editor-last (or editor1-last): The first editor's surname or last name.
  • editor-first (or editor2-first): The first editor's first or given name(s).
  • editor-link (or editor1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first editor.
  • editor2-last, editor3-last, editor4-last: The second, third, and fourth editor' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • editor2-first, editor3-first, editor4-first: The second, third, and fourth editors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • editor2-link, editor3-link, editor4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth editor, if applicable.
  • title: Title of the book or compilation. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "&#91;" for "[" and "&#93;" for "]"
  • periodical (or journal, newspaper, magazine): Name of the periodical.
  • series: Series of which this periodical is a part.
  • volume: The volume number of the journal.
  • issue (or number): The issue number of the journal.
  • pages (optional): The pages in the issue where the article may be found.
  • place (or location): The place where the article, encyclopedia entry, or other included item was created. Usually, this is collective work's city of publication; if not, then use the separate publication-place parameter. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. If the city is not well-known, you may add a county, region, or state. States in the U.S. are denoted by a two-letter code; for example: place=Paris, TX (no period at the end). Where the publisher is a university and the place or location is included in the name of the university, do not use this parameter.
  • publication-place. The place where the collective work was published (if different from place or location).
  • id: Identifier such as ISBN 1–111–22222–9
  • issn: The eight-digit International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) identifying the journal.
  • doi: A digital object identifier such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001.
  • oclc: Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581 (superfluous when ISBN is given).
  • url: An url of an online location where the book or compilation can be found.
  • accessdate: Date[n 1] when the url was accessed.
  • ref: ID for Harvard references.

Examples

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
 | last=Knight
 | first=Joseph, Sr.
 | year=1833
 | editor-last=Jessee
 | editor-first=Dean
 | title=Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
 | journal=BYU Studies
 | volume=17
 | issue=1
 | publication-date=1976
 | pages=35
 | url=https://byustudies.byu.edu/
shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
 }}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, ed., "Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History", BYU Studies 17 (1): 35, 1976, https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf 
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
 | last=Klingensmith
 | first=Philip
 | contribution=Affidavit
 | year=1872
 | date=September 5, 1872
 | place=Lincoln County, Nevada
 | title=Mountain Meadows Massacre
 | editor-last=Toohy
 | editor-first=Dennis J.
 | journal=Corinne Daily Reporter
 | publication-date=September 24, 1872
 | publication-place=Corinne, Utah
 | volume=5
 | issue=252
 | pages=1
 | contribution-url=http://
udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
 }}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), Affidavit, written at Lincoln County, Nevada, in Toohy, Dennis J., "Mountain Meadows Massacre", Corinne Daily Reporter (Corinne, Utah) 5 (252): 1, September 24, 1872, http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359 

Citing patents

Parameters (all are optional)

{{Citation
 | inventor-last =
 | inventor-first =
 | inventorlink =
 | inventor2-last =
 | inventor2-first =
 | inventorlink2 =
 | publication-date =
 | issue-date =
 | title =
 | country-code =
 | description =
 | patent-number =
}}
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "&#91;" for "[" and "&#93;" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.

Examples

United States patent with multiple inventors
{{Citation
 | inventor1-last = Degermark
 | inventor1-first = Mikael
 | inventor2-last = Brodnik
 | inventor2-first = Andrej
 | inventor3-last = Carlsson
 | inventor3-first = Svante
 | inventor4-last = Pink
 | inventor4-first = Stephen
 | title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
 | issue-date = 2001
 | patent-number = 6266706
 | country-code = US}}
Degermark, Mikael; Andrej Brodnik & Svante Carlsson et al., "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", US patent 6266706, issued 2001

Dates

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l
    • The format of dates in the references of an article should use a consistent and unambiguous style. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include:
    • 2009
    • 2009-09-14
    • 14 September 2009
    • September 14, 2009 (with comma)
    • 2009 Sep 14
    • September 2009
    • Sept./Oct. 2009
    • As indicated above, month names are sometimes abbreviated (e.g., September to "Sept" or "Sept." or "Sep" or "Sep.")
    • Dates should not be linked in references.

Additional parameters

authormask – This parameter is primarily intended for use in bibliographies where multiple works by a single author are listed. It replaces the name of the first author (which must still be provided to garner metadata) with a strike-thru dash (—) authormask em in length. So if |authormask=1 then the dash will be one em in length, if |authormask=2 it will be two em long and so on. Set authormask to a text value to display a word instead – for example, 'with'. You must still include |last= and |first= for metadata purposes.