Sugu ni Hajimemashō

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The following lists are in flux...

  1. Phrases: Greetings (hajimemasite, konnichiha, konbanha, ...)
  2. Phrases: Basic (gomen, onegaisimasu, ...)
  3. Grammar: Copula use (past and present tense)
    • Particles: ha, ga
  4. Suffixes: -go (language), -hito/jinn

  1. Grammar: Existance (iru/aru) (two lessons?)
    • Particles: ni, he
    • Particles: wo
  2. Grammar: Questions (~ha Q, Q-ga~)
    • Particles: ka
  3. Particles: to, ya
  4. Grammar: Subject and topic in same sentence (~ha ~ga...)

  1. Grammar: Possessive (N-no~, N-no-N)
  2. Grammar: Requesting confirmation (~desho ... maybe ne and yo, too)
    • Particles: ne, yo, wa (Merge with "Requesting confirmation"?)
  3. Grammar: Verbs (past and present tenses) (BIG MODULE)
  4. Grammar: Counting

  1. Grammar: Requests (N-wo kudasai, N-wo/V-te kudasaimasenka)
  2. Suffixes: Time (ji, funn, goro)
  3. Grammar: Suggesting activities (-mashou, -masenka)
  4. Suffixes: Time-periods (jikann, funn, kurai)

  1. Grammar: Verb te-form (-aru/-iru)
  2. Suffixes: Calendar (tugi, nichi, youbi)
  3. Phrases: Eating (itadakimasu and gochisosamadesita)
  4. Grammar: Stating wishes (N-ga hosii, V-tai)

  1. Grammar: Adjectives (i- past and present)
  2. Grammar: Adjectives (na- past and present)
  3. Grammar: Requests (V-te kudasai, V-naide kudasai)
  4. Phrases: Entering a house (gomenkudasai, situreisimasu, ... maybe ojamasimasu)

  1. Grammar: Adverbial clause (-toki) (chuu?)
  2. Grammar: Adverbial clause (-maeni, -nagara)
  3. Grammar: Adverbial clause (-atode, -ta atode)

  1. Grammar: Demonstratives (could be split into several lessons, improving vocabulary and reviewing grammar)
  2. Grammar: Interrogatives (
  3. Grammar: Interrogatives (itu, ikutu, ikura)
  4. Grammar: Interrogatives (
  5. Grammar: Quantifier (nanika, daremo, ...)
  6. Grammar: Change (mada and mou)

Unallocated content:

  1. (Grammar: Stating needs (-hituyou))
  2. Grammar: Verbs (transitivity)
  3. Grammar: Verbs (conjugation for multiple actions)
  4. Grammar: interjections (~ ga(but) ~)
  5. Grammar: Becomes sth (~naru)
  6. Grammar: Because (-te, -kara)
  7. Grammar: Called (~to iu)
  8. Grammar: Equating or making (suru) ???
  9. Particles: de
  10. Particles: kara, made
  11. Particles: Combination of case markers and ha/mo
  12. Particles: kurai
  13. Particles: dake
  14. Particles: sikasi
  15. Suffixes: -chuu
  16. Suffixes: -tachi/-gata
  17. Suffixes: Counters (mai, sara, hon, ...)
  18. Suffixes: -gara (to feel)
  19. Suffixes: -gawa (side, to side)
  20. Suffixes: -sugi (too much, over)
  21. Suffixes: -zutu (apiece)
  22. Suffixes: -ya (shop)

Still unallocated:

  • [1.8 Relative clause]
  • [6.3 Unsorted]

Sentence Patterns/Expressions[edit]

Phrases[edit]

ごめんなさい Excuse me./I'm sorry.
すみません Excuse me.
おねがいします Please.
どうもありがとうございました Thank you very much (very polite)
こちらこそ No, thank you! (used when responding to someone saying "Thank you!")
いいえどういたしまして no problem at all.
  • はい - yes (formal)
  • ええ - yes (slightly less formal)
  • いいえ - no (formal)
  • うん - yeah/uh-huh (casual)
  • ううん - no/uh-uh (casual)
  • いや - no (casual, indicates displeasure)

Entering a house[edit]

おじゃまします I hope you don't mind me coming in.
しつれいしました Excuse me. (used usually while leaving a room.)
しつれいします Excuse me. (used usually while entering a room.)

Eating[edit]

いただきます thanks for this meal! (before eating)
ごちそうさまでした a thanks said after meals

Greetings[edit]

はじめまして nice to meet you. how do you do?
どうぞよろしく pleased to meet you. please favor me with your friendship/kindness
ではおげんきで well then, take care.
ではまた See ya later.
こんにちは Hello. (daytime greeting)
こんばんは Good evening, Hello
さよなら Goodbye
おはよう(ございます) good morning
おやすみ(なさい) good night
いらっしゃいませ Welcome to the store! (merchant greeting)

Requests[edit]

N+をください please give me N
V+てください please do V. (polite request)
V+ないでください please do not do V. (polite request-neg)
N+を/V+てくださいませんか won't you please do

Suggesting activities[edit]

V+ましょう "Let's do V." volitional, polite
V+ませんか Why don't we do V?

Stating wishes[edit]

N+がほしい I want N
V+たい "I want to V"

Adverbial clauses[edit]

...とき adverbial clause, when ... , ...
V+ながら adverbial clause, While V, ...
V+てから adverbial clause, After/Since V, ...
V+たあとで ta instead of te, adverbial clause, After V, ...
V+まえに adverbial clause, Before V

Change[edit]

まだ implies no change (or that something is still under way):

まだ+Positive still
まだ+Negative not yet

もう implies a change has occurred (or that something has been completed):

もう+Positive already
もう+Negative no longer

Relative clause[edit]

[V/+Adj/+Adj-Na]+N relative clause modifying a noun

Copula use[edit]

N+だった N+ではなかった N+だ N+ではない
N+でした N+ではありませんでした N+です N+ではありません
N+で te-form of desu

Existence[edit]

N+は+Place+にある/いる existence of an item in a place using a topic marker
Place+に+N+がある/いる existence of an item in a place using subject marker
Place+に+N+が+Q+ある/いる existence of Q items in a place using subject marker

Pro-forms[edit]

Demonstrative[edit]

これ/それ/あれ/どれ this / that / that over there / which?
この/その/あの/どの this one / that one / that one over there / which one?
ここ/そこ/あそこ/どこ this place / that place / that place over there/ where?
こちら/そちら/あちら/どちら (こっち/そっち/あっち/どっち) this person / that person / that person over there / who

Interrogatives[edit]

なに/なん what
だれ/どなた who
いつ when or how soon
いくつ how many?
いくら how much?
どれ/どの/どこ/どちら which / which one / where / who
どう/いかが how, in what what, how about
どんな what kind of
どのぐらい/どれぐらい how far, how long, how much
なぜ/どうして/なんで why

Quantifier[edit]

なにか/だれか/どこかへ/... something, someone, somewhere, etc.,
なにも/だれも/どこへも/... nothing, no one, nowhere, etc.,

Verbs[edit]

The plain and polite, past and present, polite and negative.[edit]

Past positive Past negative Present positive Present negative
V + た V + なかった V V + ない
V + ました V + ませんでした V + ます V + ません

Other forms[edit]

structure Description Relevant pages
N + が + Vit / N + を + Vt intransitive and transitive verb use Japanese/Grammar/Transitivity
V+て verb, te-form Japanese/Grammar/Verbs/te form
V+てある verb, te-form "completed" state Japanese/Grammar/Verbs/te form
V+ている verb, te-form progressive Japanese/Grammar/Verbs/te form/iru

Adjectives[edit]

Adj adjective without desu

basic い-adjective forms[edit]

<adjective>   ( です )* present positive
くない present negative
かった past positive
くなかった past negative

Polite with copula, plain without.

basic な-adjective forms[edit]

<adjective>   <copula>
な <noun>

The copula determines tense and politeness, but is dropped for the plain present positive.

Unsorted[edit]

Adj + くて i-adj, te-form
Adj + く + V adverb
Adj + の adj+pronoun/one/thing (e.g., white thing)
Adj + N + で na-adj te-form
Adj + N + に + V n-adj adverb
Adj + N + な + N n-adj + noun
Adj + N + の na-adj + pronoun

Miscellaneous grammatical structures[edit]

〜 + は + Q topic particle using questions
Q + が + 〜 subject particle using WH-questions
〜 は 〜 が using both subject and topic particle in the same sentence
N + の + N noun modifying another noun or possessive.
N + の possessive
〜 が 〜 〜 but 〜
〜でしょう 〜, eh? / 〜, right? (requesting confirmation)
一つ, 二つ, ..., 10 numbers
V+ たり ... V+たり conjunction for multiple actions
{ Adj+く / Adj+N+に / N+に } なる becomes { Adj / N }
する equating or making, (e.g., I made A from B)
〜という called this 〜
〜て because 〜 / since 〜
〜から because 〜 / since 〜

Particles[edit]

topic marker, contrast marker
subject marker
direct object marker, starting point of the action, place of the action
location marker, object marker for some verbs (e.g., to meet at), time marker, goal marker, intervals
direction marker,
noun conjunction "and", "together" or "with"
や & など list particle, but can be used to mean "and so forth" (e.g., AやBなど will mean A and B and so forth. など is optional.)
also/too
location marker for action verbs, by means marker (e.g., I went to the school by bus.), cause and effect marker, totals marker
から/まで AからBまで - from A to B.
question marker
sentence end marker, applies emphasis, or a quest for confirmation
sentence end marker, applies certainty or request
feminine form of ね
  • The following particles are not covered anywhere.
格助詞+は/も combination of particles and は/も
ぐらい about/almost/approx
だけ only / just
しか only or nothing but

Suffixes[edit]

〜中 - all/ entire / throughout (time)
〜たち/がた makes the attached noun plural (plain/polite)
〜あまり〜ない not very, negative sentences
〜枚/冊/本... counters
〜月/〜日/〜曜日 calendar
〜時/〜時半/〜時〜/〜分/〜時〜分前/〜ごろ time
〜時間/〜分/〜ぐらい minutes, hours
〜がる to feel (used with adj)
〜がわ side of something, or taking someone's side
() language
(じん) person
〜すぎ too much, over
〜ずつ apiece
() 〜 shop

Other stuff that we should work in[edit]

Praise[edit]

  • おめでとう(ございます) - Congratulations.
  • よく出来ました。 - Good job. (You did well.)

Please and Thank You[edit]

  • おねがいします - please (Slightly more polite)
  • どうぞ - please (Casual)
  • どうも - Thanks.
  • ありがとう - Thank you. (Casual)
    • どうもありがとう - Thank you very much. (Casual)
    • ありがとうございます - Thank you. (Polite)
    • どうもありがとうございます - Thank you very much. (Very Polite)
  • すみません - excuse me.
    • どうもすみません - Thanks a lot. (Usually when someone goes out of their way to help)
  • どういたしまして - You are welcome.
  • いいえ - Not at all/No problem.

Getting Attention[edit]

  • すみません - Excuse me.
    • あのうすみません - Ah, excuse me ...
    • すみませんが - Excuse me, but ...
  • おい - Hey (Somewhat rude)

Apology[edit]

  • ごめん - Sorry.
    • ごめんなさい - I am really sorry. (more formal)
    • ごめんね - Sorry (soft/fem.).
    • ごめんな - Sorry (masc.).
    • ごめんよ - Sorry (masc. or Kansai dialect).
  • すみません - I'm sorry.

Farewells[edit]

  • しつれいします。- goodbye for use with social superiors
  • さようなら - Goodbye. (Primarily before a long absence.)
  • じゃまた - See you later.
  • じゃ - Bye! See you soon. (Mostly used by men )
  • じゃね - Bye! See you soon.(Mostly used by women)
  • また明日 (またあした) - See you tomorrow.
  • またね - Later.
  • また会いましょう (またあいましょう) See you again.
  • またどうぞ - Please come again.
  • バイバイ - Borrowed from English, Bye Bye.
  • いってきます - I'm leaving (said when leaving the house)
  • いってらっしゃい - Have a safe trip (response to いってきます)
  • ただいま - I'm home (said when returning home)
  • おかえりなさい - Welcome back
    • おかえり - Less formal than the above

Finding the bathroom[edit]

  • トイレ (といれ) - Toilet
  • お手洗い (おてあらい) - Restroom (variants are 御手洗い and 手洗い)
  • 便所 (べんじょ) - Lavatory
  • 化粧室 (けしょうしつ) - Powder room
  • すみません。トイレはどこですか。 - Excuse me. Where is the bathroom?
  • すみません。お手洗(てあら)いはどちらですか。 - Excuse me. Which way is the restroom?

Hesitation noises[edit]

Hesitation noises, or vocal pauses, are the "uh" and "um" of a language, filler sounds we produce when we pause to think while speaking. Using the correct hesitation noises can make the difference between natural sounding Japanese, and awkward foreign sounding speech.

They are:

  • あのう - Usually when you are about to say something.
  • ええと - When you are just thinking.
  • まぁ  - "Well..." used for considering, reconsidering, etc...
  • さぁ  - Another thinking sound) Used for when you're not sure of the information.
  • 何だっけ (なんだっけ) - "What's it called..." used when trying to remember something specific.
  • そうですね - Acknowledges what was previously said. More of a staller than a hesitation noise. Somewhat more formal. Also used to show you care what the speaker is saying.