Structural Biochemistry/Nucleic Acid/Structure

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Nucleic Acids are long linear polymers that are called DNA, RNA. these polymers carry genetic information that passed from generations after generations. They are composed of three main parts: a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Sugars and Phosphates groups play as structure of the backbone, while bases carries genetic components, which characterized the differences of nucleic acids. There are 2 types of bases: purines and pyrimidines, and these bases determine whether the nucleic acid is DNA or RNA.

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General structure of nucleic acid
General structure of nucleic acid with nucleoside and nucleotide
A conceptualized depiction of multiple nucleic acids. Green circles represent the pentose sugars, red circles represent the nucleobases, and the yellow circles represent the phosphate groups. Note that a single nucleic acid consists of one sugar, one base, and one phosphate group

Nucleic acids are composed of smaller subunits called nucleotides. A nucleotide is a nucleoside with one or more phosphoryl group by esterlinkage. When it is in the form of RNA the bases are called adenylate, guanylate, cytidylate, and uridylate. In the form of DNA the bases are called deoxyadenylate, deoxyguanylate, deoxycytidylate, and thymidylate. A nucleoside is a monomer, just the bases attached to a sugar without the phosphate groups. In this state the bases in RNA are called adenosine, guanosine, cytidine and uridine. In this state in DNA the bases are called deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine.