Spanish/Lesson 9

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Lessons: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11

Grammar - Past Participle (el participio)[edit]

Spanish uses the past participle primarily for present perfect, past perfect, and other similar times. For -ar verbs form the past participle by adding -ado to the stem. For -er and -ir verbs add -ido:


Verb Past Participle
hablar hablado
comer comido
vivir vivido

If the stem of an -er or -ir verb ends in one of the vowels -a, -e, or -o, the i of -ido gets an accent mark:


Verb Past Participle
caer caído
creer creído
leer leído
oir oído
reir reído

There are a few verbs with an irregular past participle:


Verb Past Participle
abrir abierto
cubrir cubierto
descubrir descubierto
decir dicho
escribir escrito
freír frito
hacer hecho
ir ido
morir muerto
poner puesto
romper roto
satisfacer satisfecho
ver visto
volver vuelto


As in English, the past participle can also be used as an adjective for a noun. In that case the ending has to match gender and number of the noun. Example:


Su barba está afeitada.

His beard is shaved.


Finally, there are a few verbs with both a regular and an irregular past participle. In this case, the irregular past participle is used as an adjective, while the regular form is used for the verb tenses.


Verb Past Participle
imprimir imprimido / impreso
ocultar ocultado / oculto



Grammar - Present Perfect (el pretérito perfecto)[edit]

The Spanish present perfect is formed by conjugating the auxiliary verb haber (= to have) and adding the past participle of the verb.


Present Perfect English
yo he comido I have eaten
has comido you have eaten
Ud./él/ella ha comido you/he/she has eaten
nosotros(as) hemos comido we have eaten
vosotros(as) habéis comido you have eaten
Uds./ellos(as) han comido you/they have eaten

Here are a few examples of the Spanish Present perfect. Note that in Spanish the auxiliary verb haber and the past participle are never separated:


Carlos y yo hemos jugado fútbol.

Carlos and I have played soccer.

¿Has hecho tus tareas escolares de español?

Have you done your Spanish homework?

Nunca se ha enfermado.

He has never been sick.


Grammar - Pluperfect (el pretérito pluscuamperfecto)[edit]

The Spanish pluperfect is formed by conjugating imperfect of haber (= to have) and adding the past participle of the verb.


Present Perfect English
yo había comido I had eaten
habías comido you had eaten
Ud./él/ella había comido you/he/she had eaten
nosotros(as) habíamos comido we had eaten
vosotros(as) habíais comido you (all) had eaten
Uds./ellos(as) habían comido you/they had eaten

Here are a few examples of the Spanish pluperfect. It is used to refer to an event that happened before another event in the past. As in the present perfect, the auxiliary verb haber and the past participle are never separated:


Carlos y yo habíamos jugado el fútbol antes la fiesta anoche.

Carlos and I had played soccer before the party last night.

¿Tu habías venido antes a Mexico?

Had you been to Mexico before?

Nunca se había enfermado cuando era un niño.

He had never been sick while he was a kid.


El vocabulario (Vocabulary) - Los medios (Media)[edit]

Spanish Flag
El Vocabulario
Los medios
Media Vocabulary

el artículo
la cadena
el canal
el/la comentarista
el/la crítico/a
en directo, en vivo
la estación de radio
las noticias
el noticiero
el/la periodista
el periódico
la prensa
la primera plana
la sección deportiva
la sección financiera
la radio
el/la reportero/a
la telenovela
la revista
la televisión
el titular
la historieta
la música

article
network
channel
commentator
critic
live
radio station
news
newscast
journalist
newspaper
press
front page
sports section
business section
radio (As in what you hear on the radio)
reporter
soap opera
magazine
television
headline
comic book
music


Lessons: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11