Spanish/Lesson 8

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Lessons: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11

Grammar - Formal Commands (el imperativo)[edit]

Commands are used when you ask someone to do something or give instructions to people. In this lesson we learn the formal commands, which are the ones you say to persons where you use the usted or ustedes form. The following table shows the endings for the regular verbs. Note that the stem changes that occur in the yo form, (e->ie, e->i, o->ue, ar/er/ir->go cer->zco etc., ) apply for formal commands:


  hablar comer pedir
Usted hable coma pida
Ustedes hablen coman pidan

The following verbs have irregular formal commands:


  dar estar ir saber ser
Usted esté vaya sepa sea
Ustedes den estén vayan sepan sean

Like in English, the command is usually put in the beginning of the sentence:

Examples:


Piense antes de hablar.

Think before you speak.

Terminen sus tareas escolares.

Finish your homework.

Dejen la casa inmediatamente.

Leave the house immediately.

Grammar - Informal Tú-Commands[edit]

In this lesson we learn the commands you say to someone you would address in the form. Spanish distinguishes two different types of -commands, the affirmative (do something) and the negative (don't do something). Like the formal commands, we also apply stem changes here:


  hablar comer pedir
Affirmative habla come pide
Negative no hables no comas no pidas

The following verbs have irregular informal -commands for the affirmative and negative.


  decir hacer ir poner
Affirmative di haz ve/andá (Chile, Argentina) pon

To remember these, arrange them in this order:

Ven Di Sal Haz Ten Ve Pon Se

Which can also be read as "Vin Diesel has ten weapons, eh?"

Negative no digas no hagas no vayas no pongas
  salir ser tener venir
Affirmative sal ten ven
Negative no salgas no seas no tengas no vengas


This can be memorized with the rhyming mnemonic device "di haz pon ten, sal sé ve ven."

Examples:


Piensa antes de hablar.

Think before you speak.

Termina tus tareas escolares.

Finish your homework.

No dejes la casa.

Don't leave the house.

El vocabulario (Vocabulary) - La salud (Health)[edit]

Los cuidados médicos Medical attention
la salud the health
la enfermedad the disease
el dolor the pain
el dolor de cabeza the headache
el dolor de estómago the stomachache
el resfriado the chill, the cold
la medicina the medicine
el jarabe the syrup
la gripe the flu
el hospital the hospital
la cama the bed
la camilla the examining couch
el médico the physician
la enfermera the nurse
el catarro the cold
la tos the cough
la fiebre the fever
la quemadura del sol the sunburn
el dolor de la muela the toothache
la pastilla the pill
la cita appointment
consultorio office

El vocabulario (Vocabulary) - El cuerpo (The Body)[edit]

Las partes del cuerpo Body parts
la cabeza the head
el ojo the eye
la oreja the ear
el cuello the neck
la espalda the back
more...  

Lessons: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11