Spanish/Lesson 4

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Lessons: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11

Stem Changing Verbs[edit]

In Spanish, some verbs change their stems when they are conjugated. These verbs are known as stem-changing verbs. Many of these verbs are important and often used. There are three different types of stem changing verbs in Spanish:

Spanish Flag
Cambios de los Verbos
Los verbos
Types of Stem-Changing Verbs
e → ie

e → i
o → ue

The stem changes for all conjugations, excepting nosotros/as and vosotros/as. The endings are the same as for regular verbs (-o for yo, -as/-es for , ...).


Entender
To Understand

I understand yo entiend o
You understand tú entiend es
He understands
él entiend e
She understands
ella entiend e
You understand
Usted entiend e
We understand nosotros entend
emos
You (pl.) understand vosotros entend
eis
They understand
ellos entiend en
You (pl form) understand
Ustedes entiend en

Note that the stem change is done for the second 'e' (not the first one) - in general the stem always changes for the last vowel before the -ar/-er/-ir ending.

Example: pedir (e->i) to ask for, to order

Pedir
To Ask For, Order

I ask for yo pid o
You ask for tú pid es
He asks for
él pid e
She asks for
ella pid e
You (form) ask for
Usted pid e
We ask for nosotros ped
imos
You (plural) ask for vosotros ped
ís
They ask for
ellos pid en
You (pl form) ask for
Ustedes pid en

Note: all e->i stem changing verbs are -ir verbs.


Dormir
To Sleep

I sleep yo duerm o
You sleep tú duerm es
He sleeps
él duerm e
She sleeps
ella duerm e
You (formal) sleep
Usted duerm e
We sleep nosotros dorm
imos
You (plural) sleep vosotros dorm
ís
They sleep
ellos duerm en
You (plural formal) sleep
Ustedes duerm en

Here is a list of some other common stem changing verbs:

e -> ie e -> i o -> ue
cerrar (to close) competir (to compete) almorzar (to eat lunch)
comenzar (to begin) conseguir (to get, obtain) costar (to cost)
defender (to defend) pedir (to ask for, order) encontrar (to find)
empezar (to start, begin) reir (to laugh) morir (to die)
mentir (to lie) repetir (to repeat) mostrar (to show)
pensar (to think) seguir (to follow, continue) mover (to move)
perder (to lose) servir (to serve) recordar (to remember)
preferir (to prefer) sonreír (to smile) volver (to return)

Exercise: Stem Changing Verbs

Present Participle[edit]

The present participle in Spanish is used either for continuous tenses (with estar, e.g. I am running.) and can also be used as an adjective. The Spanish present participle corresponds to the English -ing form of the verb.To form the present participle for regular -ar verbs, add -ando to the stem. For -er and -ir verbs add -iendo:

Spanish Flag
El Participio Presente
Los Verbos
-ing
hablar → hablando

comer → comiendo
vivir → viviendo

speaking

eating
living


However, not all present participles are that regular. Some verbs add a "y," or change the spelling, to adhere to Spanish orthography (spelling) rules. Here is a list of some common verbs that have an irregular present participle:

Spanish Flag
Participios Irregulares
Los Verbos
-ing
caer

decir
dormir
ir
leer
oir
pedir
repetir
reír
seguir
traer

cayendo

diciendo
durmiendo
yendo
leyendo
oyendo
pidiendo
repitiendo
riendo
siguiendo
trayendo

Present Progressive[edit]

Like in English, the Spanish present progressive is used to describe an action in progress. It is formed by conjugating the verb estar and then adding the present participle:

Spanish Flag
El Presente Progresivo
Los Verbos
Talking about actions occurring right now
Yo estoy hablando

Tú estás hablando
Él/ella/usted está hablando
Nosotros estamos hablando
Vosotros estáis hablando
Ellos/ellas/ustedes están hablando

I am talking

You are talking
He/She/You is/are talking
We are talking
You are talking
They/You are talking

Vocabulary[edit]

Spanish Flag
El Vocabulario
La Familia
Vocabulary for the family
los padres

el padre, papá
la madre, mamá
los hijos
el hijo
la hija
los hermanos
el hermano
la hermana
los abuelos
el abuelo
la abuela
los nietos
el nieto
la nieta
los tíos
el tío
la tía
los sobrinos
el sobrino
la sobrina
los primos
el primo
la prima
los cónyuges, marido y mujer
el esposo, el marido
la esposa, la mujer
los suegros
la suegra, la nuera
el suegro, el yerno
los cuñados
el cuñado
la cuñada
los consuegros
el consuegro
la consuegra

parents

father
mother
children
son
daughter
siblings
brother
sister
grandparents
grandfather
grandmother
grandchildren
grandson
granddaughter
uncles and aunts
uncle
aunt
nephews and nieces
nephew
niece
cousins
cousin (male)
cousin (female)
spouses
husband
wife
parents-in-law
mother-in-law
father-in-law
siblings-in-law
brother-in-law
sister-in-law
your child's parents-in-law
your child's father-in-law
your child's mother-in-law

Lessons: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11